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2.
Clin Genet ; 99(5): 662-672, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454955

RESUMO

Biallelic pathogenic variants in the NTHL1 (Nth like DNA glycosylase 1) gene cause a recently identified autosomal recessive hereditary cancer syndrome predisposing to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer. Half of biallelic carriers also display multiple colonic or extra-colonic primary tumors, mainly breast, endometrium, urothelium, and brain tumors. Published data designate NTHL1 as an important contributor to hereditary cancers but also underline the scarcity of available informations. Thanks to the French oncogenetic consortium (Groupe Génétique et Cancer), we collected NTHL1 variants from 7765 patients attending for hereditary colorectal cancer or polyposis (n = 3936) or other hereditary cancers (n = 3829). Here, we describe 10 patients with pathogenic biallelic NTHL1 germline variants, that is, the second largest NTHL1 series. All carriers were from the "colorectal cancer or polyposis" series. All nine biallelic carriers who underwent colonoscopy presented adenomatous polyps. For digestive cancers, average age at diagnosis was 56.2 and we reported colorectal, duodenal, caecal, and pancreatic cancers. Extra-digestive malignancies included sarcoma, basal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, urothelial carcinoma, and melanoma. Although tumor risks remain to be precisely defined, these novel data support NTHL1 inclusion in diagnostic panel testing. Colonic surveillance should be conducted based on MUTYH recommendations while extra-colonic surveillance has to be defined.

3.
Clin Chem ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs is currently the reference COVID-19 diagnosis method but exhibits imperfect sensitivity. METHODS: We developed a multiplex reverse transcription-digital droplet PCR (RT-ddPCR) assay, targeting six SARS-CoV-2 genomic regions, and evaluated it on nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva samples collected from 130 COVID-19 positive or negative ambulatory individuals, who presented symptoms suggestive of mild or moderate SARS-CoV2 infection. RESULTS: For the nasopharyngeal swab samples, the results obtained using the 6-plex RT-ddPCR and RT-qPCR assays were all concordant. The 6-plex RT-ddPCR assay was more sensitive than RT-qPCR (85% versus 62%) on saliva samples from patients with positive nasopharyngeal swabs. CONCLUSION: Multiplex RT-ddPCR represents an alternative and complementary tool for the diagnosis of COVID-19, in particular to control RT-qPCR ambiguous results. It can also be applied to saliva for repetitive sampling and testing individuals for whom nasopharyngeal swabbing is not possible.

4.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3593-3605, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641407

RESUMO

BRCA2 is a clinically actionable gene implicated in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition that has become a high priority target for improving the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS). Among all BRCA2 VUS, those causing partial/leaky splicing defects are the most challenging to classify because the minimal level of full-length (FL) transcripts required for normal function remains to be established. Here, we explored BRCA2 exon 3 (BRCA2e3) as a model for calibrating variant-induced spliceogenicity and estimating thresholds for BRCA2 haploinsufficiency. In silico predictions, minigene splicing assays, patients' RNA analyses, a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) complementation assay and retrieval of patient-related information were combined to determine the minimal requirement of FL BRCA2 transcripts. Of 100 BRCA2e3 variants tested in the minigene assay, 64 were found to be spliceogenic, causing mild to severe RNA defects. Splicing defects were also confirmed in patients' RNA when available. Analysis of a neutral leaky variant (c.231T>G) showed that a reduction of approximately 60% of FL BRCA2 transcripts from a mutant allele does not cause any increase in cancer risk. Moreover, data obtained from mESCs suggest that variants causing a decline in FL BRCA2 with approximately 30% of wild-type are not pathogenic, given that mESCs are fully viable and resistant to DNA-damaging agents in those conditions. In contrast, mESCs producing lower relative amounts of FL BRCA2 exhibited either null or hypomorphic phenotypes. Overall, our findings are likely to have broader implications on the interpretation of BRCA2 variants affecting the splicing pattern of other essential exons. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that BRCA2 tumor suppressor function tolerates substantial reduction in full-length transcripts, helping to determine the pathogenicity of BRCA2 leaky splicing variants, some of which may not increase cancer risk.

5.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(8): 843-850, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556071

RESUMO

Importance: Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common pediatric intraocular neoplasm. RB is a complex model in which atypical pathogenic variants, modifier genes, imprinting, and mosaicism are known to be associated with the phenotype. In-depth understanding of RB therefore requires large genotype-phenotype studies. Objective: To assess the association between genotype and phenotype in patients with RB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, retrospective cohort study, conducted from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2017, enrolled 1404 consecutive ascertained patients with RB who consulted an oncogeneticist. All patients had their genotype and phenotype recorded. Statistical analysis was performed from July 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: RB1 germline and somatic pathogenic variant types, family history, and disease presentation characteristics (ie, age at diagnosis, sex, laterality, and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification group). Results: Among 1404 patients with RB (734 [52.3%] female; mean [SD] age, 20.2 [21.2] months), 866 cases (61.7%) were unilateral and 538 cases (38.3%) were bilateral. Loss of function variants were found throughout the coding sequence, with 259 of 272 (95.2%) somatic pathogenic variants and 537 of 606 (88.6%) germline pathogenic variants (difference, 6.6%; 95% CI, 4.0%-9.2%; P < .001) after excluding tumor-specific pathogenic variants (ie, promoter methylation and loss of heterozygosity); a novel low-penetrance region was identified in exon 24. Compared with germline pathogenic variants estimated to retain RB protein expression, germline pathogenic variants estimated to abrogate RB protein expression were associated with an earlier mean (SD) age at diagnosis (12.3 [11.3] months among 457 patients vs 16.3 [13.2] months among 55 patients; difference, 4 months; 95% CI, 1.9-6.1 months; P = .01), more frequent bilateral involvement (84.2% among 452 patients vs 65.2% among 45 patients; difference, 18.9%; 95% CI, 14.5%-23.3%; P < .001), and more advanced International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification group (85.3% among 339 patients vs 73.9% among 34 patients; difference: 11.4%; 95% CI, 6.5%-16.3%; P = .047). Among the 765 nongermline carriers of an RB1 pathogenic variant, most were female (419 females [54.8%] vs 346 males [45.2%]; P = .008), and males were more likely to have bilateral RB (23 males [71.4%] vs 12 females [34.3%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that RB risk is associated with the germline pathogenic variant and with maintenance of RB protein and that there is a sex-linked mechanism for nongermline carriers.

6.
Fam Cancer ; 19(3): 203-209, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172432

RESUMO

CDK12 variants were investigated as a genetic susceptibility to ovarian cancer in a series of 416 unrelated and consecutive patients with ovarian carcinoma and who carry neither germline BRCA1 nor BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The presence of CDK12 variants was searched in germline DNA by massive parallel sequencing on pooled DNAs. The lack of detection of deleterious variants and the observed proportion of missense variants in the series of ovarian carcinoma patients as compared with all human populations strongly suggests that CDK12 is not an ovarian cancer predisposing gene.

7.
Cancer Res ; 80(7): 1374-1386, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046981

RESUMO

Germline nonsense and canonical splice site variants identified in disease-causing genes are generally considered as loss-of-function (LoF) alleles and classified as pathogenic. However, a fraction of such variants could maintain function through their impact on RNA splicing. To test this hypothesis, we used the alternatively spliced BRCA2 exon 12 (E12) as a model system because its in-frame skipping leads to a potentially functional protein. All E12 variants corresponding to putative LoF variants or predicted to alter splicing (n = 40) were selected from human variation databases and characterized for their impact on splicing in minigene assays and, when available, in patient lymphoblastoid cell lines. Moreover, a selection of variants was analyzed in a mouse embryonic stem cell-based functional assay. Using these complementary approaches, we demonstrate that a subset of variants, including nonsense variants, induced in-frame E12 skipping through the modification of splice sites or regulatory elements and, consequently, led to an internally deleted but partially functional protein. These data provide evidence, for the first time in a cancer-predisposition gene, that certain presumed null variants can retain function due to their impact on splicing. Further studies are required to estimate cancer risk associated with these hypomorphic variants. More generally, our findings highlight the need to exercise caution in the interpretation of putative LoF variants susceptible to induce in-frame splicing modifications. SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence that certain presumed loss-of-function variants in a cancer predisposition gene can retain function due to their direct impact on RNA splicing.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991861

RESUMO

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the FANCM gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of FANCM PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with FANCM PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different FANCM PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique FANCM PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of FANCM PTVs in European breast cancer cases.

9.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 86, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Branch points (BPs) map within short motifs upstream of acceptor splice sites (3'ss) and are essential for splicing of pre-mature mRNA. Several BP-dedicated bioinformatics tools, including HSF, SVM-BPfinder, BPP, Branchpointer, LaBranchoR and RNABPS were developed during the last decade. Here, we evaluated their capability to detect the position of BPs, and also to predict the impact on splicing of variants occurring upstream of 3'ss. RESULTS: We used a large set of constitutive and alternative human 3'ss collected from Ensembl (n = 264,787 3'ss) and from in-house RNAseq experiments (n = 51,986 3'ss). We also gathered an unprecedented collection of functional splicing data for 120 variants (62 unpublished) occurring in BP areas of disease-causing genes. Branchpointer showed the best performance to detect the relevant BPs upstream of constitutive and alternative 3'ss (99.48 and 65.84% accuracies, respectively). For variants occurring in a BP area, BPP emerged as having the best performance to predict effects on mRNA splicing, with an accuracy of 89.17%. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigations revealed that Branchpointer was optimal to detect BPs upstream of 3'ss, and that BPP was most relevant to predict splicing alteration due to variants in the BP area.


Assuntos
Íntrons , Precursores de RNA , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Processamento de RNA , Processamento Alternativo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Matrizes de Pontuação de Posição Específica , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(4): 103773, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561016

RESUMO

Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare autosomal dominant predisposition to hamartomatous polyps within the gastrointestinal tract, at high risk for malignant transformation. BMPR1A and SMAD4 loss-of-function variants account for 50% of the cases. More specifically, point mutations and structural abnormalities in BMPR1A lead to a highly penetrant yet variable phenotype of JPS. Intriguingly, in the developmental disorder caused by a recurrent 10q22.3q23.1 7 Mb deletion which includes BMPR1A, juvenile polyps have never been reported. We present the case of a young adult harboring this recurrent deletion, in a context of intellectual disability, ventricular septal defect and severe juvenile polyposis syndrome diagnosed at the age of 25 years, requiring a surgical preventive colectomy. She developed a gastric adenocarcinoma from which she died at the age of 32. We hypothesize that with the current available pangenomic CNV arrays, the diagnosis of 10q22.3q23.1 deletion is often made several years before the onset of the digestive phenotype, which could explain the absence of reports for juvenile polyps. This observation highlights the importance of an active digestive surveillance of patients with 10q22.3q23.1 deletion.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/complicações , Polipose Intestinal/congênito , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Mutação Puntual , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Polipose Intestinal/diagnóstico , Polipose Intestinal/etiologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/etiologia , Recidiva
12.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 191, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796102

RESUMO

The contribution of mosaic alterations to tumors of the nervous system and to non-malignant neurological diseases has been unmasked thanks to the development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies. We report here the case of a young patient without any remarkable familial medical history who was first referred at 7 years of age, for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of Asperger type, not associated with macrocephaly. The patient subsequently presented at 10 years of age with multiple nodular lesions located within the trigeminal, facial and acoustic nerve ganglia and at the L3 level. Histological examination of this latter lesion revealed a glioneuronal hamartoma, exhibiting heterogeneous PTEN immunoreactivity, astrocyte and endothelial cell nuclei expressing PTEN, but not ganglion cells. NGS performed on the hamartoma allowed the detection of a PTEN pathogenic variant in 30% of the reads. The presence of this variant in the DNA extracted from blood and buccal swabs in 3.5 and 11% of the NGS reads, respectively, confirmed the mosaic state of the PTEN variant. The anatomical distribution of the lesions suggests that the mutational event affecting PTEN occurred in neural crest progenitors, thus explaining the absence of macrocephaly. This report shows that mosaic alteration of PTEN may result in multiple central and peripheral nervous system hamartomas and that the presence of such alteration should be considered in patients with multiple nervous system masses, even in the absence of cardinal features of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, especially macrocephaly.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , Mosaicismo , Crista Neural/diagnóstico por imagem , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Criança , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/embriologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo/embriologia , Crista Neural/embriologia
13.
Front Genet ; 10: 1139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803232

RESUMO

Introduction: Case-control analyses have shown BARD1 variants to be associated with up to >2-fold increase in risk of breast cancer, and potentially greater risk of triple negative breast cancer. BARD1 is included in several gene sequencing panels currently marketed for the prediction of risk of cancer, however there are no gene-specific guidelines for the classification of BARD1 variants. We present the most comprehensive assessment of BARD1 messenger RNA splicing, and demonstrate the application of these data for the classification of truncating and splice site variants according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines. Methods: Nanopore sequencing, short-read RNA-seq (whole transcriptome and targeted), and capillary electrophoresis analysis were performed by four laboratories to investigate alternative BARD1 splicing in blood, breast, and fimbriae/ovary related specimens from non-cancer affected tissues. Splicing data were also collated from published studies of nine different tissues. The impact of the findings for PVS1 annotation was assessed for truncating and splice site variants. Results: We identified 62 naturally occurring alternative spliced BARD1 splicing events, including 19 novel events found by next generation sequencing and/or reverse transcription PCR analysis performed for this study. Quantitative analysis showed that naturally occurring splicing events causing loss of clinically relevant domains or nonsense mediated decay can constitute up to 11.9% of overlapping natural junctions, suggesting that aberrant splicing can be tolerated up to this level. Nanopore sequencing of whole BARD1 transcripts characterized 16 alternative isoforms from healthy controls, revealing that the most complex transcripts combined only two alternative splicing events. Bioinformatic analysis of ClinVar submitted variants at or near BARD1 splice sites suggest that all consensus splice site variants in BARD1 should be considered likely pathogenic, with the possible exception of variants at the donor site of exon 5. Conclusions: No BARD1 candidate rescue transcripts were identified in this study, indicating that all premature translation-termination codons variants can be annotated as PVS1. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that all donor and acceptor (IVS+/-1,2) variants can be considered PVS1 or PVS1_strong, with the exception of variants targeting the exon 5 donor site, that we recommend considering as PVS1_moderate.

14.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(12): e913, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare intraocular malignant tumor in children with high overall survival. Predisposition to Rb is linked to RB1 germline mutations with high penetrance, but rare RB1 low-penetrance variants are also known. Rb survivors are at risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs), mostly osteosarcoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. Nevertheless, the risk of primary osteosarcoma developing without prior Rb has not been reported in RB1 germline mutation carriers. METHODS: We report a patient in whom osteosarcoma developed at age 17 as a first primary malignancy within a family context of sarcoma. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, genetic testing identified a low-penetrance germline mutation in RB1 [NM_000321.2: c.45_76dup; p.(Pro26Leufs*50)]. In eight additional similar cases from published and unpublished reports of families, first primary osteosarcomas and sarcomas mostly developed in RB1 low-penetrance mutation carriers without prior Rb. CONCLUSION: We propose that first primary sarcoma and osteosarcoma could be a novel clinical presentation of a RB1-related hereditary predisposition syndrome linked to RB1 low-penetrance germline mutations. In these families, careful screening of primary non-Rb cancer and SPMs is required by maintaining enhanced clinical vigilance. Implementing lifelong periodic whole-body MRI screening might be a complementary strategy for unaffected carrier relatives in these families.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Osteossarcoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Linhagem , Penetrância
15.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1856-1873, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131953

RESUMO

It has long been known that canonical 5' splice site (5'SS) GT>GC variants may be compatible with normal splicing. However, to date, the actual scale of canonical 5'SSs capable of generating wild-type transcripts in the case of GT>GC substitutions remains unknown. Herein, combining data derived from a meta-analysis of 45 human disease-causing 5'SS GT>GC variants and a cell culture-based full-length gene splicing assay of 103 5'SS GT>GC substitutions, we estimate that ~15-18% of canonical GT 5'SSs retain their capacity to generate between 1% and 84% normal transcripts when GT is substituted by GC. We further demonstrate that the canonical 5'SSs in which substitution of GT by GC-generated normal transcripts exhibit stronger complementarity to the 5' end of U1 snRNA than those sites whose substitutions of GT by GC did not lead to the generation of normal transcripts. We also observed a correlation between the generation of wild-type transcripts and a milder than expected clinical phenotype but found that none of the available splicing prediction tools were capable of reliably distinguishing 5'SS GT>GC variants that generated wild-type transcripts from those that did not. Our findings imply that 5'SS GT>GC variants in human disease genes may not invariably be pathogenic.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Sequência de Bases , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Éxons , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Íntrons , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Matrizes de Pontuação de Posição Específica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 792-800, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683922

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is routinely used for constitutional genetic analysis. However, cross-contamination between samples constitutes a major risk that could impact the results of the analysis. We have developed ART-DeCo, a tool using the allelic ratio (AR) of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms sequenced with regions of interest. When a sample is contaminated by DNA with a different genotype, unexpected ARs are obtained, which are in turn used for detection of contamination with a screening test, followed by identification and quantification of the contaminant. Following optimization, ART-DeCo was applied to 2222 constitutional DNA samples. The screening test was positive for 191 samples. In 33 cases (contamination percentages: 1.3% to 29.2%), the contaminant was identified and was mostly located in adjacent wells. Three other positive cases were due to barcoding errors or mixture of two DNA samples. Interestingly, the last contaminated sample corresponded to a bone marrow transplant recipient. Lastly, no contaminant was identified in 154 weakly positive ( < 4%) samples that were considered to be irrelevant to constitutional genetic analysis. ART-DeCo lends itself to mandatory quality control procedures, also highlighting the delicate steps of library preparation, resulting in practice improvement. Importantly, ART-DeCo can be implemented in any NGS workflow, from gene panel to genome-wide analyses. https://sourceforge.net/projects/ngs-art-deco/ .


Assuntos
Contaminação por DNA , DNA/análise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Alelos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(3): 217-223, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031154

RESUMO

Retinoblastoma (Rb) results from biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene. Hereditary Rb patients i. e germline carriers of a RB1 mutation also have a risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) such as osteosarcomas. This SMN risk is maximized by external beam radiotherapy treatments (EBRT), which is why these treatments are now avoided. Nevertheless, EBRT is still a matter of great concern, as EBRT-treated patients are in their adulthood and SMNs remain the major cause of death for patients. To decipher the relationship between RB1 genotype and SMN development in EBRT treated patients, we conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 160 irradiated hereditary Rbs with fully resolved RB1 mutational status. Median follow-up was 22 years [1-51] and median age of patients was 27 years old [7-53]. Among these 160 Rb patients, 120 did not develop any SMN (75%) and 40 developed SMNs (25%). The age at which EBRT is given (i.e. before or after the age of 12 months) was not correlated to SMN development (p = 0.6). We didn't find any difference in RB1 mutation type between patients with or without SMN, neither could we detect any linkage between mutation type and SMN location, SMN type and age at diagnosis. Interestingly, among 13 carriers of a RB1 low penetrance mutation, 3 of them developed sarcomas, a rare tumor that cannot be attributed to the general population. Our study cannot explain why a RB1 mutation leads or not to a SMN but demonstrated that EBRT patients with a low penetrance mutation remain at risk of SMN and should be cautiously monitored.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Retinoblastoma/genética , Sarcoma/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Penetrância , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Retinoblastoma/patologia , Retinoblastoma/radioterapia , Sarcoma/epidemiologia
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