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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206972

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene ZC4H2, which encodes a zinc-finger protein, cause an infrequently described syndromic form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. We present genetic and detailed phenotypic information on 23 newly identified families and simplex cases that include 19 affected females from 18 families and 14 affected males from nine families. Of note, the 15 females with deleterious de novo ZC4H2 variants presented with phenotypes ranging from mild to severe, and their clinical features overlapped with those seen in affected males. By contrast, of the nine carrier females with inherited ZC4H2 missense variants that were deleterious in affected male relatives, four were symptomatic. We also compared clinical phenotypes with previously published cases of both sexes and provide an overview on 48 males and 57 females from 42 families. The spectrum of ZC4H2 defects comprises novel and recurrent mostly inherited missense variants in affected males, and de novo splicing, frameshift, nonsense, and partial ZC4H2 deletions in affected females. Pathogenicity of two newly identified missense variants was further supported by studies in zebrafish. We propose ZC4H2 as a good candidate for early genetic testing of males and females with a clinical suspicion of fetal hypo-/akinesia and/or (neurogenic) AMC.

2.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 40(2): 124-128, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932721

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To clinically and genetically characterise a second family with dominant ARL3-related retinitis pigmentosa due to a specific ARL3 missense variant, p.(Tyr90Cys). METHODS: Clinical examination included optical coherence tomography, electroretinography, and ultra-wide field retinal imaging with autofluorescence. Retrospective data were collected from the registry of inherited retinal diseases at Oslo university hospital. DNA was analysed by whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing. The ARL3 missense variant was visualized in a 3D-protein structure. RESULTS: The phenotype was non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa with cataract associated with early onset of decreased central vision and central retinal thinning. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a de novo ARL3 missense variant p.(Tyr90Cys) in the index patient and his affected son. We did not find any other cases with rare ARL3 variants in a cohort of 431 patients with retinitis pigmentosa-like disease. By visualizing Tyr90 in the 3D protein structure, it seems to play an important role in packing of the α/ß structure of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 (ARL3). When changing Tyr90 to cysteine, we observe a loss of interactions in the core of the α/ß structure that is likely to affect folding and stability of ARL3. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that the ARL3 missense variant p.(Tyr90Cys) causes retinitis pigmentosa. In 2016, Strom et al. reported the exact same variant in a mother and two children with RP, labelled ?RP83 in the OMIM database. Now the questionmark can be removed, and ARL3 should be added to the list of genes that may cause non-syndromic dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 815-834, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031012

RESUMO

We identified individuals with variations in ACTL6B, a component of the chromatin remodeling machinery including the BAF complex. Ten individuals harbored bi-allelic mutations and presented with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity, and ten individuals with de novo heterozygous mutations displayed intellectual disability, ambulation deficits, severe language impairment, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies, and minor facial dysmorphisms (wide mouth, diastema, bulbous nose). Nine of these ten unrelated individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G>A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Human-derived neurons were generated that recaptured ACTL6B expression patterns in development from progenitor cell to post-mitotic neuron, validating the use of this model. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development, a result recapitulated in two individuals with different bi-allelic mutations, and reversed on clonal genetic repair or exogenous expression of ACTL6B. Whole-transcriptome analyses and whole-genomic profiling of the BAF complex in wild-type and bi-allelic mutant ACTL6B neural progenitor cells and neurons revealed increased genomic binding of the BAF complex in ACTL6B mutants, with corresponding transcriptional changes in several genes including TPPP and FSCN1, suggesting that altered regulation of some cytoskeletal genes contribute to altered dendrite development. Assessment of bi-alleic and heterozygous ACTL6B mutations on an ACTL6B knock-out human background demonstrated that bi-allelic mutations mimic engineered deletion deficits while heterozygous mutations do not, suggesting that the former are loss of function and the latter are gain of function. These results reveal a role for ACTL6B in neurodevelopment and implicate another component of chromatin remodeling machinery in brain disease.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 749-757, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905398

RESUMO

Over a relatively short period of time, the clinical geneticist's "toolbox" has been expanded by machine-learning algorithms for image analysis, which can be applied to the task of syndrome identification on the basis of facial photographs, but these technologies harbor potential beyond the recognition of established phenotypes. Here, we comprehensively characterized two individuals with a hitherto unknown genetic disorder caused by the same de novo mutation in LEMD2 (c.1436C>T;p.Ser479Phe), the gene which encodes the nuclear envelope protein LEM domain-containing protein 2 (LEMD2). Despite different ages and ethnic backgrounds, both individuals share a progeria-like facial phenotype and a distinct combination of physical and neurologic anomalies, such as growth retardation; hypoplastic jaws crowded with multiple supernumerary, yet unerupted, teeth; and cerebellar intention tremor. Immunofluorescence analyses of patient fibroblasts revealed mutation-induced disturbance of nuclear architecture, recapitulating previously published data in LEMD2-deficient cell lines, and additional experiments suggested mislocalization of mutant LEMD2 protein within the nuclear lamina. Computational analysis of facial features with two different deep neural networks showed phenotypic proximity to other nuclear envelopathies. One of the algorithms, when trained to recognize syndromic similarity (rather than specific syndromes) in an unsupervised approach, clustered both individuals closely together, providing hypothesis-free hints for a common genetic etiology. We show that a recurrent de novo mutation in LEMD2 causes a nuclear envelopathy whose prognosis in adolescence is relatively good in comparison to that of classical Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, and we suggest that the application of artificial intelligence to the analysis of patient images can facilitate the discovery of new genetic disorders.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 574-581, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573803

RESUMO

Missense variants located to the "molecular brake" in the tyrosine kinase hinge region of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-ß, encoded by PFGFRB, can cause Penttinen-type (Val665Ala) and Penttinen-like (Asn666His) premature ageing syndromes, as well as infantile myofibromatosis (Asn666Lys and Pro660Thr). We have found the same de novo PDGFRB c.1997A>G p.(Asn666Ser) variants in two patients with lipodystrophy, acro-osteolysis and severely reduced vision due to corneal neovascularisation, reminiscent of a severe form of Penttinen syndrome with more pronounced connective tissue destruction. In line with this phenotype, patient skin fibroblasts were prone to apoptosis. Both in patient fibroblasts and stably transduced HeLa and HEK293 cells, autophosphorylation of PDGFRß was observed, as well as increased phosphorylation of downstream signalling proteins such as STAT1, PLCγ1, PTPN11/SHP2-Tyr580 and AKT. Phosphorylation of MAPK3 (ERK1) and PTPN11/SHP2-Tyr542 appeared unaffected. This suggests that this missense change not only weakens tyrosine kinase autoinhibition, but also influences substrate binding, as both PTPN11 tyrosines (Tyr542 and Tyr580) usually are phosphorylated upon PDGFR activation. Imatinib was a strong inhibitor of phosphorylation of all these targets, suggesting an option for precision medicine based treatment.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487643

RESUMO

Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by 11p11.2 deletions. PSS is clinically characterized by intellectual disability, craniofacial anomalies, enlarged parietal foramina, and multiple exostoses. PSS occasionally shows autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and overgrowth. Some of the clinical features are thought to be associated with haploinsufficiency of two genes in the 11p11.2 region; variants affecting the function of ALX4 cause enlarged parietal foramina and EXT2 lead to multiple exostoses. However, the remaining clinical features were still yet to be linked to specific genetic alterations. In this study, we identified de novo truncating variants in an 11p11.2 gene, PHF21A, in three cases with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies. Among these three cases, autism spectrum disorder was recognized in one case, epilepsy in one case, and overgrowth in two cases. This study shows that PHF21A haploinsufficiency results in intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies and possibly contributes to susceptibility to autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and overgrowth, all of which are PSS features.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449416

RESUMO

We have investigated a distinct disorder with progressive corneal neovascularization, keloid formation, chronic skin ulcers, wasting of subcutaneous tissue, flexion contractures of the fingers, and acro-osteolysis. In six affected individuals from four families, we found one of two recurrent variants in discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2): c.1829T>C (p.Leu610Pro) or c.2219A>G (p.Tyr740Cys). DDR2 encodes a collagen-responsive receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates connective-tissue formation. In three of the families, affected individuals comprise singleton adult individuals, and parental samples were not available for verification of the de novo occurrence of the DDR2 variants. In the fourth family, a mother and two of her children were affected, and the c.2219A>G missense variant was proven to be de novo in the mother. Phosphorylation of DDR2 was increased in fibroblasts from affected individuals, suggesting reduced receptor autoinhibition and ligand-independent kinase activation. Evidence for activation of other growth-regulatory signaling pathways was not found. Finally, we found that the protein kinase inhibitor dasatinib prevented DDR2 autophosphorylation in fibroblasts, suggesting an approach to treatment. We propose this progressive, fibrotic condition should be designated as Warburg-Cinotti syndrome.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194818

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in GNB1 have been associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype. To date, 28 patients with variants classified as pathogenic have been reported. We add 18 patients with de novo mutations to this cohort, including a patient with mosaicism for a GNB1 mutation who presented with a milder phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, developmental delay in these patients was moderate to severe, and more than half of the patients were non-ambulatory and nonverbal. The most observed substitution affects the p.Ile80 residue encoded in exon 6, with 28% of patients carrying a variant at this residue. Dystonia and growth delay were observed more frequently in patients carrying variants in this residue, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. In the new cohort of 18 patients, 50% of males had genitourinary anomalies and 61% of patients had gastrointestinal anomalies, suggesting a possible association of these findings with variants in GNB1. In addition, cutaneous mastocytosis, reported once before in a patient with a GNB1 variant, was observed in three additional patients, providing further evidence for an association to GNB1. We will review clinical and molecular data of these new cases and all previously reported cases to further define the phenotype and establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations.

9.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 47, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NAA10-NAA15 (NatA) protein complex is an N-terminal acetyltransferase responsible for acetylating ~ 40% of eukaryotic proteins. In recent years, NAA10 variants have been found in patients with an X-linked developmental disorder called Ogden syndrome in its most severe form and, in other familial or de novo cases, with variable degrees of syndromic intellectual disability (ID) affecting both sexes. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report and functionally characterize a novel and de novo NAA10 (NM_003491.3) c.332 T > G p.(V111G) missense variant, that was detected by trio-based whole exome sequencing in an 11 year old girl with mild/moderate non-syndromic intellectual disability. She had delayed motor and language development, but normal behavior without autistic traits. Her blood leukocyte X-inactivation pattern was within normal range (80/20). Functional characterization of NAA10-V111G by cycloheximide chase experiments suggests that NAA10-V111G has a reduced stability compared to NAA10-WT, and in vitro acetylation assays revealed a reduced enzymatic activity of monomeric NAA10-V111G but not for NAA10-V111G in complex with NAA15 (NatA enzymatic activity). CONCLUSIONS: We show that NAA10-V111G has a reduced stability and monomeric catalytic activity, while NatA function remains unaltered. This is the first example of isolated NAA10 dysfunction in a case of ID, suggesting that the syndromic cases may also require a degree of compromised NatA function.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437797

RESUMO

Aquaporin-4, encoded by AQP4, is the major water channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in the brain's water balance, including edema formation and clearance. Using genomic copy-number analysis and trio-exome sequencing, we investigated a male patient with intellectual disability, hearing loss, and progressive gait dysfunction and found a de novo missense change Ser111Thr in AQP4 as the only suspicious finding. Perinatally, signs of brain ischemia were detected in relation to acute collapse 2 h after birth that resolved a few days later. At the age of 3 mo, cardiac hypertrophy was detected that persisted through childhood but was completely resolved by age 16. In theory, this neurodevelopmental disorder with transient cardiomyopathy could be caused by a disturbance of cellular water balance. Ser111 is an extremely conserved residue in the short cytoplasmic loop between AQP4 transmembrane helix 2 and 3, present across all AQP isoforms from plants to mammals, and it does not appear to be a phosphorylation site. We found that the Ser111Thr change does not affect water permeability or protein stability, suggesting another and possibly regulatory role. Although causality remains unproven, this case study draws attention to AQP4 as a candidate gene for a unique developmental disorder and to a specific serine as a residue of possibly great functional importance in many AQPs.

11.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(2): 353-362, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445477

RESUMO

Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is a rare disorder, which is increasingly recognized thanks to next-generation sequencing. Due to a highly variable phenotype, patients may present to pediatrics, neurology, psychiatry, or internal medicine. It is therefore essential that physicians of different specialties are familiar with this severe and debilitating condition.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 862-876, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460469

RESUMO

In 2016, we described that missense variants in parts of exons 30 and 31 of CREBBP can cause a phenotype that differs from Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS). Here we report on another 11 patients with variants in this region of CREBBP (between bp 5,128 and 5,614) and two with variants in the homologous region of EP300. None of the patients show characteristics typical for RSTS. The variants were detected by exome sequencing using a panel for intellectual disability in all but one individual, in whom Sanger sequencing was performed upon clinical recognition of the entity. The main characteristics of the patients are developmental delay (90%), autistic behavior (65%), short stature (42%), and microcephaly (43%). Medical problems include feeding problems (75%), vision (50%), and hearing (54%) impairments, recurrent upper airway infections (42%), and epilepsy (21%). Major malformations are less common except for cryptorchidism (46% of males), and cerebral anomalies (70%). Individuals with variants between bp 5,595 and 5,614 of CREBBP show a specific phenotype (ptosis, telecanthi, short and upslanted palpebral fissures, depressed nasal ridge, short nose, anteverted nares, short columella, and long philtrum). 3D face shape demonstrated resemblance to individuals with a duplication of 16p13.3 (the region that includes CREBBP), possibly indicating a gain of function. The other affected individuals show a less specific phenotype. We conclude that there is now more firm evidence that variants in these specific regions of CREBBP and EP300 result in a phenotype that differs from RSTS, and that this phenotype may be heterogeneous.

13.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(1): 91-95, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29375845

RESUMO

We report a Norwegian girl with mild clinical features of Kagami-Ogata syndrome (KOS) and mosaic upd(14)pat. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a mosaic patient with KOS. These results imply that mosaic uniparental disomy should be examined in patients with mild features of imprinted disorders.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 64-74, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180823

RESUMO

Whole-gene duplications and missense variants in the HUWE1 gene (NM_031407.6) have been reported in association with intellectual disability (ID). Increased gene dosage has been observed in males with non-syndromic mild to moderate ID with speech delay. Missense variants reported previously appear to be associated with severe ID in males and mild or no ID in obligate carrier females. Here, we report the largest cohort of patients with HUWE1 variants, consisting of 14 females and 7 males, with 15 different missense variants and one splice site variant. Clinical assessment identified common clinical features consisting of moderate to profound ID, delayed or absent speech, short stature with small hands and feet and facial dysmorphism consisting of a broad nasal tip, deep set eyes, epicanthic folds, short palpebral fissures, and a short philtrum. We describe for the first time that females can be severely affected, despite preferential inactivation of the affected X chromosome. Three females with the c.329 G > A p.Arg110Gln variant, present with a phenotype of mild ID, specific facial features, scoliosis and craniosynostosis, as reported previously in a single patient. In these females, the X inactivation pattern appeared skewed in favour of the affected transcript. In summary, HUWE1 missense variants may cause syndromic ID in both males and females.

15.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 28-38, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence has emerged linking mutations in CDK13 to syndromic congenital heart disease. We present here genetic and phenotypic data pertaining to 16 individuals with CDK13 mutations. METHODS: Patients were investigated by exome sequencing, having presented with developmental delay and additional features suggestive of a syndromic cause. RESULTS: Our cohort comprised 16 individuals aged 4-16 years. All had developmental delay, including six with autism spectrum disorder. Common findings included feeding difficulties (15/16), structural cardiac anomalies (9/16), seizures (4/16) and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (4/11 patients who had undergone MRI). All had craniofacial dysmorphism, with common features including short, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism or telecanthus, medial epicanthic folds, low-set, posteriorly rotated ears and a small mouth with thin upper lip vermilion. Fifteen patients had predicted missense mutations, including five identical p.(Asn842Ser) substitutions and two p.(Gly717Arg) substitutions. One patient had a canonical splice acceptor site variant (c.2898-1G>A). All mutations were located within the protein kinase domain of CDK13. The affected amino acids are highly conserved, and in silico analyses including comparative protein modelling predict that they will interfere with protein function. The location of the missense mutations in a key catalytic domain suggests that they are likely to cause loss of catalytic activity but retention of cyclin K binding, resulting in a dominant negative mode of action. Although the splice-site mutation was predicted to produce a stable internally deleted protein, this was not supported by expression studies in lymphoblastoid cells. A loss of function contribution to the underlying pathological mechanism therefore cannot be excluded, and the clinical significance of this variant remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: These patients demonstrate that heterozygous, likely dominant negative mutations affecting the protein kinase domain of the CDK13 gene result in a recognisable, syndromic form of intellectual disability, with or without congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/química , Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Síndrome , Termodinâmica
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 824-832, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106825

RESUMO

The Rab GTPase family comprises ∼70 GTP-binding proteins, functioning in vesicle formation, transport and fusion. They are activated by a conformational change induced by GTP-binding, allowing interactions with downstream effectors. Here, we report five individuals with two recurrent de novo missense mutations in RAB11B; c.64G>A; p.Val22Met in three individuals and c.202G>A; p.Ala68Thr in two individuals. An overlapping neurodevelopmental phenotype, including severe intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, and hypotonia was observed in all affected individuals. Additionally, visual problems, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly were present in the majority of cases. Re-evaluation of brain MRI images of four individuals showed a shared distinct brain phenotype, consisting of abnormal white matter (severely decreased volume and abnormal signal), thin corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, optic nerve hypoplasia and mild ventriculomegaly. To compare the effects of both variants with known inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound RAB11B mutants, we modeled the variants on the three-dimensional protein structure and performed subcellular localization studies. We predicted that both variants alter the GTP/GDP binding pocket and show that they both have localization patterns similar to inactive RAB11B. Evaluation of their influence on the affinity of RAB11B to a series of binary interactors, both effectors and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), showed induction of RAB11B binding to the GEF SH3BP5, again similar to inactive RAB11B. In conclusion, we report two recurrent dominant mutations in RAB11B leading to a neurodevelopmental syndrome, likely caused by altered GDP/GTP binding that inactivate the protein and induce GEF binding and protein mislocalization.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/congênito , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Vermis Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vermis Cerebelar/metabolismo , Vermis Cerebelar/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Guanosina Difosfato/química , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/química , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/genética , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Fenótipo , Ligação Proteica , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Substância Branca/patologia , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/deficiência
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(10): 2763-2771, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777491

RESUMO

Horstick et al. (2013) previously reported a homozygous p.Trp284Ser variant in STAC3 as the cause of Native American myopathy (NAM) in 5 Lumbee Native American families with congenital hypotonia and weakness, cleft palate, short stature, ptosis, kyphoscoliosis, talipes deformities, and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH). Here we present two non-Native American families, who were found to have STAC3 pathogenic variants. The first proband and her affected older sister are from a consanguineous Qatari family with a suspected clinical diagnosis of Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome (CFZS) based on features of hypotonia, myopathic facies with generalized weakness, ptosis, normal extraocular movements, cleft palate, growth delay, and kyphoscoliosis. We identified the homozygous c.851G>C;p.Trp284Ser variant in STAC3 in both sisters. The second proband and his affected sister are from a non-consanguineous, Puerto Rican family who was evaluated for a possible diagnosis of Moebius syndrome (MBS). His features included facial and generalized weakness, minimal limitation of horizontal gaze, cleft palate, and hypotonia, and he has a history of MH. The siblings were identified to be compound heterozygous for STAC3 variants c.851G>C;p.Trp284Ser and c.763_766delCTCT;p.Leu255IlefsX58. Given the phenotypic overlap of individuals with CFZS, MBS, and NAM, we screened STAC3 in 12 individuals diagnosed with CFZS and in 50 individuals diagnosed with MBS or a congenital facial weakness disorder. We did not identify any rare coding variants in STAC3. NAM should be considered in patients presenting with facial and generalized weakness, normal or mildly abnormal extraocular movement, hypotonia, cleft palate, and scoliosis, particularly if there is a history of MH.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Síndrome de Möbius/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Möbius/complicações , Síndrome de Möbius/patologia , Doenças Musculares/complicações , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Linhagem , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/complicações , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/patologia , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 12(9): 1470-1479, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28625968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dose-dependent clearing of podocyte globotriaosylceramide has previously been shown in patients with classic Fabry disease treated with enzyme replacement. Our study evaluates the dose-dependent effects of agalsidase therapy in serial kidney biopsies of patients treated for up to 14 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Twenty patients with classic Fabry disease (12 men) started enzyme replacement therapy at a median age of 21 (range =7-62) years old. Agalsidase-α or -ß was prescribed for a median of 9.4 (range =5-14) years. The lower fixed dose group received agalsidase 0.2 mg/kg every other week throughout the follow-up period. The higher dose group received a range of agalsidase doses (0.2-1.0 mg/kg every other week). Dose changes were made due to disease progression, suboptimal effect, or agalsidase-ß shortage. Serial kidney biopsies were performed along with clinical assessment and biomarkers and scored according to recommendations from the International Study Group of Fabry Nephropathy. RESULTS: No statistical differences were found in baseline or final GFR or albuminuria. Kidney biopsies showed significant reduction of podocyte globotriaosylceramide in both the lower fixed dose group (-1.39 [SD=1.04]; P=0.004) and the higher dose group (-3.16 [SD=2.39]; P=0.002). Podocyte globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) reduction correlated with cumulative agalsidase dose (r=0.69; P=0.001). Arterial/arteriolar intima Gb3 cleared significantly in the higher dose group, all seven patients with baseline intimal Gb3 cleared the intima, one patient gained intimal Gb3 inclusions (P=0.03), and medial Gb3 did not change statistically in either group. Residual plasma globotriaosylsphingosine levels remained higher in the lower fixed dose group (20.1 nmol/L [SD=11.9]) compared with the higher dose group (10.4 nmol/L [SD=8.4]) and correlated with cumulative agalsidase dose in men (r=0.71; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of podocyte globotriaosylceramide was found in patients with classic Fabry disease treated with long-term agalsidase on different dosing regimens, correlating with cumulative dose. Limited clearing of arterial/arteriolar globotriaosylceramide raises concerns regarding long-term vascular effects of current therapy. Residual plasma globotriaosylsphingosine correlated with cumulative dose in men.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/efeitos adversos , Doença de Fabry/tratamento farmacológico , Isoenzimas/administração & dosagem , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Galactosidase/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Doença de Fabry/diagnóstico , Doença de Fabry/enzimologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoenzimas/efeitos adversos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triexosilceramidas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Galactosidase/efeitos adversos
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(9): 1040-1048, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635954

RESUMO

Heterozygous variants in BICD cargo adapter 2 (BICD2) cause autosomal dominant spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity-predominant 2 (SMALED2). The disease is usually characterized by a benign or slowly progressive, congenital or early onset muscle weakness and atrophy that mainly affects the lower extremities, although some affected individuals show involvement of the arms and the shoulder girdle. Here we report unusual extremes of BICD2-related diseases: A severe form of congenital muscular atrophy with arthrogryposis multiplex, respiratory insufficiency and lethality within four months. This was caused by three BICD2 variants, (c.581A>G, p.(Gln194Arg)), (c.1626C>G, p.(Cys542Trp)) and (c.2080C>T, p.(Arg694Cys)), two of which were proven to be de novo. Affected individuals showed reduced fetal movement, weak muscle tone and sparse or no spontaneous activity after birth. Despite assisted ventilation, the condition led to early death. At the other extreme, we identified an asymptomatic woman with a known BICD2 variant (c.2108C>T, p.(Thr703Met)). Radiological examination showed fatty degeneration of selected thigh and calf muscles without clinical consequences. Instead, her son carrying the same variant is affected by a mild childhood onset disease with myopathic and neurogenic features. Mechanisms leading to variable expressivity and onset of BICD2-related disease may include alterations in molecular interactions of BICD2 and suggest the presence of genetic modifiers that may act in a protective fashion to ameliorate or abrogate disease. Our data define an additional severe disease type caused by BICD2 and emphasize a possibly variable etiology of BICD2-opathies with regard to primary muscle and neuronal involvement.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Adulto , Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Doenças Assintomáticas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Síndrome
20.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1148-1151, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28553959

RESUMO

Through exome sequencing, we identified six individuals with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in TRIP13. All six developed Wilms tumor. Constitutional mosaic aneuploidies, microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures, which are features of mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome, were more variably present. Through functional studies, we show that TRIP13-mutant patient cells have no detectable TRIP13 and have substantial impairment of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), leading to a high rate of chromosome missegregation. Accurate segregation, as well as SAC proficiency, is rescued by restoring TRIP13 function. Individuals with biallelic TRIP13 or BUB1B mutations have a high risk of embryonal tumors, and here we show that their cells display severe SAC impairment. MVA due to biallelic CEP57 mutations, or of unknown cause, is not associated with embryonal tumors and cells from these individuals show minimal SAC deficiency. These data provide insights into the complex relationships between aneuploidy and carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares , Aneuploidia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Convulsões/genética , Tumor de Células de Sertoli-Leydig/genética
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