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1.
Elife ; 102021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796871

RESUMO

SARM1, a protein with critical NADase activity, is a central executioner in a conserved programme of axon degeneration. We report seven rare missense or in-frame microdeletion human SARM1 variant alleles in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or other motor nerve disorders that alter the SARM1 auto-inhibitory ARM domain and constitutively hyperactivate SARM1 NADase activity. The constitutive NADase activity of these seven variants is similar to that of SARM1 lacking the entire ARM domain and greatly exceeds the activity of wild-type SARM1, even in the presence of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), its physiological activator. This rise in constitutive activity alone is enough to promote neuronal degeneration in response to otherwise non-harmful, mild stress. Importantly, these strong gain-of-function alleles are completely patient-specific in the cohorts studied and show a highly significant association with disease at the single gene level. These findings of disease-associated coding variants that alter SARM1 function build on previously reported genome-wide significant association with ALS for a neighbouring, more common SARM1 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to support a contributory role of SARM1 in these disorders. A broad phenotypic heterogeneity and variable age-of-onset of disease among patients with these alleles also raises intriguing questions about the pathogenic mechanism of hyperactive SARM1 variants.

2.
Brain ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791078

RESUMO

Consanguineous marriages have a prevalence rate of 24% in Turkey. These carry an increased risk of autosomal recessive genetic conditions, leading to severe disability or premature death, with a significant health and economic burden. A definitive molecular diagnosis could not be achieved in these children previously, as infrastructures and access to sophisticated diagnostic options were limited. We studied the cause of neurogenetic disease in 246 children from 190 consanguineous families, recruited in three Turkish hospitals between 2016 and 2020. All patients underwent deep phenotyping and trio whole exome sequencing, and data were integrated in advanced international bioinformatics platforms. We detected causative variants in 119 known disease genes in 72% of families. Due to overlapping phenotypes 52% of the confirmed genetic diagnoses would have been missed on targeted diagnostic gene panels. Likely pathogenic variants in 27 novel genes in 14% of the families increased the diagnostic yield to 86%. Eighty-two% of causative variants (141/172) were homozygous, 11 of which were detected in genes previously only associated with autosomal dominant inheritance. Eight families carried two pathogenic variants in different disease genes. De novo (9.3%), X-linked recessive (5.2%) and compound heterozygous (3.5%) variants were less frequent compared to non-consanguineous populations. This cohort provided a unique opportunity to better understand the genetic characteristics of neurogenetic diseases in a consanguineous population. Contrary to what may be expected, causative variants were often not on the longest run of homozygosity and the diagnostic yield was lower in families with the highest degree of consanguinity, due to the high number of homozygous variants in these patients. Pathway analysis highlighted that protein synthesis/degradation defects and metabolic diseases are the most common pathways underlying paediatric neurogenetic disease. In our cohort 164 families (86%) received a diagnosis, enabling prevention of transmission and targeted treatments in 24 patients (10%). We generated an important body of genomic data with lasting impacts on the health and wellbeing of consanguineous families, and economic benefit for the healthcare system in Turkey and elsewhere. We demonstrate that an untargeted next generation sequencing approach is far superior to a more targeted gene panel approach, and can be performed without specialised bioinformatics knowledge by clinicians using established pipelines in populations with high rates of consanguinity.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800363

RESUMO

The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase-like (OGDHL) protein is a rate-limiting enzyme in the Krebs cycle that plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial metabolism. OGDHL expression is restricted mainly to the brain in humans. Here, we report nine individuals from eight unrelated families carrying bi-allelic variants in OGDHL with a range of neurological and neurodevelopmental phenotypes including epilepsy, hearing loss, visual impairment, gait ataxia, microcephaly, and hypoplastic corpus callosum. The variants include three homozygous missense variants (p.Pro852Ala, p.Arg244Trp, and p.Arg299Gly), three compound heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (p.Arg673Gln/p.Val488Val, p.Phe734Ser/p.Ala327Val, and p.Trp220Cys/p.Asp491Val), one homozygous frameshift variant (p.Cys553Leufs∗16), and one homozygous stop-gain variant (p.Arg440Ter). To support the pathogenicity of the variants, we developed a novel CRISPR-Cas9-mediated tissue-specific knockout with cDNA rescue system for dOgdh, the Drosophila ortholog of human OGDHL. Pan-neuronal knockout of dOgdh led to developmental lethality as well as defects in Krebs cycle metabolism, which was fully rescued by expression of wild-type dOgdh. Studies using the Drosophila system indicate that p.Arg673Gln, p.Phe734Ser, and p.Arg299Gly are severe loss-of-function alleles, leading to developmental lethality, whereas p.Pro852Ala, p.Ala327Val, p.Trp220Cys, p.Asp491Val, and p.Arg244Trp are hypomorphic alleles, causing behavioral defects. Transcript analysis from fibroblasts obtained from the individual carrying the synonymous variant (c.1464T>C [p.Val488Val]) in family 2 showed that the synonymous variant affects splicing of exon 11 in OGDHL. Human neuronal cells with OGDHL knockout exhibited defects in mitochondrial respiration, indicating the essential role of OGDHL in mitochondrial metabolism in humans. Together, our data establish that the bi-allelic variants in OGDHL are pathogenic, leading to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disease in humans.

4.
BMJ ; 375: e066288, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether whole genome sequencing can be used to define the molecular basis of suspected mitochondrial disease. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: National Health Service, England, including secondary and tertiary care. PARTICIPANTS: 345 patients with suspected mitochondrial disorders recruited to the 100 000 Genomes Project in England between 2015 and 2018. INTERVENTION: Short read whole genome sequencing was performed. Nuclear variants were prioritised on the basis of gene panels chosen according to phenotypes, ClinVar pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants, and the top 10 prioritised variants from Exomiser. Mitochondrial DNA variants were called using an in-house pipeline and compared with a list of pathogenic variants. Copy number variants and short tandem repeats for 13 neurological disorders were also analysed. American College of Medical Genetics guidelines were followed for classification of variants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Definite or probable genetic diagnosis. RESULTS: A definite or probable genetic diagnosis was identified in 98/319 (31%) families, with an additional 6 (2%) possible diagnoses. Fourteen of the diagnoses (4% of the 319 families) explained only part of the clinical features. A total of 95 different genes were implicated. Of 104 families given a diagnosis, 39 (38%) had a mitochondrial diagnosis and 65 (63%) had a non-mitochondrial diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Whole genome sequencing is a useful diagnostic test in patients with suspected mitochondrial disorders, yielding a diagnosis in a further 31% after exclusion of common causes. Most diagnoses were non-mitochondrial disorders and included developmental disorders with intellectual disability, epileptic encephalopathies, other metabolic disorders, cardiomyopathies, and leukodystrophies. These would have been missed if a targeted approach was taken, and some have specific treatments.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neurogenetics ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731330

RESUMO

AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are postsynaptic ionotropic receptors which mediate fast excitatory currents. AMPARs have a heterotetrameric structure, variably composed by the four subunits GluA1-4 which are encoded by genes GRIA1-4. Increasing evidence support the role of pathogenic variants in GRIA1-4 genes as causative for syndromic intellectual disability (ID). We report an Italian pedigree where some male individuals share ID, seizures and facial dysmorphisms. The index subject was referred for severe ID, myoclonic seizures, cerebellar signs and short stature. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel variant in GRIA3, c.2360A > G, p.(Glu787Gly). The GRIA3 gene maps to chromosome Xq25 and the c.2360A > G variant was transmitted by his healthy mother. Subsequent analysis in the family showed a segregation pattern compatible with the causative role of this variant, further supported by preliminary functional insights. We provide a detailed description of the clinical evolution of the index subjects and stress the relevance of myoclonic seizures and cerebellar syndrome as cardinal features of his presentation.

7.
Mov Disord ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex parkinsonism is the commonest phenotype in late-onset PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to deeply characterize phenogenotypically PLA2G6-related parkinsonism in the largest cohort ever reported. METHODS: We report 14 new cases of PLA2G6-related parkinsonism and perform a systematic literature review. RESULTS: PLA2G6-related parkinsonism shows a fairly distinct phenotype based on 86 cases from 68 pedigrees. Young onset (median age, 23.0 years) with parkinsonism/dystonia, gait/balance, and/or psychiatric/cognitive symptoms were common presenting features. Dystonia occurred in 69.4%, pyramidal signs in 77.2%, myoclonus in 65.2%, and cerebellar signs in 44.6% of cases. Early bladder overactivity was present in 71.9% of cases. Cognitive impairment affected 76.1% of cases and psychiatric features 87.1%, the latter being an isolated presenting feature in 20.1%. Parkinsonism was levodopa responsive but complicated by early, often severe dyskinesias. Five patients benefited from deep brain stimulation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings included cerebral (49.3%) and/or cerebellar (43.2%) atrophy, but mineralization was evident in only 28.1%. Presynaptic dopaminergic terminal imaging was abnormal in all where performed. Fifty-four PLA2G6 mutations have hitherto been associated with parkinsonism, including four new variants reported in this article. These are mainly nontruncating, which may explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of childhood- and late-onset PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration. In five deceased patients, median disease duration was 13.0 years. Brain pathology in three cases showed mixed Lewy and tau pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Biallelic PLA2G6 mutations cause early-onset parkinsonism associated with dystonia, pyramidal and cerebellar signs, myoclonus, and cognitive impairment. Early psychiatric manifestations and bladder overactivity are common. Cerebro/cerebellar atrophy are frequent magnetic resonance imaging features, whereas brain iron deposition is not. Early, severe dyskinesias are a tell-tale sign. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

9.
Brain ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605855

RESUMO

The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily encompasses >400 transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, nutrients, ions, metals, neurotransmitters and metabolites across biological membranes. SLCs are highly expressed in the mammalian brain; defects in nearly 100 unique SLC-encoding genes (OMIM: https://www.omim.org) are associated with rare Mendelian disorders including developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) and severe neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Exome sequencing and family-based rare variant analyses on a cohort with NDD identified two siblings with DEE and a shared deleterious homozygous splicing variant in SLC38A3. The gene encodes SNAT3, a sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter and a principal transporter of the amino acids asparagine, histidine, and glutamine, the latter being the precursor for the neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate. Additional subjects with a similar DEE phenotype and biallelic predicted-damaging SLC38A3 variants were ascertained through GeneMatcher and collaborations with research and clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories. Untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed to identify novel metabolic biomarkers. Ten individuals from seven unrelated families from six different countries with deleterious biallelic variants in SLC38A3 were identified. Global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and absent speech were common features while microcephaly, epilepsy, and visual impairment were present in the majority. Epilepsy was drug-resistant in half. Metabolomic analysis revealed perturbations of glutamate, histidine, and nitrogen metabolism in plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid of selected subjects, potentially representing biomarkers of disease. Our data support the contention that SLC38A3 is a novel disease gene for DEE and illuminate the likely pathophysiology of the disease as perturbations in glutamine homeostasis.

10.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596873

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immunological disorder. Although the precise pathoetiology of CIDP has not been clarified yet, it is believed that both B and T cells of immune system contribute in this disorder. Based on the importance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) cluster in the regulation of immune responses, this family of proteins is putative determinants of risk of CIDP. We conducted the current investigation to appraise association between HLA alleles/genotypes/haplotypes and risk of CIDP in Iranian patients. HLA-DQB1*02 allele was significantly more prevalent among cases compared with controls (OR [95% CI] = 4.82 [2.06, 11.3], P value = 0.000215, adjusted P value = 0.0124). A*01-B*52-C*12-DRB1*15-DQB1*02 and A*23-B*35-C*04-DRB1*11-DQB1*03 haplotypes with frequency of 0.03 were the most frequent HLA haplotypes. These haplotypes were not detected among healthy controls. The present study introduces HLA-DQB1*02 allele as a risk allele for CIDP among Iranian patients and further supports the importance of HLA region in this immunological condition.

11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(11): 2155-2165, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the full phenotypic spectrum of BCS1L-related disease, provide better understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlations and identify reliable prognostic disease markers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multinational cohort study of previously unpublished patients followed in 15 centres from 10 countries. Patients with confirmed biallelic pathogenic BCS1L variants were considered eligible. Clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging and genetic data were analysed. Patients were stratified into different groups based on the age of disease onset, whether homozygous or compound heterozygous for the c.232A>G (p.Ser78Gly) variant, and those with other pathogenic BCS1L variants. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were included. We found that growth failure, lactic acidosis, tubulopathy, hepatopathy and early death were more frequent in those with disease onset within the first month of life. In those with onset after 1 month, neurological features including movement disorders and seizures were more frequent. Novel phenotypes, particularly involving movement disorder, were identified in this group. The presence of the c.232A>G (p.Ser78Gly) variant was associated with significantly worse survival and exclusively found in those with disease onset within the first month of life, whilst other pathogenic BCS1L variants were more frequent in those with later symptom onset. INTERPRETATION: The phenotypic spectrum of BCS1L-related disease comprises a continuum of clinical features rather than a set of separate syndromic clinical identities. Age of onset defines BCS1L-related disease clinically and early presentation is associated with poor prognosis. Genotype correlates with phenotype in the presence of the c.232A>G (p.Ser78Gly) variant.

14.
Brain Sci ; 11(9)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573171

RESUMO

Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is a rare X-linked developmental disorder caused mainly by loss of function variants in the NHS gene. NHS is characterized by congenital cataracts, dental anomalies, and distinctive facial features, and a proportion of the affected individuals also present intellectual disability and congenital cardiopathies. Despite identification of at least 40 distinct hemizygous variants leading to NHS, genotype-phenotype correlations remain largely elusive. In this study, we describe a Sicilian family affected with congenital cataracts and dental anomalies and diagnosed with NHS by whole-exome sequencing (WES). The affected boy from this family presented a late regression of cognitive, motor, language, and adaptive skills, as well as broad behavioral anomalies. Furthermore, brain imaging showed corpus callosum anomalies and periventricular leukoencephalopathy. We expand the phenotypic and mutational NHS spectrum and review potential disease mechanisms underlying the central neurological anomalies and the potential neurodevelopmental features associated with NHS.

15.
FEBS J ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528385

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder induced by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in midbrain. The mechanism of neurodegeneration is associated with aggregation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Considering this, the process of removal of unwanted organelles or proteins by autophagy is vitally important in neurons, and activation of these processes could be protective in PD. Short-time acidification of the cytosol can activate mitophagy and autophagy. Here, we used sodium pyruvate and sodium lactate to induce changes in intracellular pH in human fibroblasts with PD mutations (Pink1, Pink1/Park2, α-synuclein triplication, A53T). We have found that both lactate and pyruvate in millimolar concentrations can induce a short-time acidification of the cytosol in these cells. This induced activation of mitophagy and autophagy in control and PD fibroblasts and protected against cell death. Importantly, application of lactate to acute brain slices of WT and Pink1 KO mice also induced a reduction of pH in neurons and astrocytes that increased the level of mitophagy. Thus, acidification of the cytosol by compounds, which play an important role in cell metabolism, can also activate mitophagy and autophagy and protect cells in the familial form of PD.

16.
Brain Commun ; 3(3): fcab183, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557665

RESUMO

WIPI2 is a member of the human WIPI protein family (seven-bladed b-propeller proteins binding phosphatidylinositols, PROPPINs), which play a pivotal role in autophagy and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological conditions. The homozygous WIPI2 variant c.745G>A; p.(Val249Met) (NM_015610.4) has recently been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder in a single family. Using exome sequencing and Sanger segregation analysis, here, two novel homozygous WIPI2 variants [c.551T>G; p.(Val184Gly) and c.724C>T; p.(Arg242Trp) (NM_015610.4)] were identified in four individuals of two consanguineous families. Additionally, follow-up clinical data were sought from the previously reported family. Three non-ambulant affected siblings of the first family harbouring the p.(Val184Gly) missense variant presented with microcephaly, profound global developmental delay/intellectual disability, refractory infantile/childhood-onset epilepsy, progressive tetraplegia with joint contractures and dyskinesia. In contrast, the proband of the second family carrying the p.(Arg242Trp) missense variant, similar to the initially reported WIPI2 cases, presented with a milder phenotype, encompassing moderate intellectual disability, speech and visual impairment, autistic features, and an ataxic gait. Brain MR imaging in five patients showed prominent white matter involvement with a global reduction in volume, posterior corpus callosum hypoplasia, abnormal dentate nuclei and hypoplasia of the inferior cerebellar vermis. To investigate the functional impact of these novel WIPI2 variants, we overexpressed both in WIPI2-knockout HEK293A cells. In comparison to wildtype, expression of the Val166Gly WIPI2b mutant resulted in a deficient rescue of LC3 lipidation whereas Arg224Trp mutant increased LC3 lipidation, in line with the previously reported Val231Met variant. These findings support a dysregulation of the early steps of the autophagy pathway. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that biallelic WIPI2 variants cause a neurodevelopmental disorder of variable severity and disease course. Our report expands the clinical spectrum and establishes WIPI2-related disorder as a congenital disorders of autophagy.

18.
J Neurol Sci ; 430: 118061, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537679

RESUMO

A homozygous AAGGG repeat expansion within the RFC1 gene was recently described as a common cause of CANVAS syndrome. We examined 1069 sporadic ALS patients for the presence of this repeat expansion. We did not discover any carriers of the homozygous AAGGG expansion in our ALS cohort, indicating that this form of RFC1 repeat expansions is not a common cause of sporadic ALS. However, our study did identify a novel repeat conformation and further expanded on the highly polymorphic nature of the RFC1 locus.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72 , Estudos de Coortes , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Humanos , Proteína de Replicação C/genética
19.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(10): 1961-1969, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506082

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing and linkage analysis were performed in a three generational pedigree of Greek origin with a broad phenotypic spectrum spanning from Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia to dementia of mixed type (Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia). We identified a novel heterozygous c.G1135T (p.G379W) variant in SORL1 which segregated with the disease in the family. Mutation screening in sporadic Greek PD cases identified one additional individual with the mutation, sharing the same 12.8Mb haplotype. Our findings provide support for SORL1 mutations resulting in a broad range of additional phenotypes and warrants further studies in neurodegenerative diseases beyond AD.

20.
Pract Neurol ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389644

RESUMO

Cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) typically presents in middle life with a combination of neuropathy, ataxia and vestibular disease, with patients reporting progressive imbalance, oscillopsia, sensory disturbance and a dry cough. Examination identifies a sensory neuropathy or neuronopathy and bilaterally impaired vestibulo-ocular reflex. The underlying genetic basis is of biallelic AAGGG expansions in the second intron of replication factor complex subunit 1 (RFC1). The frequency and phenotype spectrum of RFC1 disease is expanding, ranging from typical CANVAS to site-restricted variants affecting the sensory nerves, cerebellum and/or the vestibular system. Given the wide phenotype spectrum of RFC1, the differential diagnosis is broad. RFC1 disease due to biallelic AAGGG expansions is probably the most common cause of recessive ataxia. The key to suspecting the disease (and prompt genetic testing) is a thorough clinical examination assessing the three affected systems and noting the presence of chronic cough.

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