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1.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the GGC-repeat expansion in NOTCH2NLC in whites presenting with movement disorders. METHODS: We searched for the GGC-repeat expansion in NOTCH2NLC using repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction in 203 patients with essential tremor, 825 patients with PD, 194 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia, 207 patients with "possible" or "probable" MSA, and 336 patients with pathologically confirmed MSA. We also screened 30,008 patients enrolled in the 100,000 Genomes Project for the same mutation using ExpansionHunter, followed by repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction. All possible expansions were confirmed by Southern blotting and/or long-read sequencing. RESULTS: We identified 1 patient who carried the NOTCH2NLC mutation in the essential tremor cohort, and 1 patient presenting with recurrent encephalopathy and postural tremor/parkinsonism in the 100,000 Genomes Project. CONCLUSIONS: GGC-repeat expansion in NOTCH2NLC is rare in whites presenting with movement disorders. In addition, existing whole-genome sequencing data are useful in case ascertainment. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

2.
Brain ; 143(10): 2904-2910, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103729

RESUMO

Cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is a progressive late-onset, neurological disease. Recently, a pentanucleotide expansion in intron 2 of RFC1 was identified as the genetic cause of CANVAS. We screened an Asian-Pacific cohort for CANVAS and identified a novel RFC1 repeat expansion motif, (ACAGG)exp, in three affected individuals. This motif was associated with additional clinical features including fasciculations and elevated serum creatine kinase. These features have not previously been described in individuals with genetically-confirmed CANVAS. Haplotype analysis showed our patients shared the same core haplotype as previously published, supporting the possibility of a single origin of the RFC1 disease allele. We analysed data from >26 000 genetically diverse individuals in gnomAD to show enrichment of (ACAGG) in non-European populations.

3.
Neurology ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To understand the role of the angiopoietin-like 6 gene (ANGPTL6) in intracranial aneurysms (IA) we investigated its role in a large cohort of familial IAs. METHODS: Inclusion of individuals with family history of IA recruited to the Genetic and Observational Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (GOSH) study. The ANGPTL6 gene was sequenced using Sanger sequencing. Identified genetic variants were compared to a control population. RESULTS: We found six rare ANGPTL6 genetic variants in 9/275 individuals with a family history of IA (3.3%), none of them were present in controls: Five missense and one nonsense mutation leading to a premature stop codon. One of these had been previously reported: c.392A>T (p.Glu131Val) on exon 2, another was very close: c.332G>A (p.Arg111His). Two further genetic variants lie within the fibrinogen-like domain of the ANGPTL6 gene, which may influence function or level of the ANGPTL6 protein. The last two missense mutations lie within the coiled-coil domain of the ANGPTL6 protein. All genetic variants were well conserved across species. CONCLUSION: ANGPTL6 genetic variants are an important cause of IA. Defective or lack of ANGPTL6 protein is therefore an important factor in blood vessel proliferation leading to IA; dysfunction of this protein is likely to cause abnormal proliferation or weakness of vessel walls. With these data, not only do we emphasise the importance of screening familial IA cases for ANGPTL6 and other genes involved in IA, but also highlight the ANGPTL6 pathway as a potential therapeutic target. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This is a Class III study showing some specificity of presence of the ANGPTL6 gene variant as a marker of familial intracranial aneurysms in a small subset of those with familial aneurysms.

4.
J Neurol ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106889

RESUMO

Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the atrophin-1 gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. There are currently no disease-modifying treatments available. The broad development of therapies for DRPLA, as well as other similar rare diseases, has hit a roadblock due to the rarity of the condition and the wide global distribution of patients and families, consequently inhibiting biomarker development and therapeutic research. Considering the shifting focus towards diverse populations, widespread genetic testing, rapid advancements in the development of clinical and wet biomarkers for Huntington's disease (HD), and the ongoing clinical trials for antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapies, the prospect of developing effective treatments in rare disorders has completely changed. The awareness of the HD ASO program has prompted global collaboration for rare disorders in natural history studies and the development of biomarkers, with the eventual goal of undergoing treatment trials. Here, we discuss DRPLA, which shares similarities with HD, and how in this and other repeat expansion disorders, neurogenetics groups like ours at UCL are gearing up for forthcoming natural history studies to accelerate future ASO treatment trials to hopefully emulate the progress seen in HD.

5.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by intracellular accumulations of α-synuclein and nerve cell loss in striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar structures. Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported potential involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in MSA pathogenesis. However, genetic etiology of this interaction remains unknown. We aimed to investigate genetic overlap between MSA and 7 autoimmune diseases and to identify shared genetic loci. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary statistics of MSA and 7 autoimmune diseases were combined in cross-trait conjunctional false discovery rate analysis to explore overlapping genetic background. Expression of selected candidate genes was compared in transgenic MSA mice and wild-type mice. Genetic variability of candidate genes was further investigated using independent whole-exome genotyping data from large cohorts of MSA and autoimmune disease patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: We observed substantial polygenic overlap between MSA and inflammatory bowel disease and identified 3 shared genetic loci with leading variants upstream of the DENND1B and RSP04 genes, and in intron of the C7 gene. Further, the C7 gene showed significantly dysregulated expression in the degenerating midbrain of transgenic MSA mice compared with wild-type mice and had elevated burden of protein-coding variants in independent MSA and inflammatory bowel disease cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence of shared genetic etiology between MSA and inflammatory bowel disease with an important role of the C7 gene in both phenotypes, with the implication of immune and gut dysfunction in MSA pathophysiology. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15529, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968133

RESUMO

Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a life-threatening emergency, the incidence of which has increased in part due to an increase in the use of oral anticoagulants. A blood-fluid level within the haematoma, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), has been suggested as a marker for oral anticoagulant-associated ICH (OAC-ICH), but the diagnostic specificity and prognostic value of this finding remains unclear. In 855 patients with CT-confirmed acute ICH scanned within 48 h of symptom onset, we investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the presence of a CT-defined blood-fluid level (rated blinded to anticoagulant status) for identifying concomitant anticoagulant use. We also investigated the association of the presence of a blood-fluid level with six-month case fatality. Eighteen patients (2.1%) had a blood-fluid level identified on CT; of those with a blood-fluid level, 15 (83.3%) were taking anticoagulants. The specificity of blood-fluid level for OAC-ICH was 99.4%; the sensitivity was 4.2%. We could not detect an association between the presence of a blood-fluid level and an increased risk of death at six months (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.28-3.88, p = 0.769). The presence of a blood-fluid level should alert clinicians to the possibility of OAC-ICH, but absence of a blood-fluid level is not useful in excluding OAC-ICH.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901138

RESUMO

Trafficking protein particle (TRAPP) complexes, which include the TRAPPC4 protein, regulate membrane trafficking between lipid organelles in a process termed vesicular tethering. TRAPPC4 was recently implicated in a recessive neurodevelopmental condition in four unrelated families due to a shared c.454+3A>G splice variant. Here, we report 23 patients from 17 independent families with an early-infantile-onset neurodegenerative presentation, where we also identified the homozygous variant hg38:11:119020256 A>G (NM_016146.5:c.454+3A>G) in TRAPPC4 through exome or genome sequencing. No other clinically relevant TRAPPC4 variants were identified among any of over 10,000 patients with neurodevelopmental conditions. We found the carrier frequency of TRAPPC4 c.454+3A>G was 2.4-5.4 per 10,000 healthy individuals. Affected individuals with the homozygous TRAPPC4 c.454+3A>G variant showed profound psychomotor delay, developmental regression, early-onset epilepsy, microcephaly and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Based upon RNA sequencing, the variant resulted in partial exon 3 skipping and generation of an aberrant transcript owing to use of a downstream cryptic splice donor site, predicting a premature stop codon and nonsense mediated decay. These data confirm the pathogenicity of the TRAPPC4 c.454+3A>G variant, and refine the clinical presentation of TRAPPC4-related encephalopathy.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934340

RESUMO

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a group of heterogeneous inherited degenerative disorders characterized by lower limb spasticity. Fifty percent of HSP patients remain yet genetically undiagnosed. The 100,000 Genomes Project (100KGP) is a large UK-wide initiative to provide genetic diagnosis to previously undiagnosed patients and families with rare conditions. Over 400 HSP families were recruited to the 100KGP. In order to obtain genetic diagnoses, gene-based burden testing was carried out for rare, predicted pathogenic variants using candidate variants from the Exomiser analysis of the genome sequencing data. A significant gene-disease association was identified for UBAP1 and HSP. Three protein truncating variants were identified in 13 patients from 7 families. All patients presented with juvenile form of pure HSP, with median age at onset 10 years, showing autosomal dominant inheritance or de novo occurrence. Additional clinical features included parkinsonism and learning difficulties, but their association with UBAP1 needs to be established.

10.
J Neurol ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910249

RESUMO

The ataxias are a group of disorders that manifest with balance, movement, speech and visual problems. They can arise due to dysfunction of the cerebellum, the vestibular system and/or the sensory neurons. Genetic defects are a common cause of chronic ataxia, particularly common are repeat expansions in this group of conditions. Co-occurrence of cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome has been termed CANVAS. Although CANVAS is a rare syndrome, on discovery of biallelic expansions in the second intron of replication factor C subunit 1 (RFC1) gene, we and others have found the phenotype is broad and RFC1 expansions are a common cause of late-onset progressive ataxia.We aim to provide a review and update on recent developments in CANVAS and populations, where the disorder has been reported. We have also optimised a protocol for RFC1 expansion screening which is described herein and expanded phenotype after analysing late-onset ataxia patients from around the world.

11.
Neurology ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants associated with the presence of brain microbleeds (BMB). METHODS: We performed genome-wide association studies in 11 population-based cohort studies and 3 case-control or case-only stroke cohorts. Genotypes were imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium or 1000 Genomes reference panel. BMB were rated on susceptibility-weighted or T2*-weighted gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging sequences, and further classified as lobar, or mixed (including strictly deep and infratentorial, possibly with lobar BMB). In a subset, we assessed the effects of APOE ε2 and ε4 alleles on BMB counts. We also related previously identified cerebral small vessel disease variants to BMB. RESULTS: BMB were detected in 3,556 of the 25,862 participants, of which 2,179 were strictly lobar and 1,293 mixed. One locus in the APOE region reached genome-wide significance for its association with BMB (lead SNP rs769449; ORany BMB (95% CI)=1.33 (1.21-1.45); p=2.5x10-10). APOE ε4 alleles were associated with strictly lobar (OR (95% CI)=1.34 (1.19-1.50); p=1.0x10-6) but not with mixed BMB counts (OR (95% CI)=1.04 (0.86-1.25); p=0.68). APOE ε2 alleles did not show associations with BMB counts. Variants previously related to deep intracerebral haemorrhage and lacunar stroke, and a risk score of cerebral white matter hyperintensity variants, were associated with BMB. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants in the APOE region are associated with the presence of BMB, most likely due to the APOE ε4 allele count related to a higher number of strictly lobar BMB. Genetic predisposition to small vessel disease confers risk of BMB, indicating genetic overlap with other cerebral small vessel disease markers.

14.
J Neurol Sci ; 418: 117141, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the clinical benefit of admission to critical care after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). PURPOSE: We investigated factors associated with critical care admission after spontaneous ICH and evaluated associations between critical care and 6-month functional outcome. METHODS: We included 825 patients with acute spontaneous non-traumatic ICH, recruited to a prospective multicenter observational study. We evaluated the characteristics associated with critical care admission and poor 6-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS > 3) using univariable (chi-square test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test, as appropriate) and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: 286 patients (38.2%) had poor 6-month functional outcome. Seventy-seven (9.3%) patients were admitted to critical care. Patients admitted to critical care were younger (p < 0.001), had lower GCS score (p < 0.001), larger ICH volume (p < 0.001), more often had intraventricular extension (p = 0.008) and underwent neurosurgery (p < 0.001). Critical care admission was associated with poor functional outcome at 6 months (39/77 [50.7%] vs 286/748 [38.2%]; p = 0.034); adjusted OR 2.43 [95%CI 1.36-4.35], p = 0.003), but not with death (OR 1.29 [95%CI 0.71-2.35; p = 0.4). In ordinal logistic regression, patients admitted to critical care showed an OR 1.47 (95% CI 0.98-2.20; p = 0.07) for a shift in the 6-month modified Rankin Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Admission to critical care is associated with poor 6-month functional outcome after spontaneous ICH but not with death. Patients admitted to critical care were a priori more severely affected. Although adjusted for main known predictors of poor outcome, our findings could still be confounded by unmeasured factors. Establishing the true effectiveness of critical care after ICH requires a randomised trial with clinical outcomes and quality of life assessments.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4625, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934225

RESUMO

A hallmark of neurodegeneration is defective protein quality control. The E3 ligase Listerin (LTN1/Ltn1) acts in a specialized protein quality control pathway-Ribosome-associated Quality Control (RQC)-by mediating proteolytic targeting of incomplete polypeptides produced by ribosome stalling, and Ltn1 mutation leads to neurodegeneration in mice. Whether neurodegeneration results from defective RQC and whether defective RQC contributes to human disease have remained unknown. Here we show that three independently-generated mouse models with mutations in a different component of the RQC complex, NEMF/Rqc2, develop progressive motor neuron degeneration. Equivalent mutations in yeast Rqc2 selectively interfere with its ability to modify aberrant translation products with C-terminal tails which assist with RQC-mediated protein degradation, suggesting a pathomechanism. Finally, we identify NEMF mutations expected to interfere with function in patients from seven families presenting juvenile neuromuscular disease. These uncover NEMF's role in translational homeostasis in the nervous system and implicate RQC dysfunction in causing neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Doenças Neuromusculares/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Doenças Neuromusculares/patologia , Proteólise , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
17.
Neurology ; 95(16): e2192-e2199, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) within the basal ganglia or deep cerebral white matter are risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in patients taking oral anticoagulants (OACs), independent of established clinical and radiologic risk factors, we conducted a post hoc analysis of Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke (CROMIS-2) (atrial fibrillation [AF]), a prospective inception cohort study. METHODS: Patients with atrial fibrillation and recent TIA or ischemic stroke underwent standardized MRI prior to starting OAC. We rated basal ganglia PVS (BGPVS) and centrum semiovale PVS (CSOPVS), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), white matter hyperintensities, and lacunes. We dichotomized the PVS rating using a threshold of >10 PVS in the relevant region of either cerebral hemisphere. The primary outcome was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). We identified risk factors for sICH using Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 1,386 participants with available clinical and imaging variables were followed up for a mean of 2.34 years; 14 sICH occurred (11 intracerebral). In univariable analysis, diabetes, CMB presence, lacune presence, and >10 BGPVS, but not CSOPVS, were associated with sICH. In a multivariable model incorporating all variables with significant associations in univariable analysis, >10 BGPVS (hazard ratio [HR] 8.96, 95% [CI] 2.41-33.4, p = 0.001) and diabetes (HR 3.91, 95% CI 1.34-11.4) remained significant risk factors for sICH. CONCLUSION: Enlarged BGPVS might be a novel risk factor for OAC-related ICH. The strength of this association and potential use in predicting ICH in clinical practice should be investigated in larger cohorts.

18.
Brain ; 143(8): 2437-2453, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761064

RESUMO

In pleiotropic diseases, multiple organ systems are affected causing a variety of clinical manifestations. Here, we report a pleiotropic disorder with a unique constellation of neurological, endocrine, exocrine, and haematological findings that is caused by biallelic MADD variants. MADD, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activating death domain protein, regulates various cellular functions, such as vesicle trafficking, activity of the Rab3 and Rab27 small GTPases, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced signalling and prevention of cell death. Through national collaboration and GeneMatcher, we collected 23 patients with 21 different pathogenic MADD variants identified by next-generation sequencing. We clinically evaluated the series of patients and categorized the phenotypes in two groups. Group 1 consists of 14 patients with severe developmental delay, endo- and exocrine dysfunction, impairment of the sensory and autonomic nervous system, and haematological anomalies. The clinical course during the first years of life can be potentially fatal. The nine patients in Group 2 have a predominant neurological phenotype comprising mild-to-severe developmental delay, hypotonia, speech impairment, and seizures. Analysis of mRNA revealed multiple aberrant MADD transcripts in two patient-derived fibroblast cell lines. Relative quantification of MADD mRNA and protein in fibroblasts of five affected individuals showed a drastic reduction or loss of MADD. We conducted functional tests to determine the impact of the variants on different pathways. Treatment of patient-derived fibroblasts with TNF-α resulted in reduced phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, enhanced activation of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspase-3 and -7 and increased apoptosis compared to control cells. We analysed internalization of epidermal growth factor in patient cells and identified a defect in endocytosis of epidermal growth factor. We conclude that MADD deficiency underlies multiple cellular defects that can be attributed to alterations of TNF-α-dependent signalling pathways and defects in vesicular trafficking. Our data highlight the multifaceted role of MADD as a signalling molecule in different organs and reveal its physiological role in regulating the function of the sensory and autonomic nervous system and endo- and exocrine glands.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4038, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788587

RESUMO

Asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase1 (NARS1) is a member of the ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic Class IIa family of tRNA synthetases required for protein translation. Here, we identify biallelic missense and frameshift mutations in NARS1 in seven patients from three unrelated families with microcephaly and neurodevelopmental delay. Patient cells show reduced NARS1 protein, impaired NARS1 activity and impaired global protein synthesis. Cortical brain organoid modeling shows reduced proliferation of radial glial cells (RGCs), leading to smaller organoids characteristic of microcephaly. Single-cell analysis reveals altered constituents of both astrocytic and RGC lineages, suggesting a requirement for NARS1 in RGC proliferation. Our findings demonstrate that NARS1 is required to meet protein synthetic needs and to support RGC proliferation in human brain development.


Assuntos
Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/deficiência , Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/genética , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Microcefalia/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Aminoacil-RNA de Transferência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Tamanho Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Criança , Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(10): 2272-2283, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776697

RESUMO

Synaptotagmins are integral synaptic vesicle membrane proteins that function as calcium sensors and regulate neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic nerve terminal. Synaptotagmin-2 (SYT2), is the major isoform expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Recently, dominant missense variants in SYT2 have been reported as a rare cause of distal motor neuropathy and myasthenic syndrome, manifesting with stable or slowly progressive distal weakness of variable severity along with presynaptic NMJ impairment. These variants are thought to have a dominant-negative effect on synaptic vesicle exocytosis, although the precise pathomechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we report seven patients of five families, with biallelic loss of function variants in SYT2, clinically manifesting with a remarkably consistent phenotype of severe congenital onset hypotonia and weakness, with variable degrees of respiratory involvement. Electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with a presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) in some. Treatment with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pursued in three patients showed clinical improvement with increased strength and function. This series further establishes SYT2 as a CMS-disease gene and expands its clinical and genetic spectrum to include recessive loss-of-function variants, manifesting as a severe congenital onset presynaptic CMS with potential treatment implications.

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