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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to investigate whether physical activity (PA) causes a reduction of colorectal cancer risk and to understand the contributions of effects mediated through changes in body fat. METHODS: Common genetic variants associated with self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), acceleration vector magnitude PA (AMPA) and sedentary time were used as instrumental variables. To control for confounding effects of obesity, we included instrumental variables for body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference and arm, trunk and leg fat ratios. We analysed the effect of these instrumental variables in a colorectal cancer genome-wide association study comprising 31,197 cases and 61,770 controls of European ancestry by applying two-sample and multivariable MR study designs. RESULTS: We found decreased colorectal cancer risk for genetically represented measures of MVPA and AMPA that were additional to effects mediated through genetic measures of obesity. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) per standard deviation increase in MVPA and AMPA was 0.56 (0.31, 1.01) and 0.60 (0.41, 0.88), respectively. No association has been found between sedentary time and colorectal cancer risk. The proportion of effect mediated through BMI was 2% (95% CI: 0, 14) and 32% (95% CI: 12, 46) for MVPA and AMPA, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings provide strong evidence to reinforce public health measures on preventing colorectal cancer that promote PA at a population level regardless of body fatness.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of the relationship between gallstone disease and circulating levels of bilirubin with risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) have been inconsistent. To address possible confounding and reverse causation, we examine the relationship between these potential risk factors and CRC using Mendelian randomisation (MR). METHODS: We used two-sample MR to examine the relationship between genetic liability to gallstone disease and circulating levels of bilirubin with CRC in 26,397 patients and 41,481 controls. We calculated the odds ratio per genetically predicted SD unit increase in log bilirubin levels (ORSD) for CRC and tested for a non-zero causal effect of gallstones on CRC. Sensitivity analysis was applied to identify violations of estimator assumptions. RESULTS: No association between either gallstone disease (P value = 0.60) or circulating levels of bilirubin (ORSD = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96-1.03, P value = 0.90) with CRC was shown. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the large scale of this study, we found no evidence for a causal relationship between either circulating levels of bilirubin or gallstone disease with risk of developing CRC. While the magnitude of effect suggested by some observational studies can confidently be excluded, we cannot exclude the possibility of smaller effect sizes and non-linear relationships.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 665, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510140

RESUMO

Prognostication in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is challenging due to heterogeneity in clinical course. We hypothesize that constitutional genetic variation affects disease progression and could aid prognostication. Pooling data from seven studies incorporating 842 cases identifies two genomic locations associated with time from diagnosis to treatment, including 10q26.13 (rs736456, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47-2.15; P = 2.71 × 10-9) and 6p (rs3778076, HR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.55-2.55; P = 5.08 × 10-8), which are particularly powerful prognostic markers in patients with early stage CLL otherwise characterized by low-risk features. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis identifies putative functional genes implicated in modulating B-cell receptor or innate immune responses, key pathways in CLL pathogenesis. In this work we identify rs736456 and rs3778076 as prognostic in CLL, demonstrating that disease progression is determined by constitutional genetic variation as well as known somatic drivers.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
4.
Leukemia ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262523

RESUMO

Structural chromosomal changes including copy number aberrations (CNAs) are a major feature of multiple myeloma (MM), however their evolution in context of modern biological therapy is not well characterized. To investigate acquisition of CNAs and their prognostic relevance in context of first-line therapy, we profiled tumor diagnosis-relapse pairs from 178 NCRI Myeloma XI (ISRCTN49407852) trial patients using digital multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. CNA profiles acquired at relapse differed substantially between MM subtypes: hyperdiploid (HRD) tumors evolved predominantly in branching pattern vs. linear pattern in t(4;14) vs. stable pattern in t(11;14). CNA acquisition also differed between subtypes based on CCND expression, with a marked enrichment of acquired del(17p) in CCND2 over CCND1 tumors. Acquired CNAs were not influenced by high-dose melphalan or lenalidomide maintenance randomization. A branching evolution pattern was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (OS; hazard ratio (HR) 2.61, P = 0.0048). As an individual lesion, acquisition of gain(1q) at relapse was associated with shorter OS, independent of other risk markers or time of relapse (HR = 2.00; P = 0.021). There is an increasing need for rational therapy sequencing in MM. Our data supports the value of repeat molecular profiling to characterize disease evolution and inform management of MM relapse.

5.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(10): 101, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057009

RESUMO

Most patients with multiple myeloma (MM) die from progressive disease after relapse. To advance our understanding of MM evolution mechanisms, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 80 IGH-translocated tumour-normal newly diagnosed pairs and 24 matched relapsed tumours from the Myeloma XI trial. We identify multiple events as potentially important for survival and therapy-resistance at relapse including driver point mutations (e.g., TET2), translocations (MAP3K14), lengthened telomeres, and increased genomic instability (e.g., 17p deletions). Despite heterogeneous mutational processes contributing to relapsed mutations across MM subtypes, increased AID/APOBEC activity is particularly associated with shorter progression time to relapse, and contributes to higher mutational burden at relapse. In addition, we identify three enhanced major clonal evolution patterns of MM relapse, independent of treatment strategies and molecular karyotypes, questioning the viability of "evolutionary herding" approach in treating drug-resistant MM. Our data show that MM relapse is associated with acquisition of new mutations and clonal selection, and suggest APOBEC enzymes among potential targets for therapy-resistant MM.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of glioma is poorly understood. Summary data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can be used in a Mendelian randomisation (MR) phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to search for glioma risk factors. METHODS: We performed an MR-PheWAS analysing 316 phenotypes, proxied by 8387 genetic variants, and summary genetic data from a GWAS of 12,488 glioma cases and 18,169 controls. Causal effects were estimated under a random-effects inverse-variance-weighted (IVW-RE) model, with robust adjusted profile score (MR-RAPS), weighted median and mode-based estimates computed to assess the robustness of findings. Odds ratios per one standard deviation increase in each phenotype were calculated for all glioma, glioblastoma (GBM) and non-GBM tumours. RESULTS: No significant associations (P < 1.58 × 10-4) were observed between phenotypes and glioma under the IVW-RE model. Suggestive associations (1.58 × 10-4 < P < 0.05) were observed between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with all glioma (ORSD = 3.91, P = 9.24 × 10-3) and GBM (ORSD = 4.86, P = 3.23 × 10-2), but the association was primarily driven by the TERT variant rs2736100. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and plasma HbA1C showed suggestive associations with glioma (ORSD = 1.11, P = 1.39 × 10-2 and ORSD = 1.28, P = 1.73 × 10-2, respectively), both associations being reliant on single genetic variants. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides further insight into the aetiological basis of glioma for which published data have been mixed.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2065-2069, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Much of the heritable risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with common genetic variation is unexplained. New analytic approaches have been developed to increase the discovery of risk variants in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including multi-locus testing through pathway analysis. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis using GWAS summary data from six previous scans (10,784 cases and 20,406 controls) and evaluated 3,678 pathways and gene sets drawn from the Molecular Signatures Database. To replicate findings, we analyzed GWAS summary data from the UK Biobank (903 cases and 451,361 controls) and the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort (317 cases and 50,511 controls). RESULTS: We identified 14 pathways/gene sets associated with RCC in both the discovery (P < 1.36 × 10-5, the Bonferroni correction threshold) and replication (P < 0.05) sets, 10 of which include components of the PI3K/AKT pathway. In tests across 2,035 genes in these pathways, associations (Bonferroni corrected P < 2.46 × 10-5 in discovery and replication sets combined) were observed for CASP9, TIPIN, and CDKN2C. The strongest SNP signal was for rs12124078 (P Discovery = 2.6 × 10-5; P Replication = 1.5 × 10-4; P Combined = 6.9 × 10-8), a CASP9 expression quantitative trait locus. CONCLUSIONS: Our pathway analysis implicates genetic variation within the PI3K/AKT pathway as a source of RCC heritability and identifies several promising novel susceptibility genes, including CASP9, which warrant further investigation. IMPACT: Our findings illustrate the value of pathway analysis as a complementary approach to analyzing GWAS data.

8.
Gut ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) prioritisation to mitigate the impact of delays in the colorectal cancer (CRC) urgent diagnostic (2-week-wait (2WW)) pathway consequent from the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: We modelled the reduction in CRC survival and life years lost resultant from per-patient delays of 2-6 months in the 2WW pathway. We stratified by age group, individual-level benefit in CRC survival versus age-specific nosocomial COVID-19-related fatality per referred patient undergoing colonoscopy. We modelled mitigation strategies using thresholds of FIT triage of 2, 10 and 150 µg Hb/g to prioritise 2WW referrals for colonoscopy. To construct the underlying models, we employed 10-year net CRC survival for England 2008-2017, 2WW pathway CRC case and referral volumes and per-day-delay HRs generated from observational studies of diagnosis-to-treatment interval. RESULTS: Delay of 2/4/6 months across all 11 266 patients with CRC diagnosed per typical year via the 2WW pathway were estimated to result in 653/1419/2250 attributable deaths and loss of 9214/20 315/32 799 life years. Risk-benefit from urgent investigatory referral is particularly sensitive to nosocomial COVID-19 rates for patients aged >60. Prioritisation out of delay for the 18% of symptomatic referrals with FIT >10 µg Hb/g would avoid 89% of these deaths attributable to presentational/diagnostic delay while reducing immediate requirement for colonoscopy by >80%. CONCLUSIONS: Delays in the pathway to CRC diagnosis and treatment have potential to cause significant mortality and loss of life years. FIT triage of symptomatic patients in primary care could streamline access to colonoscopy, reduce delays for true-positive CRC cases and reduce nosocomial COVID-19 mortality in older true-negative 2WW referrals. However, this strategy offers benefit only in short-term rationalisation of limited endoscopy services: the appreciable false-negative rate of FIT in symptomatic patients means most colonoscopies will still be required.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638365

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of common genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been identified. Our study aimed to determine whether risk prediction based on common genetic variants might enable stratification for CRC risk. Meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies comprising 16 871 cases and 26 328 controls was performed to capture CRC susceptibility variants. Genetic prediction models with several candidate polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were generated from Scottish CRC case-control studies (6478 cases and 11 043 controls) and the score with the best performance was then tested in UK Biobank (UKBB) (4800 cases and 20 287 controls). A weighted PRS of 116 CRC single nucleotide polymorphisms (wPRS116 ) was found with the best predictive performance, reporting a c-statistics of 0.60 and an odds ratio (OR) of 1.46 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.50, per SD increase) in Scottish data set. The predictive performance of this wPRS116 was consistently validated in UKBB data set with c-statistics of 0.61 and an OR of 1.49 (95% CI = 1.44-1.54, per SD increase). Modeling the levels of PRS with age and sex in the general UK population shows that employing genetic risk profiling can achieve a moderate degree of risk discrimination that could be helpful to identify a subpopulation with higher CRC risk due to genetic susceptibility.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2189, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366847

RESUMO

While most testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) exhibit exquisite sensitivity to platinum chemotherapy, ~10% are platinum resistant. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms, we undertake whole exome sequencing and copy number analysis in 40 tumours from 26 cases with platinum-resistant TGCT, and combine this with published genomic data on an additional 624 TGCTs. We integrate analyses for driver mutations, mutational burden, global, arm-level and focal copy number (CN) events, and SNV and CN signatures. Albeit preliminary and observational in nature, these analyses provide support for a possible mechanistic link between early driver mutations in RAS and KIT and the widespread copy number events by which TGCT is characterised.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genômica/métodos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Platina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Proteínas ras/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1606-1614, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of childhood cancers remain limited, highlighting the need for novel analytic strategies. We describe a hybrid GWAS and phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) approach to uncover genotype-phenotype relationships and candidate risk loci, applying it to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: PheWAS was performed for 12 ALL SNPs identified by prior GWAS and two control SNP-sets using UK Biobank data. PheWAS-traits significantly associated with ALL SNPs compared with control SNPs were assessed for association with ALL risk (959 cases, 2,624 controls) using polygenic score and Mendelian randomization analyses. Trait-associated SNPs were tested for association with ALL risk in single-SNP analyses, with replication in an independent case-control dataset (1,618 cases, 9,409 controls). RESULTS: Platelet count was the trait most enriched for association with known ALL risk loci. A polygenic score for platelet count (223 SNPs) was not associated with ALL risk (P = 0.82) and Mendelian randomization did not suggest a causal relationship. However, twelve platelet count-associated SNPs were nominally associated with ALL risk in COG data and three were replicated in UK data (rs10058074, rs210142, rs2836441). CONCLUSIONS: In our hybrid GWAS-PheWAS approach, we identify pleiotropic genetic variation contributing to ALL risk and platelet count. Three SNPs known to influence platelet count were reproducibly associated with ALL risk, implicating genomic regions containing IRF1, proapoptotic protein BAK1, and ERG in platelet production and leukemogenesis. IMPACT: Incorporating PheWAS data into association studies can leverage genetic pleiotropy to identify cancer risk loci, highlighting the utility of our novel approach.

13.
Blood Adv ; 4(10): 2172-2179, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433745

RESUMO

The etiology of multiple myeloma (MM) is poorly understood. Summary data from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of multiple phenotypes can be exploited in a Mendelian randomization (MR) phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to search for factors influencing MM risk. We performed an MR-PheWAS analyzing 249 phenotypes, proxied by 10 225 genetic variants, and summary genetic data from a GWAS of 7717 MM cases and 29 304 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) per 1 standard deviation increase in each phenotype were estimated under an inverse variance weighted random effects model. A Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P = 2 × 10-4 was considered significant, whereas P < .05 was considered suggestive of an association. Although no significant associations with MM risk were observed among the 249 phenotypes, 28 phenotypes showed evidence suggestive of association, including increased levels of serum vitamin B6 and blood carnitine (P = 1.1 × 10-3) with greater MM risk and ω-3 fatty acids (P = 5.4 × 10-4) with reduced MM risk. A suggestive association between increased telomere length and reduced MM risk was also noted; however, this association was primarily driven by the previously identified risk variant rs10936599 at 3q26 (TERC). Although not statistically significant, increased body mass index was associated with increased risk (OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.22), supporting findings from a previous meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Our study did not provide evidence supporting any modifiable factors examined as having a major influence on MM risk; however, it provides insight into factors for which the evidence has previously been mixed.

16.
Leukemia ; 34(3): 697-708, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913320

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common blood malignancy. Epidemiological family studies going back to the 1920s have provided evidence for familial aggregation, suggesting a subset of cases have an inherited genetic background. Recently, studies aimed at explaining this phenomenon have begun to provide direct evidence for genetic predisposition to MM. Genome-wide association studies have identified common risk alleles at 24 independent loci. Sequencing studies of familial cases and kindreds have begun to identify promising candidate genes where variants with strong effects on MM risk might reside. Finally, functional studies are starting to give insight into how identified risk alleles promote the development of MM. Here, we review recent findings in MM predisposition field, and highlight open questions and future directions.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Alelos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(2): 207-215, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiological basis of glioma is poorly understood. We have used genetic markers in a Mendelian randomization (MR) framework to examine if lifestyle, cardiometabolic, and inflammatory factors influence the risk of glioma. This methodology reduces bias from confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS: We identified genetic instruments for 37 potentially modifiable risk factors and evaluated their association with glioma risk using data from a genome-wide association study of 12 488 glioma patients and 18 169 controls. We used the estimated odds ratio of glioma associated with each of the genetically defined traits to infer evidence for a causal relationship with the following exposures:Lifestyle and dietary factors-height, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1, blood carnitine, blood methionine, blood selenium, blood zinc, circulating adiponectin, circulating carotenoids, iron status, serum calcium, vitamins (A1, B12, B6, E, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D), fatty acid levels (monounsaturated, omega-3, and omega-6) and circulating fetuin-A;Cardiometabolic factors-birth weight, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, basal metabolic rate, body fat percentage, body mass index, fasting glucose, fasting proinsulin, glycated hemoglobin levels, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio; andInflammatory factors- C-reactive protein, plasma interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha and serum immunoglobulin E. RESULTS: After correction for the testing of multiple potential risk factors and excluding associations driven by one single nucleotide polymorphism, no significant association with glioma risk was observed (ie, PCorrected > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide evidence supporting any of the 37 factors examined as having a significant influence on glioma risk.

18.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(1): 55-62, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked lifestyle, cardiometabolic, reproductive, developmental, and inflammatory factors to the risk of colorectal cancer. However, which specific factors affect risk and the strength of these effects are unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between potentially modifiable risk factors and colorectal cancer. METHODS: We used a random-effects model to examine the relationship between 39 potentially modifiable risk factors and colorectal cancer in 26 397 patients with colorectal cancer and 41 481 controls (ie, people without colorectal cancer). These population data came from a genome-wide association study of people of European ancestry, which was amended to exclude UK BioBank data. In the model, we used genetic variants as instruments via two-sample mendelian randomisation to limit bias from confounding and reverse causation. We calculated odds ratios per genetically predicted SD unit increase in each putative risk factor (ORSD) for colorectal cancer risk. We did mendelian randomisation Egger regressions to identify evidence of potential violations of mendelian randomisation assumptions. A Bonferroni-corrected threshold of p=1·3 × 10-3 was considered significant, and p values less than 0·05 were considered to be suggestive of an association. FINDINGS: No putative risk factors were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after correction for multiple testing. However, suggestive associations with increased risk were noted for genetically predicted body fat percentage (ORSD 1·14 [95% CI 1·03-1·25]; p=0·0086), body-mass index (1·09 [1·01-1·17]; p=0·023), waist circumference (1·13 [1·02-1·26]; p=0·018), basal metabolic rate (1·10 [1·03-1·18]; p=0·0079), and concentrations of LDL cholesterol (1·14 [1·04-1·25]; p=0·0056), total cholesterol (1·09 [1·01-1·18]; p=0·025), circulating serum iron (1·17 [1·00-1·36]; p=0·049), and serum vitamin B12 (1·21 [1·04-1·42]; p=0·016), although potential pleiotropy among genetic variants used as instruments for vitamin B12 constrains the finding. A suggestive association was also noted between adult height and increased risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD 1·04 [95% CI 1·00-1·08]; p=0·032). Low blood selenium concentration had a suggestive association with decreased risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD 0·85 [95% CI 0·75-0·96]; p=0·0078) based on a single variant, as did plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 receptor subunit α (also based on a single variant; 0·98 [0·96-1·00]; p=0·035). Risk of colorectal cancer was not associated with any sex hormone or reproductive factor, serum calcium, or circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. INTERPRETATION: This analysis identified several modifiable targets for primary prevention of colorectal cancer, including lifestyle, obesity, and cardiometabolic factors, that should inform public health policy. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, UK Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit Centre, DJ Fielding Medical Research Trust, EU COST Action, and the US National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 124: 56-63, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genome-wide association studies have identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 83 loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in European populations. Because germline variation can also influence patient outcome, we studied the relationship between these SNPs and CRC survivorship. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: For the 83 risk loci, 10 lead SNPs were directly genotyped, 72 were imputed and 1 was not genotyped nor imputed, in 1948 unrelated patients with advanced CRC from the clinical trials COIN and COIN-B (oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy ± cetuximab). A Cox survival model was used for each variant, and variants classified by pathway, adjusting for known prognostic factors. We imposed a Bonferroni threshold of P = 6.6 × 10-4 for multiple testing. We carried out meta-analyses of published risk SNPs associated with survival. RESULTS: Univariate analysis identified six SNPs associated with overall survival (OS) (P < 0.05); however, only rs9939049 in CDH1 remained significant beyond the Bonferroni threshold (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.44, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]: 1.21-1.71, P = 5.0 × 10-5). Fine mapping showed that rs12597188 was the most significant SNP at this locus and remained significant after adjustment for known prognostic factors beyond multiple testing thresholds (HR 1.23, 95% CI: 1.13-1.34, P = 1.9 × 10-6). rs12597188 was also associated with poor response to therapy (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.87, P = 6.6 × 10-3). No combinations of SNPs within pathways were more significantly associated with survival compared with single variants alone, and no other risk SNPs were associated with survival in meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The CRC susceptibility SNP rs9939049 in CDH1 influences patient survival and warrants further evaluation as a prognostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Caderinas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 739-748, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963577

RESUMO

Glioma incidence is highest in non-Hispanic Whites, and to date, glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to date have only included European ancestry (EA) populations. African Americans and Hispanics in the US have varying proportions of EA, African (AA) and Native American ancestries (NAA). It is unknown if identified GWAS loci or increased EA is associated with increased glioma risk. We assessed whether EA was associated with glioma in African Americans and Hispanics. Data were obtained for 832 cases and 675 controls from the Glioma International Case-Control Study and GliomaSE Case-Control Study previously estimated to have <80% EA, or self-identify as non-White. We estimated global and local ancestry using fastStructure and RFMix, respectively, using 1,000 genomes project reference populations. Within groups with ≥40% AA (AFR≥0.4 ), and ≥15% NAA (AMR≥0.15 ), genome-wide association between local EA and glioma was evaluated using logistic regression conditioned on global EA for all gliomas. We identified two regions (7q21.11, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ; 11p11.12, p = 7.0 × 10-4 ) associated with increased EA, and one associated with decreased EA (20p12.13, p = 0.0026) in AFR≥0.4 . In addition, we identified a peak at rs1620291 (p = 4.36 × 10-6 ) in 7q21.3. Among AMR≥0.15 , we found an association between increased EA in one region (12q24.21, p = 8.38 × 10-4 ), and decreased EA in two regions (8q24.21, p = 0. 0010; 20q13.33, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ). No other significant associations were identified. This analysis identified an association between glioma and two regions previously identified in EA populations (8q24.21, 20q13.33) and four novel regions (7q21.11, 11p11.12, 12q24.21 and 20p12.13). The identifications of novel association with EA suggest regions to target for future genetic association studies.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glioma/etiologia , Glioma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Risco
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