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Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5275, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071065


Lithium-rich disordered rocksalt cathodes display high capacities arising from redox chemistry on both transition-metal ions (TM-redox) and oxygen ions (O-redox), making them promising candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. However, the atomic-scale mechanisms governing O-redox behaviour in disordered structures are not fully understood. Here we show that, at high states of charge in the disordered rocksalt Li2MnO2F, transition metal migration is necessary for the formation of molecular O2 trapped in the bulk. Density functional theory calculations reveal that O2 is thermodynamically favoured over other oxidised O species, which is confirmed by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering data showing only O2 forms. When O-redox involves irreversible Mn migration, this mechanism results in a path-dependent voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge, commensurate with the hysteresis observed electrochemically. The implications are that irreversible transition metal migration should be suppressed to reduce the voltage hysteresis that afflicts O-redox disordered rocksalt cathodes.

Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2975, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016979


Layered Li-rich transition metal oxides undergo O-redox, involving the oxidation of the O2- ions charge compensated by extraction of Li+ ions. Recent results have shown that for 3d transition metal oxides the oxidized O2- forms molecular O2 trapped in the bulk particles. Other forms of oxidised O2- such as O22- or (O-O)n- with long bonds have been proposed, based especially on work on 4 and 5d transition metal oxides, where TM-O bonding is more covalent. Here, we show, using high resolution RIXS that molecular O2 is formed in the bulk particles on O2‒ oxidation in the archetypal Li-rich ruthenates and iridate compounds, Li2RuO3, Li2Ru0.5Sn0.5O3 and Li2Ir0.5Sn0.5O3. The results indicate that O-redox occurs across 3, 4, and 5d transition metal oxides, forming O2, i.e. the greater covalency of the 4d and 5d compounds still favours O2. RIXS and XAS data for Li2IrO3 are consistent with a charge compensation mechanism associated primarily with Ir redox up to and beyond the 5+ oxidation state, with no evidence of O-O dimerization.

J Am Chem Soc ; 142(52): 21799-21809, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321041


In the search for high energy density cathodes for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, the disordered rocksalt oxyfluorides are receiving significant attention due to their high capacity and lower voltage hysteresis compared with ordered Li-rich layered compounds. However, a deep understanding of these phenomena and their redox chemistry remains incomplete. Using the archetypal oxyfluoride, Li2MnO2F, we show that the oxygen redox process in such materials involves the formation of molecular O2 trapped in the bulk structure of the charged cathode, which is reduced on discharge. The molecular O2 is trapped rigidly within vacancy clusters and exhibits minimal mobility unlike free gaseous O2, making it more characteristic of a solid-like environment. The Mn redox process occurs between octahedral Mn3+ and Mn4+ with no evidence of tetrahedral Mn5+ or Mn7+. We furthermore derive the relationship between local coordination environment and redox potential; this gives rise to the observed overlap in Mn and O redox couples and reveals that the onset potential of oxide ion oxidation is determined by the degree of ionicity around oxygen, which extends models based on linear Li-O-Li configurations. This study advances our fundamental understanding of redox mechanisms in disordered rocksalt oxyfluorides, highlighting their promise as high capacity cathodes.

Nature ; 577(7791): 502-508, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816625


In conventional intercalation cathodes, alkali metal ions can move in and out of a layered material with the charge being compensated for by reversible reduction and oxidation of the transition metal ions. If the cathode material used in a lithium-ion or sodium-ion battery is alkali-rich, this can increase the battery's energy density by storing charge on the oxide and the transition metal ions, rather than on the transition metal alone1-10. There is a high voltage associated with oxidation of O2- during the first charge, but this is not recovered on discharge, resulting in reduced energy density11. Displacement of transition metal ions into the alkali metal layers has been proposed to explain the first-cycle voltage loss (hysteresis)9,12-16. By comparing two closely related intercalation cathodes, Na0.75[Li0.25Mn0.75]O2 and Na0.6[Li0.2Mn0.8]O2, here we show that the first-cycle voltage hysteresis is determined by the superstructure in the cathode, specifically the local ordering of lithium and transition metal ions in the transition metal layers. The honeycomb superstructure of Na0.75[Li0.25Mn0.75]O2, present in almost all oxygen-redox compounds, is lost on charging, driven in part by formation of molecular O2 inside the solid. The O2 molecules are cleaved on discharge, reforming O2-, but the manganese ions have migrated within the plane, changing the coordination around O2- and lowering the voltage on discharge. The ribbon superstructure in Na0.6[Li0.2Mn0.8]O2 inhibits manganese disorder and hence O2 formation, suppressing hysteresis and promoting stable electron holes on O2- that are revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that voltage hysteresis can be avoided in oxygen-redox cathodes by forming materials with a ribbon superstructure in the transition metal layers that suppresses migration of the transition metal.

Nat Chem ; 10(3): 288-295, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461536


The search for improved energy-storage materials has revealed Li- and Na-rich intercalation compounds as promising high-capacity cathodes. They exhibit capacities in excess of what would be expected from alkali-ion removal/reinsertion and charge compensation by transition-metal (TM) ions. The additional capacity is provided through charge compensation by oxygen redox chemistry and some oxygen loss. It has been reported previously that oxygen redox occurs in O 2p orbitals that interact with alkali ions in the TM and alkali-ion layers (that is, oxygen redox occurs in compounds containing Li+-O(2p)-Li+ interactions). Na2/3[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2 exhibits an excess capacity and here we show that this is caused by oxygen redox, even though Mg2+ resides in the TM layers rather than alkali-metal (AM) ions, which demonstrates that excess AM ions are not required to activate oxygen redox. We also show that, unlike the alkali-rich compounds, Na2/3[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2 does not lose oxygen. The extraction of alkali ions from the alkali and TM layers in the alkali-rich compounds results in severely underbonded oxygen, which promotes oxygen loss, whereas Mg2+ remains in Na2/3[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2, which stabilizes oxygen.