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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414500

RESUMO

Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse foetal, neonatal, and child outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Altered foetal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a potential underlying mechanism. In the current study, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the associations between maternal anxiety, measured prospectively during pregnancy, and genome-wide DNAm from umbilical cord blood. Sixteen non-overlapping cohorts from 12 independent longitudinal studies of the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium participated, resulting in a combined dataset of 7243 mother-child dyads. We examined prenatal anxiety in relation to genome-wide DNAm and differentially methylated regions. We observed no association between the general symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or pregnancy-related anxiety, and DNAm at any of the CpG sites, after multiple-testing correction. Furthermore, we identify no differentially methylated regions associated with maternal anxiety. At the cohort-level, of the 21 associations observed in individual cohorts, none replicated consistently in the other cohorts. In conclusion, contrary to some previous studies proposing cord blood DNAm as a promising potential mechanism explaining the link between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in offspring, we found no consistent evidence for any robust associations between maternal anxiety and DNAm in cord blood. Larger studies and analysis of DNAm in other tissues may be needed to establish subtle or subgroup-specific associations between maternal anxiety and the foetal epigenome.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(1): 119-134, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450751

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is known to play a pivotal role in childhood health and development, but a comprehensive characterization of genome-wide DNAm trajectories across this age period is currently lacking. We have therefore performed a series of epigenome-wide association studies in 5019 blood samples collected at multiple time-points from birth to late adolescence from 2348 participants of two large independent cohorts. DNAm profiles of autosomal CpG sites (CpGs) were generated using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Change over time was widespread, observed at over one-half (53%) of CpGs. In most cases, DNAm was decreasing (36% of CpGs). Inter-individual variation in linear trajectories was similarly widespread (27% of CpGs). Evidence for non-linear change and inter-individual variation in non-linear trajectories was somewhat less common (11 and 8% of CpGs, respectively). Very little inter-individual variation in change was explained by sex differences (0.4% of CpGs) even though sex-specific DNAm was observed at 5% of CpGs. DNAm trajectories were distributed non-randomly across the genome. For example, CpGs with decreasing DNAm were enriched in gene bodies and enhancers and were annotated to genes enriched in immune-developmental functions. In contrast, CpGs with increasing DNAm were enriched in promoter regions and annotated to genes enriched in neurodevelopmental functions. These findings depict a methylome undergoing widespread and often non-linear change throughout childhood. They support a developmental role for DNA methylation that extends beyond birth into late adolescence and has implications for understanding life-long health and disease. DNAm trajectories can be visualized at http://epidelta.mrcieu.ac.uk.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 55, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms may partly explain the persistent effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on health outcomes in later life. DNA methylation can predict chronological age, and advanced methylation-predicted age beyond chronological age (DNA methylation age acceleration) is associated with ACEs, adverse mental and physical health, and elevated diurnal and baseline salivary cortisol. Childhood adversity is also associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which produces the neuroendocrine hormone cortisol. It remains unknown whether these associations are specific to certain types of adversity. Herein, we investigate the associations of ACEs with DNA methylation age acceleration and plasma cortisol in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. METHODS: In this study of the children in ALSPAC, we used multiple linear regression to examine associations of cumulative exposure to ACE, as well as exposure to ten individual types of ACEs, with Horvath-estimated DNA methylation age acceleration and with baseline plasma cortisol. The ten ACEs were those included in the World Health Organization's ACE International Questionnaire. Data on ACEs were prospectively collected from age 0-14 years. DNA methylation age acceleration and plasma cortisol were measured at mean 17.1 years and 15.5 years, respectively. RESULTS: We included 974 UK children in the present study. Exposure to four or more ACEs compared to zero was associated with DNA methylation age acceleration in girls (ß, 95% CI = 1.65, 0.25 to 3.04 years) but not in boys (ß, 95% CI = - 0.11, - 1.48 to 1.26 years). Also, in girls, emotional abuse and physical abuse were each associated with DNA methylation age acceleration (ß, 95% CI = 1.20, 0.15 to 2.26 years and ß, 95% CI = 1.22, 0.06 to 2.38 years, respectively). No other ACEs were associated with accelerated DNA methylation age in either sex. Associations were also null between ACE and cortisol, and cortisol and DNA methylation age acceleration. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective population-based study of UK children, cumulative ACE exposure, emotional abuse, and physical abuse between age 0 and 14 years were each associated with Horvath-estimated DNA methylation age acceleration at age 17 years in girls but not in boys.

4.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003031, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experiencing multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a risk factor for many adverse outcomes. We explore associations of ACEs with educational attainment and adolescent health and the role of family and socioeconomic factors in these associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective cohort of children born in southwest England in 1991-1992, we assess associations of ACEs between birth and 16 years (sexual, physical, or emotional abuse; emotional neglect; parental substance abuse; parental mental illness or suicide attempt; violence between parents; parental separation; bullying; and parental criminal conviction, with data collected on multiple occasions between birth and age 16) with educational attainment at 16 years (n = 9,959) and health at age 17 years (depression, obesity, harmful alcohol use, smoking, and illicit drug use; n = 4,917). We explore the extent to which associations are robust to adjustment for family and socioeconomic factors (home ownership, mother and partner's highest educational qualification, household social class, parity, child's ethnicity, mother's age, mother's marital status, mother's depression score at 18 and 32 weeks gestation, and mother's partner's depression score at 18 weeks gestation) and whether associations differ according to socioeconomic factors, and we estimate the proportion of adverse educational and health outcomes attributable to ACEs or family or socioeconomic measures. Among the 9,959 participants (49.5% female) included in analysis of educational outcomes, 84% reported at least one ACE, 24% reported 4 or more ACEs, and 54.5% received 5 or more General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs) at grade C or above, including English and Maths. Among the 4,917 participants (50.1% female) included in analysis of health outcomes, 7.3% were obese, 8.7% had depression, 19.5% reported smoking, 16.1% reported drug use, and 10.9% reported harmful alcohol use. There were associations of ACEs with lower educational attainment and higher risk of depression, drug use, and smoking. For example, odds ratios (ORs) for 4+ ACEs compared with no ACEs after adjustment for confounders were depression, 2.4 (1.6-3.8, p < 0.001); drug use, 3.1 (2.1-4.4, p < 0.001); and smoking, 2.3 (1.7-3.1, p < 0.001). Associations with educational attainment attenuated after adjustment but remained strong; for example, the OR after adjustment for confounders for low educational attainment comparing 4+ ACEs with no ACEs was 2.0 (1.7-2.4, p < 0.001). Associations with depression, drug use, and smoking were not altered by adjustment. Associations of ACEs with harmful alcohol use and obesity were weak. For example, ORs for 4+ ACEs compared with no ACEs after adjustment for confounders were harmful alcohol use, 1.4 (0.9-2.0, p = 0.10) and obesity, 1.4 (0.9-2.2, p = 0.13) We found no evidence that socioeconomic factors modified the associations of ACEs with educational or health outcomes. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the adverse educational and health outcomes range from 5%-15% for 4+ ACEs and 1%-19% for low maternal education. Using data from multiple questionnaires across a long period of time enabled us to capture a detailed picture of the cohort members' experience of ACEs; however, a limitation of our study is that this resulted in a high proportion of missing data, and our analyses assume data are missing at random. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates associations between ACEs and lower educational attainment and higher risks of depression, drug use, and smoking that remain after adjustment for family and socioeconomic factors. The low PAFs for both ACEs and socioeconomic factors imply that interventions that focus solely on ACEs or solely on socioeconomic deprivation, whilst beneficial, would miss most cases of adverse educational and health outcomes. This interpretation suggests that intervention strategies should target a wide range of relevant factors, including ACEs, socioeconomic deprivation, parental substance use, and mental health.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Escolaridade , Relações Familiares , Nível de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Epigenetics ; 15(6-7): 750-764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992121

RESUMO

Bullying among children is ubiquitous and associated with pervasive mental health problems. However, little is known about the biological pathways that change after exposure to bullying. Epigenome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood were studied from pre- to post measurement of bullying exposure, in a longitudinal study of the population-based Generation R Study and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (combined n = 1,352). Linear mixed-model results were meta-analysed to estimate how DNA methylation changed as a function of exposure to bullying. Sensitivity analyses including co-occurring child characteristics and risks were performed, as well as a Gene Ontology analysis. A candidate follow-up was employed for CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites annotated to 5-HTT and NR3C1. One site, cg17312179, showed small changes in DNA methylation associated to bullying exposure (b = -2.67e-03, SE = 4.97e-04, p = 7.17e-08). This site is annotated to RAB14, an oncogene related to Golgi apparatus functioning, and its methylation levels decreased for exposed but increased for non-exposed. This result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. Enriched Gene Ontology pathways for differentially methylated sites included cardiac function and neurodevelopmental processes. Top CpG sites tended to have overall low levels of DNA methylation, decreasing in exposed, increasing in non-exposed individuals. There were no gene-wide corrected findings for 5-HTT and NR3C1. This is the first study to identify changes in DNA methylation associated with bullying exposure at the epigenome-wide significance level. Consistent with other population-based studies, we do not find evidence for strong associations between bullying exposure and DNA methylation.

6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 80, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has recently been identified as a mediator between in utero famine exposure and a range of metabolic and psychiatric traits. However, genome-wide analyses are scarce and cross-sectional analyses are hampered by many potential confounding factors. Moreover, causal relations are hard to identify due to the lack of controlled experimental designs. In the current study, we therefore combined a comprehensive assessment of genome-wide DNA methylation differences in people exposed to the great Chinese famine in utero with an in vitro study in which we deprived fibroblasts of nutrition. METHODS: We compared whole blood DNA methylation differences between 25 individuals in utero exposed to famine and 54 healthy control individuals using the HumanMethylation450 platform. In vitro, we analyzed DNA methylation changes in 10 fibroblast cultures that were nutritionally deprived for 72 h by withholding fetal bovine serum. RESULTS: We identified three differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in four genes (ENO2, ZNF226, CCDC51, and TMA7) that were related to famine exposure in both analyses. Pathway analysis with data from both Chinese famine samples and fibroblasts highlighted the nervous system and neurogenesis pathways as the most affected by nutritional deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of cross-sectional and experimental data provides indications that biological adaptation to famine leads to DNA methylation changes in genes involved in the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fibroblastos/citologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Desnutrição/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , China , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Fome Epidêmica , Feminino , Fibroblastos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez
7.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 106, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569020

RESUMO

Background: Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a risk factor for poor later life health. Here, we describe the ACE variables measured in the children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study, and a method used to derive summary measures and deal with missing data in them.    Methods: The ALSPAC data catalogue (59 608 variables) was searched in September 2017 for measures on adversity exposure between birth and 18 years. 6140 adversity questions were then screened for conforming to our ACE definitions and suitability for dichotomisation. This screening identified 541 questions on ten 'classic' ACEs (sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional neglect, substance abuse by the parents, parental mental illness or suicide attempt, violence between parents, parental separation, bullying and parental criminal conviction) and nine additional ACEs (bond between parent and child, satisfaction with neighbourhood, social support for the parent, social support for the child, physical illness of a parent, physical illness of the child, financial difficulties, low social class and violence between child and partner). These were used to derive a binary construct for exposure to each ACE. Finally, as cumulative measures of childhood adversity, different combinations of the 19 ACE constructs were summed to give total adversity scores. An appropriate strategy for multiple imputation was developed to deal with the complex patterns of missing data. Results: The ACE constructs and ACE-scores for exposure between birth and 16 years had prevalence estimates that were comparable to previous reports (for instance 4% sexual abuse, 18% physical abuse, 25% bullied, 32% parental separation). Conclusions: ACE constructs, derived using a pragmatic approach to handle the high dimensional ALSPAC data, can be used in future analyses on childhood adversity in ALSPAC children.

8.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(3): 1145-1156, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068408

RESUMO

In 785 mother-child (50% male) pairs from a longitudinal epidemiological birth cohort, we investigated associations between inflammation-related epigenetic polygenic risk scores (i-ePGS), environmental exposures, cognitive function, and child and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. We examined prenatal and postnatal effects. For externalizing problems, one prenatal effect was found: i-ePGS at birth associated with higher externalizing problems (ages 7-15) indirectly through lower cognitive function (age 7). For internalizing problems, we identified two effects. For a prenatal effect, i-ePGS at birth associated with higher internalizing symptoms via continuity in i-ePGS at age 7. For a postnatal effect, higher postnatal adversity exposure (birth through age 7) associated with higher internalizing problems (ages 7-15) via higher i-ePGS (age 7). Hence, externalizing problems were related mainly to prenatal effects involving lower cognitive function, whereas internalizing problems appeared related to both prenatal and postnatal effects. The present study supports a link between i-ePGS and child and adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Inflamação/complicações , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 97: 182-189, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036796

RESUMO

Childhood trauma has been proposed to increase vulnerability to develop psychopathology in part through an altered cortisol stress response. Research in rats has suggested that this effect is mediated by methylation in the glucocorticoid receptor 17 region (GR-17 or GR-1F in humans), with higher methylation after poor maternal care leading to an increased cortisol stress response in adulthood. In humans, the associations between childhood trauma and GR-1F methylation or the cortisol stress response are equivocal. Remarkably, evidence for the relation between GR-1F methylation and the cortisol stress response has been conflicting as well. To further explore this, we investigated the associations of peripheral GR-1F methylation (52 CpGs) with the cortisol stress response (Trier Social Stress Test) and with childhood trauma in three independent studies (total N = 241) including healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and unaffected siblings of patients with one of these disorders. We did not find any significant association between GR-1F methylation and the cortisol stress response (areas under the curve) or childhood trauma, nor did we observe any group differences between patients, siblings and healthy controls. Our findings do not support GR-1F methylation as a proxy for the cortisol stress response, nor its link with childhood trauma or psychopathology. These results suggest that multifactorial models for stress-related psychopathology are needed. Alternatively, future longitudinal studies may reveal GR-1F methylation to be a useful parameter at an individual level.


Assuntos
Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Saliva/química , Esquizofrenia/genética
10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10: 86, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983833

RESUMO

Background: Gestational age at delivery is associated with health and social outcomes. Recently, cord blood DNA methylation data has been used to predict gestational age. The discrepancy between gestational age predicted from DNA methylation and determined by ultrasound or last menstrual period is known as gestational age acceleration. This study investigated associations of sex, socioeconomic status, parental behaviours and characteristics and birth outcomes with gestational age acceleration. Results: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 863), we found that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight and obesity were associated with greater gestational age acceleration (mean difference = 1.6 days, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.6, and 2.9 days, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.4, respectively, compared with a body mass index < 25 kg/m2, p < .001). There was evidence of an association between male sex and greater gestational age acceleration. Greater gestational age acceleration was associated with higher birthweight, birth length and head circumference of the child (mean differences per week higher gestational age acceleration: birthweight 0.1 kg, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.2, p < .001; birth length 0.4 cm, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7, p < .001; head circumference 0.2 cm, 95% CI 0.1 to - 0.4, p < .001). There was evidence of an association between gestational age acceleration and mode of delivery (assisted versus unassisted delivery, odds ratio = 0.9 per week higher gestational age acceleration, 95% CI 0.7, 1.3 (p = .05); caesarean section versus unassisted delivery, odds ratio = 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9 per week higher gestational age acceleration (p = .05)). There was no evidence of association for other parental and perinatal characteristics. Conclusions: The associations of higher maternal body mass index and larger birth size with greater gestational age acceleration may imply that maternal overweight and obesity is associated with more rapid development of the fetus in utero. The implications of gestational age acceleration for postnatal health warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Idade Gestacional , Adulto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Classe Social
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 743, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723428

RESUMO

Background: Childhood adversity increases the risk of a range of mental disorders including bipolar disorder, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Previous studies identified DNA methylation levels at the cg27512205 locus on the KIT Ligand (KITLG) gene as a mediator between childhood adversity and stress responsivity. This raises the question whether this locus also plays a role in stress related disorders such as bipolar disorder. Therefore, the current study aims to compare the level of KITLG (cg27512205) methylation between bipolar patients and healthy individuals and its relation to childhood adversity. Methods: KITLG (cg27512205) methylation was measured in 50 bipolar disorder patients and 91 healthy control participants using the HumanMethylation450K BeadChip platform. Childhood adversity in each individual was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Analyses of the association of KITLG methylation with bipolar disorder, the association of childhood adversity with bipolar disorder as well as the association of KITLG methylation with childhood adversity in bipolar patients and controls were conducted using linear regression with age, gender, childhood adversity, smoking, and cell-type composition estimates as covariates. Results: KITLG (cg27512205) methylation level was significantly lower in bipolar disorder patients (ß = -0.351, t = -6.316 p < 0.001). Childhood adversity levels were significantly higher in the bipolar disorder group (ß = 4.903, t = 2.99, p = 0.003). In the bipolar disorder patients KITLG methylation was not associated with childhood adversity (ß = 0.004, t = 1.039, p = 0.304) in contrast to the healthy controls (ß = 0.012, t = 3.15, p = 0.002). Conclusions: KITLG methylation was lower in bipolar disorder despite high levels of childhood adversity, whereas childhood adversity was associated with higher KITLG methylation in healthy controls. In addition to lower methylation at this locus there is an indication that failure to adjust KITLG methylation to high levels of childhood adversity is a risk factor for bipolar disorder.

12.
NMR Biomed ; 30(11)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915314

RESUMO

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) can be used to quantify in vivo metabolite levels, such as lactate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu). However, there are considerable analysis choices which can alter the accuracy or precision of 1 H-MRS metabolite quantification. It is currently unknown to what extent variations in the analysis pipeline used to quantify 1 H-MRS data affect outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the quantification of identical 1 H-MRS scans across independent and experienced research groups would yield comparable results. We investigated the influence of model parameters and spectral quantification software on fitted metabolite concentration values. Sixty spectra in 30 individuals (repeated measures) were acquired using a 7-T MRI scanner. Data were processed by four independent research groups with the freedom to choose their own individualized and optimal parameter settings using LCModel software. Data were processed a second time in one group using an independent software package (NMRWizard) for an additional comparison with a different post-processing platform. Correlations across research groups of the ratio between the highest and, arguably, the most relevant resonances for neurotransmission [N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) and Glu] over the total creatine [creatine (Cr) + phosphocreatine (PCr)] concentration, using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (r), were calculated. Mean inter-group correlations using LCModel software were 0.87, 0.88 and 0.77 for NAA/Cr + PCr, NAA + NAAG/Cr + PCr and Glu/Cr + PCr, respectively. The mean correlations when comparing NMRWizard results with LCModel fitting results at University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) were 0.87, 0.89 and 0.71 for NAA/Cr + PCr, NAA + NAAG/Cr + PCr and Glu/Cr + PCr, respectively. Metabolite quantification using identical 1 H-MRS data was influenced by processing parameters, basis sets and software choice. Locally preferred processing choices affected metabolite quantification, even when using identical software. Our results reinforce the notion that standard practices should be established to regularize outcomes of 1 H-MRS studies, and that basis sets used for processing should be made available to the scientific community.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Aspártico/análise , Creatina/análise , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Humanos , Fosfocreatina/análise
13.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10967, 2016 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26997371

RESUMO

DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10(-6)). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Genoma Humano , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Ferimentos e Lesões/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Epigênese Genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Fator de Células-Tronco/genética , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epigenomics ; 8(2): 197-208, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26792232

RESUMO

AIM: In view of the potential effects of psychiatric drugs on DNA methylation, we investigated whether medication use in bipolar disorder is associated with DNA methylation signatures. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: Blood-based DNA methylation patterns of six frequently used psychotropic drugs (lithium, quetiapine, olanzapine, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and valproic acid) were examined in 172 bipolar disorder patients. After adjustment for cell type composition, we investigated gene networks, principal components, hypothesis-driven genes and epigenome-wide individual loci. RESULTS: Valproic acid and quetiapine were significantly associated with altered methylation signatures after adjustment for drug-related changes on celltype composition. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric drugs influence DNA methylation patterns over and above cell type composition in bipolar disorder. Drug-related changes in DNA methylation are therefore not only an important confounder in psychiatric epigenetics but may also inform on the biological mechanisms underlying drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
15.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 41(5): 1350-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26361058

RESUMO

Genomic variation in the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising suicide biomarker. In light of its role in glucocorticoid receptor transactivation, we investigated whether SKA2 DNA methylation influences cortisol stress reactivity and is involved in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased SKA2 methylation was significantly associated with lower cortisol stress reactivity in 85 healthy individuals exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (B=-173.40, t=-2.324, p-value=0.023). Next, we observed that longitudinal decreases in SKA2 methylation after deployment were associated with the emergence of post-deployment PTSD symptoms in a Dutch military cohort (N=93; B=-0.054, t=-3.706, p-value=3.66 × 10(-4)). In contrast, exposure to traumatic stress during deployment by itself resulted in longitudinal increases in SKA2 methylation (B=0.037, t=4.173, p-value=6.98 × 10(-5)). Using pre-deployment SKA2 methylation levels and childhood trauma exposure, we found that the previously published suicide prediction rule significantly predicted post-deployment PTSD symptoms (AUC=0.66, 95% CI: 0.53-0.79) with an optimal sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.91. Permutation analysis using random methylation loci supported these findings. Together, these data establish the importance of SKA2 for cortisol stress responsivity and the development of PTSD and provide further evidence that SKA2 is a promising biomarker for stress-related disorders including PTSD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Metilação de DNA , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 38(9): 1467-75, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23375639

RESUMO

Decisions are rarely made in social isolation. One phenomenon often observed in social interactions is altruistic punishment, i.e. the punishment of unfair behavior by others at a personal cost. The tendency for altruistic punishment is altered by affective states including those induced by stress exposure. Stress is thought to exert bi-directional effects on behavior: immediately after stress, reflex-like and habitual behavior is promoted while later on more far-sighted, flexible and goal-directed behavior is enhanced. We hypothesized that such time-dependent effects of stress would also be present in the context of altruistic punishment behavior. Healthy male participants (N=80) were exposed to either a grouped stress test or a control condition. Participants were tested in prosocial decision making tasks either directly after stress or 75 min later. Altruistic punishment was assessed using the Ultimatum Game. General altruism was assessed with a one-shot version of the Dictator Game in which an anonymous donation could be offered to a charitable organization. We found that stress caused a bi-directional effect on altruistic punishment, with decreased rejection rates in the late aftermath of stress in response to ambiguous 30% offers. In the Dictator Game, stressed participants were less generous than controls, but no time-dependent effect was observed, indicating that the general reward sensitivity remained unchanged at various time-points after stress. Overall, during the late aftermath after acute stress exposure (i.e. 75 min later), participants acted more consistent with their own material self-interest, and had a lower propensity for altruistic punishment, possibly through upregulation of cognitive self-control mechanisms. Thus, our findings underscore the importance of time as a factor in simple, real-life economic decisions in a stressful social context.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Jogos Experimentais , Punição/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Matemática , Ansiedade de Desempenho/fisiopatologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Recompensa , Saliva/química , alfa-Amilases Salivares/análise , Comportamento Social , Fala/fisiologia , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
17.
Physiol Behav ; 102(1): 105-9, 2011 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20828578

RESUMO

While anxiety models are often based on locomotor activity responses, the stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) paradigm uses the autonomic stress response by measuring body temperature. The effects of putative anxiogenic compounds in the SIH paradigm are inconclusive in mice and have not been examined in rats. Furthermore, it has been suggested that drug-induced effects on body temperature could be dependent on locomotor activity levels. Therefore, the effects of three anxiogenic substances, yohimbine (an α(2) receptor antagonist), mCPP (a 5HT(2C) receptor agonist) and FG-7142 (a GABA(A) receptor inverse agonist acting at the benzodiazepine site) on the stress-induced body temperature and locomotor activity response were studied in rats using novel cage stress. All anxiogenic compounds resulted in hypothermia. In contrast, FG-7142 and yohimbine increased locomotor activity levels, whereas mCPP reduced locomotor activity levels. The lack of an increased body temperature response of anxiogenic compounds indicates that the anxiogenic capacity of a drug does not necessarily yield increased autonomic stress responsivity. Moreover, the present study shows that a drug-induced decreased body temperature can be accompanied by increased locomotor activity, suggesting that both parameters represent independent parameters of the stress response.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Ioimbina/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Telemetria/métodos
18.
Physiol Behav ; 99(3): 395-401, 2010 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20006965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The amygdala is involved in the coordination of stress but is also an important gatekeeper involved in the regulation of vigilance. The amygdala is structurally complex, consisting of several nuclei with specific functions in the affective response to environmental stimuli. There are indications that the medial amygdaloid nucleus may be a pivotal player in acute responses to emotional environmental stimuli. METHODS: The present study therefore aimed to study the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the medial amygdala on unconditioned anxiety-related behavior as well as a sensorimotor gating parameter (prepulse inhibition, PPI) in rats. Anxiety-related behavior was assessed with the use of stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), light-enhanced startle (LES) and open field behavior. RESULTS: Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the medial amygdala decreased the SIH response and anxiety-related open field behavior. In contrast, lesioned animals displayed augmented LES and disrupted PPI. No changes in basal locomotor activity, body temperature and acoustic startle were found between lesioned and sham animals. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that the medial amygdala is an important player in response to acute environmental stimuli. Decreased unconditioned psychological stress responses were found, whereas LES was enhanced and sensorimotor processing was disrupted. However, considering the existing data on basolateral amygdala involvement in PPI and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis involvement in LES, local infusion studies into the MeA should be performed to further substantiate these findings.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Filtro Sensorial/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia
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