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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neuroimmune guidance cues have been shown to play a role in atherosclerosis, but their exact role in human pathophysiology is largely unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of a c.1769G > T variant in Netrin-1 in (premature) atherosclerosis. METHODS: To determine the effect of the genetic variation, purified Netrin-1, either wild type (wtNetrin-1) or the patient observed variation (mutNetrin-1), was used for migration, adhesion, endothelial barrier function and bindings assays. Expression of adhesion molecules and transcription proteins was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot or ELISA. To further delineate how mutNetrin-1 mediates its effect on cell migration, lenti-viral knockdown of UNC5B or DCC was used. RESULTS: Bindings assays revealed a decreased binding capacity of mutNetrin-1 to the receptors UNC5B, DCC and ß3-integrin and an increased binding capacity to neogenin, heparin and heparan sulfate compared to wtNetrin-1. Exposure of endothelial cells to mutNetrin-1 resulted in enhanced monocyte adhesion and expression of IL-6, CCL2 and ICAM-1 compared to wtNetrin-1. In addition, mutNetrin-1 lacks the inhibitory effect on the NF-κB pathway that is observed for wtNetrin-1. Moreover, the presence of mutNetrin-1 diminished migration of macrophages and smooth muscle cells. Importantly, UNC5B or DCC specific knockdown showed that mutNetrin-1 is unable to act through DCC resulting in enhanced inhibition of migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrates that mutNetrin-1 fails to exert anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells and more strongly blocks macrophage migration compared to wtNetrin-1, suggesting that the carriers of this genetic molecular variant may well be at risk for premature atherosclerosis.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 565-574, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor therapy is a treatment option for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) who are unable to reach low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide long-term safety and efficacy data for evolocumab in patients with homozygous FH (HoFH) and severe heterozygous FH (HeFH). METHODS: In this open-label, single-arm study, patients with HoFH or severe HeFH ≥12 years of age and on stable lipid-lowering therapy began subcutaneous evolocumab 420 mg monthly or 420 mg every 2 weeks if on lipoprotein apheresis. After 12 weeks, those not on apheresis could be up-titrated to 420 mg every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events; secondary endpoints were changes in LDL-C and other lipids. RESULTS: In total, 300 patients (106 with HoFH, including 14 <18 years of age at enrollment) received evolocumab for a median of 4.1 years. Adverse events occurred in 89.3% of patients, the most common of which were nasopharyngitis, influenza, upper respiratory tract infection, and headache. Mean change in LDL-C from baseline to week 12 was -21.2% (-59.8 mg/dl) in patients with HoFH and -54.9% (-104.4 mg/dl) in those with severe HeFH and was sustained over time. Of 48 patients with HoFH who were up-titrated, mean change in LDL-C improved from -19.6% at week 12 to -29.7% after 12 weeks of 420 mg every 2 weeks. The adjudicated cardiovascular event rate was 2.7% per year. Of 61 patients receiving apheresis at enrollment, 16 discontinued apheresis. CONCLUSIONS: Evolocumab was well tolerated and effectively reduced plasma LDL-C levels in patients with HoFH and severe HeFH over a median of 4.1 years.

3.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common inherited disease characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plasma levels and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Most patients carry a mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR). Common and rare variants in the genes encoding adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters G5 and G8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8) have been shown to affect LDL-C levels. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and to which extent heterozygous variants in ABCG5 and ABCG8 are associated with the hypercholesterolemic phenotype. METHODS: We sequenced ABCG5 and ABCG8 in a cohort of 3031 clinical FH patients and compared the prevalence of variants with a European reference population (gnomAD). Clinical characteristics of carriers of putative pathogenic variants in ABCG5 and/or ABCG8 were compared with heterozygous carriers of mutations in LDLR. Furthermore, we assessed the segregation of one ABCG5 and two ABCG8 variants with plasma lipid and sterol levels in three kindreds. RESULTS: The frequencies of (likely) pathogenic LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, ABCG5, and ABCG8 variants in our FH cohort were 11.42%, 2.84%, 0.69%, 1.48%, and 0.96%, respectively. We identified 191 ABCG5 and ABCG8 variants of which 53 were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Of these 53 variants, 51 were either absent from a reference population or more prevalent in our FH cohort than in the reference population. LDL-C levels were significantly lower in heterozygous carriers of a (likely) pathogenic ABCG5 or ABCG8 variant compared to LDLR mutation carriers (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 7.2 ± 1.7 mmol/L, P < .001). The combination of both an ABCG5 or ABCG8 variant and a LDLR variant was found not to be associated with significant higher LDL-C levels (7.8 ± 2.3 vs 7.2 ± 1.7 mmol/L, P = .259). Segregation analysis in three families (nine carriers, in addition to the index cases, and 16 noncarriers) did not show complete segregation of the ABCG5/G8 variants with high LDL-C levels, and LDL-C levels were not different (3.9 ± 1.3 vs 3.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L in carriers and noncarriers, respectively, P = .295), while plasma plant sterol levels were higher in carriers compared to noncarriers (cholestanol: 10.2 ± 1.7 vs 8.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L, P = .007; campesterol: 22.5 ± 10.1 vs 13.4 ± 3.5 µmol/L, P = .008; sitosterol: 17.0 ± 11.6 vs 8.2 ± 2.6 µmol/L, P = .024). CONCLUSIONS: 2.4% of subjects in our FH cohort carried putative pathogenic ABCG5 and ABCG8 variants but had lower LDL-C levels compared to FH patients who were heterozygous carriers of an LDLR variant. These results suggest a role for these genes in hypercholesterolemia in FH patients with less severely elevated LDL-C levels. We did not find evidence that these variants cause autosomal dominant FH.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895433

RESUMO

Importance: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an underdiagnosed and undertreated genetic disorder that leads to premature morbidity and mortality due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Familial hypercholesterolemia affects 1 in 200 to 250 people around the world of every race and ethnicity. The lack of general awareness of FH among the public and medical community has resulted in only 10% of the FH population being diagnosed and adequately treated. The World Health Organization recognized FH as a public health priority in 1998 during a consultation meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. The World Health Organization report highlighted 11 recommendations to address FH worldwide, from diagnosis and treatment to family screening and education. Research since the 1998 report has increased understanding and awareness of FH, particularly in specialty areas, such as cardiology and lipidology. However, in the past 20 years, there has been little progress in implementing the 11 recommendations to prevent premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in an entire generation of families with FH. Observations: In 2018, the Familial Hypercholesterolemia Foundation and the World Heart Federation convened the international FH community to update the 11 recommendations. Two meetings were held: one at the 2018 FH Foundation Global Summit and the other during the 2018 World Congress of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Health. Each meeting served as a platform for the FH community to examine the original recommendations, assess the gaps, and provide commentary on the revised recommendations. The Global Call to Action on Familial Hypercholesterolemia thus represents individuals with FH, advocacy leaders, scientific experts, policy makers, and the original authors of the 1998 World Health Organization report. Attendees from 40 countries brought perspectives on FH from low-, middle-, and high-income regions. Tables listing country-specific government support for FH care, existing country-specific and international FH scientific statements and guidelines, country-specific and international FH registries, and known FH advocacy organizations around the world were created. Conclusions and Relevance: By adopting the 9 updated public policy recommendations created for this document, covering awareness; advocacy; screening, testing, and diagnosis; treatment; family-based care; registries; research; and cost and value, individual countries have the opportunity to prevent atherosclerotic heart disease in their citizens carrying a gene associated with FH and, likely, all those with severe hypercholesterolemia as well.

5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(4): 973-985, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: STAP1, encoding for STAP1 (signal transducing adaptor family member 1), has been reported as a candidate gene associated with familial hypercholesterolemia. Unlike established familial hypercholesterolemia genes, expression of STAP1 is absent in liver but mainly observed in immune cells. In this study, we set out to validate STAP1 as a familial hypercholesterolemia gene. Approach and Results: A whole-body Stap1 knockout mouse model (Stap1-/-) was generated and characterized, without showing changes in plasma lipid levels compared with controls. In follow-up studies, bone marrow from Stap1-/- mice was transplanted to Ldlr-/- mice, which did not show significant changes in plasma lipid levels or atherosclerotic lesions. To functionally assess whether STAP1 expression in B cells can affect hepatic function, HepG2 cells were cocultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from heterozygotes carriers of STAP1 variants and controls. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells from STAP1 variant carriers and controls showed similar LDLR mRNA and protein levels. Also, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) uptake by HepG2 cells did not differ upon coculturing with peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from either STAP1 variant carriers or controls. In addition, plasma lipid profiles of 39 carriers and 71 family controls showed no differences in plasma LDL cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein(a) levels. Similarly, B-cell populations did not differ in a group of 10 STAP1 variant carriers and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Furthermore, recent data from the UK Biobank do not show association between STAP1 rare gene variants and LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Our combined studies in mouse models and carriers of STAP1 variants indicate that STAP1 is not a familial hypercholesterolemia gene.

6.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(2): 462-472, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Netrin-1 has been shown to play a role in the initiation of atherosclerosis in mice models. However, little is known about the role of Netrin-1 in humans. We set out to study whether Netrin-1 is associated with different stages of atherosclerosis. Approach and Results: Plasma Netrin-1 levels were measured in different patient cohorts: (1) 22 patients with high cardiovascular risk who underwent arterial wall inflammation assessment using positron-emission tomography / computed tomography, (2) 168 patients with a positive family history of premature atherosclerosis in whom coronary artery calcium scores were obtained, and (3) 104 patients with chest pain who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography imaging to evaluate plaque vulnerability and burden. Netrin-1 plasma levels were negatively correlated with arterial wall inflammation (ß, -0.01 [95% CI, 0.02 to -0.01] R2, 0.61; P<0.0001), and concentrations of Netrin-1 were significantly lower when atherosclerosis was present compared with individuals without atherosclerosis (28.01 versus 10.51 ng/mL, P<0.001). There was no difference in Netrin-1 plasma concentrations between patients with stable versus unstable plaques (11.17 versus 11.74 ng/mL, P=0.511). However, Netrin-1 plasma levels were negatively correlated to total plaque volume (ß, -0.09 [95% CI, -0.11 to -0.08] R2, 0.57, P<0.0001), calcified plaque volumes (ß, -0.10 [95% CI, -0.12 to -0.08] R2, 0.53; P<0.0001), and noncalcified plaque volumes (ß, -0.08 [95% CI, -0.10 to -0.06] R2, 0.41; P<0.0001). Treatment of inflammatory stimulated endothelial cells with plasma with high Netrin-1 level resulted in reduced endothelial inflammation and consequently, less monocyte adhesion. CONCLUSIONS: Netrin-1 plasma levels are lower in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis and in patients with arterial wall inflammation. Netrin-1 is not associated with plaque vulnerability; however, it is negatively correlated to plaque burden, suggesting that Netrin-1 is involved in some, but not all, stages of atherosclerosis.

7.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(1): 50-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582260

RESUMO

Genome sequencing and gene-based therapies appear poised to advance the management of rare lipoprotein disorders and associated dyslipidaemias. However, in practice, underdiagnosis and undertreatment of these disorders are common, in large part due to interindividual variability in the genetic causes and phenotypic presentation of these conditions. To address these challenges, the European Atherosclerosis Society formed a task force to provide practical clinical guidance focusing on patients with extreme concentrations (either low or high) of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The task force also recognises the scarcity of quality information regarding the prevalence and outcomes of these conditions. Collaborative registries are needed to improve health policy for the care of patients with rare dyslipidaemias.

10.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 30(12): 891-902, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630897

RESUMO

The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly increasing and may put patients at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (asCVD). Both disease phenotypes often co-occur, in the case of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, and the metabolic syndrome. We explore the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the epidemiology of asCVD in NAFLD patients, shared drivers of both phenotypes, and factors caused by NAFLD that contribute to asCVD. Genetic studies support that NAFLD may drive asCVD through mixed hyperlipidemia. Next, we discuss the prospects of lifestyle improvement and pharmacological treatment of NAFLD for asCVD risk reduction. Finally, we point out that earlier identification of patients with NAFLD should be pursued by increasing awareness of the association of these two phenotypes and collaboration between the involved physicians.

11.
JAMA ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475726

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship between exposure to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) with the risk of cardiovascular disease has not been reliably quantified. Objective: To assess the association of lifetime exposure to the combination of both lower LDL-C and lower SBP with the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: Among 438 952 participants enrolled in the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 and followed up through 2018, genetic LDL-C and SBP scores were used as instruments to divide participants into groups with lifetime exposure to lower LDL-C, lower SBP, or both. Differences in plasma LDL-C, SBP, and cardiovascular event rates between the groups were compared to estimate associations with lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Exposures: Differences in plasma LDL-C and SBP compared with participants with both genetic scores below the median. Genetic risk scores higher than the median were associated with lower LDL-C and lower SBP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratio (OR) for major coronary events, defined as coronary death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization. Results: The mean age of the 438 952 participants was 65.2 years (range, 40.4-80.0 years), 54.1% were women, and 24 980 experienced a first major coronary event. Compared with the reference group, participants with LDL-C genetic scores higher than the median had 14.7-mg/dL lower LDL-C levels and an OR of 0.73 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.70-0.75; P < .001). Participants with SBP genetic scores higher than the median had 2.9-mm Hg lower SBP and an OR of 0.82 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.79-0.85, P < .001). Participants in the group with both genetic scores higher than the median had 13.9-mg/dL lower LDL-C, 3.1-mm Hg lower SBP, and an OR of 0.61 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.59-0.64; P < .001). In a 4 × 4 factorial analysis, exposure to increasing genetic risk scores and lower LDL-C levels and SBP was associated with dose-dependent lower risks of major coronary events. In a meta-regression analysis, combined exposure to 38.67-mg/dL lower LDL-C and 10-mm Hg lower SBP was associated with an OR of 0.22 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.17-0.26; P < .001), and 0.32 for cardiovascular death (95% CI, 0.25-0.40; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Lifelong genetic exposure to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure was associated with lower cardiovascular risk. However, these findings cannot be assumed to represent the magnitude of benefit achievable from treatment of these risk factors.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e010827, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020900

RESUMO

Background Kidney function decreases during the lifetime, and this decline is a powerful predictor of both kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. Statins lower cardiovascular risk, which may relate to beneficial effects on kidney function. We studied whether atorvastatin influences kidney function decline and assessed the association between individual kidney function slopes and cardiovascular outcome. Methods and Results Data were collected from 6 large atorvastatin cardiovascular outcome trials conducted in patients not selected for having kidney disease. Slopes of serum creatinine reciprocals representing measures of kidney function change ([mg/dL]-1/y), were analyzed in 30 621 patients. Based on treatment arms, patients were categorized into 3 groups: placebo (n=10 057), atorvastatin 10 mg daily (n=12 763), and 80 mg daily (n=7801). To assess slopes, mixed-model analyses were performed for each treatment separately, including time in years and adjustment for study. These slopes displayed linear improvement over time in all 3 groups. Slope estimates for patients randomized to placebo or atorvastatin 10 mg and 80 mg were 0.009 (0.0008), 0.011 (0.0006), and 0.014 (0.0006) (mg/dL)-1/y, respectively. A head-to-head comparison of atorvastatin 10 and 80 mg based on data from 1 study ( TNT [Treating to New Targets]; n=10 001) showed a statistically significant difference in slope between the 2 doses ( P=0.0009). From a Cox proportional hazards model using slope as a predictor, a significant ( P<0.0001) negative association between kidney function and cardiovascular outcomes was found. Conclusions In patients at risk of or with cardiovascular disease, atorvastatin improved kidney function over time in a dose-dependent manner. In the 3 treatment groups, kidney function improvement was strongly associated with lower cardiovascular risk. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifiers: NCT00327418; NCT00147602; NCT00327691.

14.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(2): 272-278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) is either diagnosed on the identification of pathogenic genetic variants in LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9 or by phenotypic parameters of which an extremely elevated LDL-C level >13 mmol/L (>500 mg/dL) is the most prominent hallmark. Little is known about the clinical spectrum in children with hoFH. OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate the phenotypical spectrum of genetically defined hoFH in our pediatric cohort and evaluated how many pediatric patients, now classified as heterozygous, carry a second mutation, which would reclassify these patients as hoFH. METHODS: We analyzed the data of a total of 1903 children with molecularly proven FH. Subsequently we performed candidate gene sequencing in the cohort of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia children in whom the LDL-C level was above the lowest level measured in the pediatric patients with hoFH. RESULTS: Of our 13 hoFH children, 8 (62%) had LDL-C levels below the clinical hoFH criteria of 13 mmol/L (500 mg/dL). In the remaining 1890 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, 64 (3.4%) had LDL-C levels equal to or above the lowest LDL-C level in a patient with hoFH carrying 2 deleterious variants (8.36 mmol/L or 323.3 mg/dL). No additional pathogenic variants in LDLR and APOB were identified. In 2 related patients, a PCSK9 gain of function mutation was found. CONCLUSION: We show that LDL-C levels vary among pediatric patients with molecularly proven hoFH, and that most of these patients do not meet the clinical LDL-C criteria for hoFH. The levels overlap with LDL-C levels in true heterozygous patients. This warrants a critical reappraisal of the current LDL-C cutoffs for the phenotypic diagnosis of hoFH in children.

15.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(1): 69-76, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This post-hoc analysis examined whether age modified the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor, in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), using pooled data from four 78-week placebo-controlled phase 3 trials (ODYSSEY FH I, FH II, LONG TERM, and HIGH FH). METHODS: Data from 1257 patients with HeFH on maximally tolerated statin ± other lipid-lowering therapies were analyzed by an alirocumab dose regimen and by age subgroups (18 to < 45, 45 to < 55, 55 to < 65, and ≥ 65 years). In the FH I and II trials, patients received 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks (Q2W), with dose increase to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 if week 8 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was ≥ 70 mg/dl. In HIGH FH and LONG TERM, patients received 150 mg alirocumab Q2W. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups across all age groups; the proportion of males decreased whereas the proportion of patients with coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and declining renal function increased with increasing age. Mean LDL-C reductions at week 24 were consistent across age groups (50.6-61.0% and 51.1-65.8% vs. placebo for the 75/150 and 150 mg alirocumab dose regimens, respectively; both non-significant interaction P-values). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in similar frequency in alirocumab- and placebo-treated patients regardless of age, except for injection-site reactions, which were more common in alirocumab than placebo but declined in frequency with age. CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab treatment resulted in significant LDL-C reductions at weeks 12 and 24 and was generally well tolerated in patients with HeFH across all age groups studied.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Heterozigoto , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/complicações , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 1937-1947, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602016

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The impact of gender-affirming hormone therapy (HT) on cardiometabolic parameters is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The effects of 1 year of treatment with oral or transdermal administration of estrogen (plus cyproterone) and transdermal or IM application of testosterone on serum lipid levels and blood pressure (BP) were assessed in transgender persons. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational substudy of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence, measurements were performed before and after 12 months of HT in 242 transwomen and 188 transmen from 2010 to 2017. RESULTS: Mean values are reported. In transmen, HT increased diastolic BP (2.5%; 95% CI, 0.6 to 4.4) and levels of total cholesterol (TC; 4.1%; 95% CI, 1.5 to 6.6), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C; 13.0%; 95% CI, 9.2 to 16.8), and triglycerides (36.9%; 95% CI, 29.8 to 44.1); high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels decreased (HDL-C; 10.8%; 95% CI, -14.0 to -7.6). In transwomen, HT slightly decreased BP (systolic BP, -2.6%, 95% CI, -4.2 to -1.0; diastolic BP, -2.2%, 95% CI, -4.0 to -0.4) and decreased levels of TC (-9.7%; 95% CI, -11.3 to -8.1), LDL-C (-6.0%; 95% CI, -8.6 to 3.6), HDL-C (-9.3%; 95% CI, -11.4 to -7.3), and triglycerides (-10.2%; 95% CI, -14.5 to -5.9). CONCLUSION: Unfavorable changes in lipid profile were observed in transmen; a favorable effect was noted in transwomen. HT effects on BP were negligible. Long-term studies are warranted to assess whether and to what extent HT in trans individuals results in a differential effect on cardiovascular disease outcomes.

18.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(1): 138-147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) who completed the double-blind ODYSSEY LONG TERM parent trial and subsequently enrolled in the open-label extension (OLE) study, ODYSSEY OLE (NCT01954394), provide a unique opportunity to investigate effects of 2 doses of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, within the same patient cohort. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to characterize long-term efficacy and safety of 2 alirocumab dosages and utility of a dose titration strategy in patients with HeFH. METHODS: After an 8-week washout period, patients with HeFH who completed the LONG TERM study (receiving alirocumab 150 mg every 2 weeks [Q2W]) were eligible to enroll in OLE (n = 214) for up to 40 months' treatment duration. In OLE, patients started on alirocumab 75 mg Q2W. From Week 12, dose adjustment from 75 to 150 mg Q2W or vice versa was possible based on physician's clinical judgment. RESULTS: During the LONG TERM trial, alirocumab 150 mg Q2W reduced mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline (162.3 mg/dL) to Week 8 by 63.1%; during OLE, alirocumab 75 mg Q2W reduced mean LDL-C from baseline (166.6 mg/dL) by 47.3% within the same patient cohort. At Week 96, mean LDL-C reduction from OLE baseline was 55.4% vs 46.8% for patients with or without alirocumab dose increase, respectively. Treatment-emergent adverse events leading to permanent treatment discontinuation were observed in 4 patients (1.9%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HeFH, both alirocumab dosages provided consistent LDL-C reductions over a treatment duration of up to 4 years (including 1.5 years of the LONG TERM trial), allowing an individualized approach to LDL-C lowering, depending on baseline LDL-C levels.

19.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(12): e002385, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder characterized by high plasma LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) levels. The vast majority of FH patients carry a mutation in the coding region of LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9. We set out to identify the culprit genetic defect in a large family with clinical FH, in whom no mutations were identified in the coding regions of these FH genes. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing was performed in 5 affected and 4 unaffected individuals from a family with an unexplained autosomal dominant FH trait. The effect on splicing of the identified novel intronic LDLR mutation was ascertained by cDNA sequencing. The prevalence of the novel variant was assessed in 1 245 FH patients without an FH causing mutation identified by Sanger sequencing and in 2 154 patients referred for FH analysis by next-generation sequencing (covering the intronic region). RESULTS: A novel deep intronic variant in LDLR (c.2140+103G>T) was found to cosegregate with high LDL-C in 5 patients, but was not present in 4 unaffected family members. The variant was shown to result in a 97 nucleotides insertion leading to a frameshift and premature stop codon in exon 15 of LDLR. The prevalence of the intronic variant was 0.24% (3/1245) in a cohort of FH patients without a known FH causing mutation and 0.23% (5/2154) in a population of FH patients referred for analysis by next-generation sequencing. Cosegregation analysis of a second family showed full penetrance of the novel variant with the FH phenotype over 3 generations. CONCLUSIONS: The c.2140+103G>T mutation in LDLR is a novel intronic variant identified in FH that cosegregates with the FH phenotype. Our findings underline the need to analyze the intronic regions of LDLR in patients with FH, especially those in whom no mutation is found in the coding regions of LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Íntrons , Mutação Puntual , Receptores de LDL/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Bases , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Linhagem , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética
20.
Atherosclerosis ; 277: 234-255, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) may vary across different settings due to factors related to population characteristics, practice, resources and/or policies. We conducted a survey among the worldwide network of EAS FHSC Lead Investigators to provide an overview of FH status in different countries. METHODS: Lead Investigators from countries formally involved in the EAS FHSC by mid-May 2018 were invited to provide a brief report on FH status in their countries, including available information, programmes, initiatives, and management. RESULTS: 63 countries provided reports. Data on FH prevalence are lacking in most countries. Where available, data tend to align with recent estimates, suggesting a higher frequency than that traditionally considered. Low rates of FH detection are reported across all regions. National registries and education programmes to improve FH awareness/knowledge are a recognised priority, but funding is often lacking. In most countries, diagnosis primarily relies on the Dutch Lipid Clinics Network criteria. Although available in many countries, genetic testing is not widely implemented (frequent cost issues). There are only a few national official government programmes for FH. Under-treatment is an issue. FH therapy is not universally reimbursed. PCSK9-inhibitors are available in ∼2/3 countries. Lipoprotein-apheresis is offered in ∼60% countries, although access is limited. CONCLUSIONS: FH is a recognised public health concern. Management varies widely across countries, with overall suboptimal identification and under-treatment. Efforts and initiatives to improve FH knowledge and management are underway, including development of national registries, but support, particularly from health authorities, and better funding are greatly needed.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Saúde Global , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Cooperação Internacional , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/efeitos adversos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comportamento Cooperativo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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