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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 135, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608504

RESUMO

A balanced t(1;11) translocation that directly disrupts DISC1 is linked to schizophrenia and affective disorders. We previously showed that a mutant mouse, named Der1, recapitulates the effect of the translocation upon DISC1 expression. Here, RNAseq analysis of Der1 mouse brain tissue found enrichment for dysregulation of the same genes and molecular pathways as in neuron cultures generated previously from human t(1;11) translocation carriers via the induced pluripotent stem cell route. DISC1 disruption therefore apparently accounts for a substantial proportion of the effects of the t(1;11) translocation. RNAseq and pathway analysis of the mutant mouse predicts multiple Der1-induced alterations converging upon synapse function and plasticity. Synaptosome proteomics confirmed that the Der1 mutation impacts synapse composition, and electrophysiology found reduced AMPA:NMDA ratio in hippocampal neurons, indicating changed excitatory signalling. Moreover, hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneuron density is increased, suggesting that the Der1 mutation affects inhibitory control of neuronal circuits. These phenotypes predict that neurotransmission is impacted at many levels by DISC1 disruption in human t(1;11) translocation carriers. Notably, genes implicated in schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder by large-scale genetic studies are enriched among the Der1-dysregulated genes, just as we previously observed for the t(1;11) translocation carrier-derived neurons. Furthermore, RNAseq analysis predicts that the Der1 mutation primarily targets a subset of cell types, pyramidal neurons and interneurons, previously shown to be vulnerable to the effects of common schizophrenia-associated genetic variants. In conclusion, DISC1 disruption by the t(1;11) translocation may contribute to the psychiatric disorders of translocation carriers through commonly affected pathways and processes in neurotransmission.

2.
J Voice ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The valleculae can be seen as a pair of side branches of the human vocal tract like the piriform fossae. While the acoustic properties of the piriform fossae have been explored in detail, there is little evidence of full exploration of the acoustic properties of the valleculae. A recent investigation (Vampola, Horácek, & Svec, 2015), using a finite element model of a single vowel /a/, suggests that the valleculae created two antiresonances and two resonances in the high frequency region (above 4kHz) along with those produced by the piriform sinuses. In the current study, we investigate, in multiple vowels, the acoustic influences of the valleculae in singing voice, using 3-D printed vocal tracts. METHOD: MRI data were collected from an operatic tenor singing English vowels /a/, /u/, /i/. The images of each vowel were segmented and edited to create a pair of tracts, where one is the original and one had the valleculae digitally removed.The printed tracts were then placed atop a vocal tract organ loudspeaker, excited by white noise. Recordings were made with a microphone placed in front of the mouths of the tracts, to measure their frequency responses. RESULTS: Dimensional changes were observed in valleculae of different vowels, with the long-term average spectra of the recordings illustrating clear differences between the frequency responses of the va-nova (valleculae - no valleculae) pairs, which varies with vowels. CONCLUSION: The experiment demonstrates the dynamic1 nature of the shapes of the valleculae in the human vocal tract and its acoustic consequences. It provides evidence that the valleculae have similar acoustic properties to the piriform fossae but with larger variations, and in some cases can influence acoustically the frequency region below 4kHz. The results suggest that large volume valleculae have the potential to impede to some extent the acoustic effect of the singers formant cluster and small valleculae may do the reverse. Since the volume of the valleculae is observed to be largely dependent on tongue movement and also with changes to the uttered vowel, it can be assumed that the high frequency energy, including that within the singer's formant region, could be vowel dependent. Strategies to control valleculae volumes are likely to be highly relevant to voice pedagogy practice as well as singing performance.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 330, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989213

RESUMO

While psychotic experiences are core symptoms of mental health disorders like schizophrenia, they are also reported by 5-10% of the population. Both smoking behaviour and genetic risk for psychiatric disorders have been associated with psychotic experiences, but the interplay between these factors remains poorly understood. We tested whether smoking status, maternal smoking around birth, and number of packs smoked/year were associated with lifetime occurrence of three psychotic experiences phenotypes: delusions (n = 2067), hallucinations (n = 6689), and any psychotic experience (delusions or hallucinations; n = 7803) in 157,366 UK Biobank participants. We next calculated polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (PRSSCZ), bipolar disorder (PRSBP), major depression (PRSDEP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (PRSADHD) in 144,818 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry to assess whether association between smoking and psychotic experiences was attenuated after adjustment of diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and the PRSs. Finally, we investigated whether smoking exacerbates the effects of genetic predisposition on the psychotic phenotypes in gene-environment interaction models. Smoking status, maternal smoking, and number of packs smoked/year were associated with psychotic experiences (p < 1.77 × 10-5). Except for packs smoked/year, effects were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and PRSs (p < 1.99 × 10-3). Gene-environment interaction models showed the effects of PRSDEP and PRSADHD (but not PRSSCZ or PRSBP) on delusions (but not hallucinations) were significantly greater in current smokers compared to never smokers (p < 0.002). There were no significant gene-environment interactions for maternal smoking nor for number of packs smoked/year. Our results suggest that both genetic risk of psychiatric disorders and smoking status may have independent and synergistic effects on specific types of psychotic experiences.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 115, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals of the same chronological age display different rates of biological ageing. A number of measures of biological age have been proposed which harness age-related changes in DNA methylation profiles. These measures include five 'epigenetic clocks' which provide an index of how much an individual's biological age differs from their chronological age at the time of measurement. The five clocks encompass methylation-based predictors of chronological age (HorvathAge, HannumAge), all-cause mortality (DNAm PhenoAge, DNAm GrimAge) and telomere length (DNAm Telomere Length). A sixth epigenetic measure of ageing differs from these clocks in that it acts as a speedometer providing a single time-point measurement of the pace of an individual's biological ageing. This measure of ageing is termed DunedinPoAm. In this study, we test the association between these six epigenetic measures of ageing and the prevalence and incidence of the leading causes of disease burden and mortality in high-income countries (n ≤ 9537, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study). RESULTS: DNAm GrimAge predicted incidence of clinically diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease after 13 years of follow-up (hazard ratios = 2.22, 1.52 and 1.41, respectively). DunedinPoAm predicted the incidence of COPD and lung cancer (hazard ratios = 2.02 and 1.45, respectively). DNAm PhenoAge predicted incidence of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.54). DNAm Telomere Length associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio = 0.80). DNAm GrimAge associated with all-cause mortality, the prevalence of COPD and spirometry measures at the study baseline. These associations were present after adjusting for possible confounding risk factors including alcohol consumption, body mass index, deprivation, education and tobacco smoking and surpassed stringent Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that epigenetic measures of ageing may have utility in clinical settings to complement gold-standard methods for disease assessment and management.

5.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523041

RESUMO

Variation in DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with lifestyle factors such as smoking and body mass index (BMI) but there has been little research exploring its ability to identify individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Using penalised regression on genome-wide CpG methylation, we tested whether DNAm risk scores (MRS), trained on 1223 MDD cases and 1824 controls, could discriminate between cases (n = 363) and controls (n = 1417) in an independent sample, comparing their predictive accuracy to polygenic risk scores (PRS). The MRS explained 1.75% of the variance in MDD (ß = 0.338, p = 1.17 × 10-7) and remained associated after adjustment for lifestyle factors (ß = 0.219, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.68%). When modelled alongside PRS (ß = 0.384, p = 4.69 × 10-9) the MRS remained associated with MDD (ß = 0.327, p = 5.66 × 10-7). The MRS was also associated with incident cases of MDD who were well at recruitment but went on to develop MDD at a later assessment (ß = 0.193, p = 0.016, R2 = 0.52%). Heritability analyses found additive genetic effects explained 22% of variance in the MRS, with a further 19% explained by pedigree-associated genetic effects and 16% by the shared couple environment. Smoking status was also strongly associated with MRS (ß = 0.440, p ≤ 2 × 10-16). After removing smokers from the training set, the MRS strongly associated with BMI (ß = 0.053, p = 0.021). We tested the association of MRS with 61 behavioural phenotypes and found that whilst PRS were associated with psychosocial and mental health phenotypes, MRS were more strongly associated with lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. DNAm-based risk scores of MDD significantly discriminated MDD cases from controls in an independent dataset and may represent an archive of exposures to lifestyle factors that are relevant to the prediction of MDD.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depression (MD) is often characterised as a categorical disorder; however, observational studies comparing sub-threshold and clinical depression suggest MD is continuous. Many of these studies do not explore the full continuum and are yet to consider genetics as a risk factor. This study sought to understand if polygenic risk for MD could provide insight into the continuous nature of depression. METHODS: Factor analysis on symptom-level data from the UK Biobank (N = 148 957) was used to derive continuous depression phenotypes which were tested for association with polygenic risk scores (PRS) for a categorical definition of MD (N = 119 692). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis showed a five-factor hierarchical model, incorporating 15 of the original 18 items taken from the PHQ-9, GAD-7 and subjective well-being questionnaires, produced good fit to the observed covariance matrix (CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.038, SRMR = 0.031). MD PRS associated with each factor score (standardised ß range: 0.057-0.064) and the association remained when the sample was stratified into case- and control-only subsets. The case-only subset had an increased association compared to controls for all factors, shown via a significant interaction between lifetime MD diagnosis and MD PRS (p value range: 2.23 × 10-3-3.94 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: An association between MD PRS and a continuous phenotype of depressive symptoms in case- and control-only subsets provides support against a purely categorical phenotype; indicating further insights into MD can be obtained when this within-group variation is considered. The stronger association within cases suggests this variation may be of particular importance.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 163, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448866

RESUMO

Depression is a common and clinically heterogeneous mental health disorder that is frequently comorbid with other diseases and conditions. Stratification of depression may align sub-diagnoses more closely with their underling aetiology and provide more tractable targets for research and effective treatment. In the current study, we investigated whether genetic data could be used to identify subgroups within people with depression using the UK Biobank. Examination of cross-locus correlations were used to test for evidence of subgroups using genetic data from seven other complex traits and disorders that were genetically correlated with depression and had sufficient power (>0.6) for detection. We found no evidence for subgroups within depression for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, anorexia nervosa, inflammatory bowel disease or obesity. This suggests that for these traits, genetic correlations with depression were driven by pleiotropic genetic variants carried by everyone rather than by a specific subgroup.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2301, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385265

RESUMO

Depression is a leading cause of worldwide disability but there remains considerable uncertainty regarding its neural and behavioural associations. Here, using non-overlapping Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) datasets as a reference, we estimate polygenic risk scores for depression (depression-PRS) in a discovery (N = 10,674) and replication (N = 11,214) imaging sample from UK Biobank. We report 77 traits that are significantly associated with depression-PRS, in both discovery and replication analyses. Mendelian Randomisation analysis supports a potential causal effect of liability to depression on brain white matter microstructure (ß: 0.125 to 0.868, pFDR < 0.043). Several behavioural traits are also associated with depression-PRS (ß: 0.014 to 0.180, pFDR: 0.049 to 1.28 × 10-14) and we find a significant and positive interaction between depression-PRS and adverse environmental exposures on mental health outcomes. This study reveals replicable associations between depression-PRS and white matter microstructure. Our results indicate that white matter microstructure differences may be a causal consequence of liability to depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 55, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066731

RESUMO

Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) are genetic variants associated with gene expression. Using genome-wide genotype data, it is now possible to impute gene expression using eQTL mapping efforts. This approach can be used to analyse previously unexplored relationships between gene expression and heritable in vivo measures of human brain structural connectivity. Using large-scale eQTL mapping studies, we computed 6457 gene expression scores (eQTL scores) using genome-wide genotype data in UK Biobank, where each score represents a genetic proxy measure of gene expression. These scores were then tested for associations with two diffusion tensor imaging measures, fractional anisotropy (NFA = 14,518) and mean diffusivity (NMD = 14,485), representing white matter structural integrity. We found FDR-corrected significant associations between 8 eQTL scores and structural connectivity phenotypes, including global and regional measures (ßabsolute FA = 0.0339-0.0453; MD = 0.0308-0.0381) and individual tracts (ßabsolute FA = 0.0320-0.0561; MD = 0.0295-0.0480). The loci within these eQTL scores have been reported to regulate expression of genes involved in various brain-related processes and disorders, such as neurite outgrowth and Parkinson's disease (DCAKD, SLC35A4, SEC14L4, SRA1, NMT1, CPNE1, PLEKHM1, UBE3C). Our findings indicate that eQTL scores are associated with measures of in vivo brain connectivity and provide novel information not previously found by conventional genome-wide association studies. Although the role of expression of these genes regarding white matter microstructural integrity is not yet clear, these results suggest it may be possible, in future, to map potential trait- and disease-associated eQTL to in vivo brain connectivity and better understand the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and brain traits, and their associated imaging findings.

11.
J Voice ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926649

RESUMO

The question of how and what boys should sing during adolescent voice change has challenged educators and choir leaders for the last century. As the larynx enlarges during adolescence, most boys will follow the descending pitch of their speaking voice and move to singing vocal parts with a lower pitch range. Occasionally a boy may continue to sing in his treble (soprano) range while his larynx is growing and his speaking pitch is lowering. There is much opinion on the wisdom of such practices, but until now there has been no quantifiable evidence to illustrate the discussion. The established historic and cultural practices can now be reassessed in the light of quantitative analyses of vocal function. This longitudinal case study used electroglottographic measures from one boy over a 3-year period to investigate the efficiency of vocal fold adductory behavior in both prechange and midchange singing. In the first recording, he is aged 10 years old and has an unchanged voice. In the second recording, he is aged 13 years old and has a speaking voice in the Cooksey Stage III of voice change. Up to and including the time of the second recording, he had chosen to remain singing exclusively in his treble (soprano) range. The comparison between the two recordings of the observed regularity and efficiency of vocal fold adduction suggests that singing in this pitch range has become less healthy and effective; this is also represented in the overall perceived vocal comfort levels heard in the recordings. The implications for educators are that the longitudinal development of singing habits will be enhanced for boys who move to singing with their new baritone range as their larynx grows, rather than remaining in a treble range.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(7): 1420-1429, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626913

RESUMO

Although a genetic basis of depression has been well established in twin studies, identification of genome-wide significant loci has been difficult. We hypothesized that bivariate analyses of findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWASs) of the broad depression phenotype with those from meta-GWASs of self-reported and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder and schizophrenia would enhance statistical power to identify novel genetic loci for depression. LD score regression analyses were first used to estimate the genetic correlations of broad depression with self-reported MDD, recurrent MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Then, we performed four bivariate GWAS analyses. The genetic correlations (rg ± SE) of broad depression with self-reported MDD, recurrent MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were 0.79 ± 0.07, 0.24 ± 0.08, 0.53 ± 0.09 and 0.57 ± 0.05, respectively. From a total of 20 independent genome-wide significant loci, 13 loci replicated of which 8 were novel for depression. These were MUC21 for the broad depression phenotype with self-reported MDD and ZNF804A, MIR3143, PSORS1C2, STK19, SPATA31D1, RTN1 and TCF4 for the broad depression phenotype with schizophrenia. Post-GWAS functional analyses of these loci revealed their potential biological involvement in psychiatric disorders. Our results emphasize the genetic similarities among different psychiatric disorders and indicate that cross-disorder analyses may be the best way forward to accelerate gene finding for depression, or psychiatric disorders in general.

13.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 20(2): 329-341, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700811

RESUMO

Antidepressants demonstrate modest response rates in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antidepressant treatment response, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Using prescription data in a population and family-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study; GS:SFHS), we sought to define a measure of (a) antidepressant treatment resistance and (b) stages of antidepressant resistance by inferring antidepressant switching as non-response to treatment. GWAS were conducted separately for antidepressant treatment resistance in GS:SFHS and the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study and then meta-analysed (meta-analysis n = 4213, cases = 358). For stages of antidepressant resistance, a GWAS on GS:SFHS only was performed (n = 3452). Additionally, we conducted gene-set enrichment, polygenic risk scoring (PRS) and genetic correlation analysis. We did not identify any significant loci, genes or gene sets associated with antidepressant treatment resistance or stages of resistance. Significant positive genetic correlations of antidepressant treatment resistance and stages of resistance with neuroticism, psychological distress, schizotypy and mood disorder traits were identified. These findings suggest that larger sample sizes are needed to identify the genetic architecture of antidepressant treatment response, and that population-based observational studies may provide a tractable approach to achieving the necessary statistical power.

14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(2): 410-421, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who opt to participate in scientific studies tend to be healthier, wealthier and more educated than the broader population. Although selection bias does not always pose a problem for analysing the relationships between exposures and diseases or other outcomes, it can lead to biased effect size estimates. Biased estimates may weaken the utility of genetic findings because the goal is often to make inferences in a new sample (such as in polygenic risk score analysis). METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank, Generation Scotland and Partners Biobank and conducted phenotypic and genome-wide association analyses on two phenotypes that reflected mental health data availability: (i) whether participants were contactable by e-mail for follow-up; and (ii) whether participants responded to follow-up surveys of mental health. RESULTS: In UK Biobank, we identified nine genetic loci associated (P <5 × 10-8) with e-mail contact and 25 loci associated with mental health survey completion. Both phenotypes were positively genetically correlated with higher educational attainment and better health and negatively genetically correlated with psychological distress and schizophrenia. One single nucleotide polymorphism association replicated along with the overall direction of effect of all association results. CONCLUSIONS: Re-contact availability and follow-up participation can act as further genetic filters for data on mental health phenotypes.

15.
J Voice ; 34(1): 159.e13-159.e27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The skill to control pitch accurately is an important feature of performance in singing ensembles as it boosts musical excellence. Previous studies analyzing single performance sessions provide inconclusive and contrasting results on whether singers in ensembles tend to use a tuning system which deviates from equal temperament for their intonation. The present study observes the evolution of intonation in a newly formed student singing quintet during their first term of study. METHODS/DESIGN: A semiprofessional singing quintet was recorded using head-worn microphones and electrolaryngograph electrodes to allow fundamental frequency (fo) evaluation of the individual voices. In addition, a camcorder was used to record verbal interactions between singers. The ensemble rehearsed a homophonic piece arranged for the study during five rehearsal sessions over four months. Singers practiced the piece for 10 minutes in each rehearsal, and performed three repetitions of the same pieces pre-rehearsal and post-rehearsal. Audio and electrolaryngograph data of the repeated performances, and video recordings of the rehearsals were analyzed. Aspects of intonation were then measured by extracting the fo values from the electrolaryngograph and acoustic signal, and compared within rehearsals (pre and post) and between rehearsals (rehearsals 1 to 5), and across repetitions (take 1 to 3). Time-stamped transcriptions of rehearsal discussions were used to identify verbal interactions related to tuning, the tuning strategies adopted, and their location (bar or chord) within the piece. RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Tuning of each singer was closer to equal temperament than just intonation, but the size of major thirds was slightly closer to just intonation, and minor thirds closer to equal temperament. These findings were consistent within and between rehearsals, and across repetitions. Tuning was highlighted as an important feature of rehearsal during the study term, and a range of strategies were adopted to solve tuning related issues. This study provides a novel holistic assessment of tuning strategies within a singing ensemble, furthering understanding of performance practices as well as revealing the complex approach needed for future research in this area. These findings are particularly important for directors and singers to tailor rehearsal strategies that address tuning in singing ensembles, showing that approaches need to be context driven rather than based on theoretical ideal.


Assuntos
Nível de Percepção Sonora , Canto , Qualidade da Voz , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Percepção do Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767999

RESUMO

Alcohol use and smoking are leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence individual differences in the use of these substances. In the present study we tested whether genetic factors, modelled alongside common family environment, explained phenotypic variance in alcohol use and smoking behaviour in the Generation Scotland (GS) family sample of up to 19,377 individuals. SNP and pedigree-associated effects combined explained between 18 and 41% of the variance in substance use. Shared couple effects explained a significant amount of variance across all substance use traits, particularly alcohol intake, for which 38% of the phenotypic variance was explained. We tested whether the within-couple substance use associations were due to assortative mating by testing the association between partner polygenic risk scores in 34,987 couple pairs from the UK Biobank (UKB). No significant association between partner polygenic risk scores were observed. Associations between an individual's alcohol PRS (b = 0.05, S.E. = 0.006, p < 2 × 10-16) and smoking status PRS (b = 0.05, S.E. = 0.005, p < 2 × 10-16) were found with their partner's phenotype. In support of this, G carriers of a functional ADH1B polymorphism (rs1229984), known to be associated with greater alcohol intake, were found to consume less alcohol if they had a partner who carried an A allele at this SNP. Together these results show that the shared couple environment contributes significantly to patterns of substance use. It is unclear whether this is due to shared environmental factors, assortative mating, or indirect genetic effects. Future studies would benefit from longitudinal data and larger sample sizes to assess this further.

17.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008104, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738745

RESUMO

'Epigenetic age acceleration' is a valuable biomarker of ageing, predictive of morbidity and mortality, but for which the underlying biological mechanisms are not well established. Two commonly used measures, derived from DNA methylation, are Horvath-based (Horvath-EAA) and Hannum-based (Hannum-EAA) epigenetic age acceleration. We conducted genome-wide association studies of Horvath-EAA and Hannum-EAA in 13,493 unrelated individuals of European ancestry, to elucidate genetic determinants of differential epigenetic ageing. We identified ten independent SNPs associated with Horvath-EAA, five of which are novel. We also report 21 Horvath-EAA-associated genes including several involved in metabolism (NHLRC, TPMT) and immune system pathways (TRIM59, EDARADD). GWAS of Hannum-EAA identified one associated variant (rs1005277), and implicated 12 genes including several involved in innate immune system pathways (UBE2D3, MANBA, TRIM46), with metabolic functions (UBE2D3, MANBA), or linked to lifespan regulation (CISD2). Both measures had nominal inverse genetic correlations with father's age at death, a rough proxy for lifespan. Nominally significant genetic correlations between Hannum-EAA and lifestyle factors including smoking behaviours and education support the hypothesis that Hannum-based epigenetic ageing is sensitive to variations in environment, whereas Horvath-EAA is a more stable cellular ageing process. We identified novel SNPs and genes associated with epigenetic age acceleration, and highlighted differences in the genetic architecture of Horvath-based and Hannum-based epigenetic ageing measures. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the rate of epigenetic ageing could help explain different trajectories of age-related decline.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Longevidade/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder and neuroticism (Neu) share a large genetic basis. We sought to determine whether this shared basis could be decomposed to identify genetic factors that are specific to depression. METHODS: We analysed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 23andMe and UK Biobank) and compared them with GWAS of Neu (from UK Biobank). First, we used a pairwise GWAS analysis to classify variants as associated with only depression, with only Neu or with both. Second, we estimated partial genetic correlations to test whether the depression's genetic link with other phenotypes was explained by shared overlap with Neu. RESULTS: We found evidence that most genomic regions (25/37) associated with depression are likely to be shared with Neu. The overlapping common genetic variance of depression and Neu was genetically correlated primarily with psychiatric disorders. We found that the genetic contributions to depression, that were not shared with Neu, were positively correlated with metabolic phenotypes and cardiovascular disease, and negatively correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness. After removing shared genetic overlap with Neu, depression still had a specific association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease and age of first birth. Independent of depression, Neu had specific genetic correlates in ulcerative colitis, pubertal growth, anorexia and education. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that, while genetic risk factors for depression are largely shared with Neu, there are also non-Neu-related features of depression that may be useful for further patient or phenotypic stratification.

19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(7): 536-544, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with many genetic variants of individually small effect contributing to phenotypic variation. Lower cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and cortical volume have been demonstrated in people with schizophrenia. Furthermore, a range of obstetric complications (e.g., lower birth weight) are consistently associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia. We investigated whether a high polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PGRS-SCZ) is associated with CT, surface area, and cortical volume in UK Biobank, a population-based sample, and tested for interactions with birth weight. METHODS: Data were available for 2864 participants (nmale/nfemale = 1382/1482; mean age = 62.35 years, SD = 7.40). Linear mixed models were used to test for associations among PGRS-SCZ and cortical volume, surface area, and CT and between PGRS-SCZ and birth weight. Interaction effects of these variables on cortical structure were also tested. RESULTS: We found a significant negative association between PGRS-SCZ and global CT; a higher PGRS-SCZ was associated with lower CT across the whole brain. We also report a significant negative association between PGRS-SCZ and insular lobe CT. PGRS-SCZ was not associated with birth weight and no PGRS-SCZ × birth weight interactions were found. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that individual differences in CT are partly influenced by genetic variants and are most likely not due to factors downstream of disease onset. This approach may help to elucidate the genetic pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Further investigation in case-control and high-risk samples could help identify any localized effects of PGRS-SCZ, and other potential schizophrenia risk factors, on CT as symptoms develop.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Idoso , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Exp Neurol ; 316: 20-26, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965038

RESUMO

Insulin resistance, broadly defined as the reduced ability of insulin to exert its biological action, has been associated with depression and cognitive dysfunction in observational studies. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal and whether they might be underpinned by other shared factors. To address this knowledge gap, we capitalized on the stability of genetic biomarkers through the lifetime, and on their unidirectional relationship with depression and cognition. Specifically, we determined the association between quantitative measures of cognitive function and depression and genetic instruments of insulin resistance traits in two large-scale population samples, the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS: SFHS; N = 19,994) and in the UK Biobank (N = 331,374). In the GS:SFHS, the polygenic risk score (PRS) for fasting insulin was associated with verbal intelligence and depression while the PRS for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was associated with verbal intelligence. Despite this overlap in genetic architecture, Mendelian randomization analyses in the GS:SFHS and in the UK Biobank samples did not yield evidence for causal associations from insulin resistance traits to either depression or cognition. These findings may be due to weak genetic instruments, limited cognitive measures and insufficient power but they may also indicate the need to identify other biological mechanisms that may mediate the relationship from insulin resistance to depression and cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Depressão/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inteligência/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Medição de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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