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1.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 76(Pt 9): 927-931, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887865

RESUMO

The synthesis and structures of three isoxazole-containing Schiff bases are reported, namely, (E)-2-{[(isoxazol-3-yl)imino]methyl}phenol, C10H8N2O2, (E)-2-{[(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)imino]methyl}phenol, C11H10N2O2, and (E)-2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-{[(isoxazol-3-yl)imino]methyl}phenol, C18H24N2O2. All three structures contain an intramolecular O-H...N hydrogen bond, alongside weaker intermolecular C-H...N and C-H...O contacts. The C-O(H) and imine C=N bond lengths were consistent with structures existing in the enol rather than the keto form. Despite having dihedral angles <25°, none of the compounds were observed to be strongly thermochromic, unlike their anil counterparts; however, all three compounds showed a visible colour change upon irradiation with UV light.

2.
Chemistry ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812653

RESUMO

The spin crossover salt [Fe(bpp) 2 ](isonicNO) 2 ·2.4H 2 O ( 1 ·2.4H 2 O) (bpp = 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine; isonicNO = isonicotinate N-oxide anion) exhibits a very abrupt spin crossover at T 1 /2 = 274.4 K. This triggers a supramolecular linkage (H-bond) isomerization that responds reversibly towards light irradiation or temperature change. Isotopic effects in the thermomagnetic behaviour reveal the importance of hydrogen bonds in defining the magnetic state. Further, the title compound can be reversibly dehydrated to afford 1 , a material that also exhibits spin crossover coupled to H-bond isomerization, leading to strong kinetic effects in the thermomagnetic properties.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(1)2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641896

RESUMO

The acylation of unsymmetrical N-benzylbispidinols in aromatic solvents without an external base led to the formation of supramolecular gels, which possess different thicknesses and degrees of stability depending on the substituents in para-positions of the benzylic group as well as on the nature of the acylating agent and of the solvent used. Structural features of the native gels as well as of their dried forms were studied by complementary techniques including Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and small-angle X-ray scattering and diffraction (SAXS). Structures of the key crystalline compounds were established by X-ray diffraction. An analysis of the obtained data allowed speculation on the crucial structural and condition factors that governed the gel formation. The most important factors were as follows: (i) absence of base, either external or internal; (ii) presence of HCl; (iii) presence of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups to allow hydrogen bonding; and (iv) presence of two (hetero)aromatic rings at both sides of the molecule. The hydrogen bonding involving amide carbonyl, hydroxyl at position 9, and, very probably, ammonium N-H⁺ and Cl- anion appears to be responsible for the formation of infinite molecular chains required for the first step of gel formation. Subsequent lateral cooperation of molecular chains into fibers occurred, presumably, due to the aromatic π-π-stacking interactions. Supercritical carbon dioxide drying of the organogels gave rise to aerogels with morphologies different from that of air-dried samples.

4.
IUCrJ ; 5(Pt 1): 32-44, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354269

RESUMO

Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a novel X-ray structure refinement technique that employs aspherical atomic scattering factors obtained from stockholder partitioning of a theoretically determined tailor-made static electron density. HAR overcomes many of the known limitations of independent atom modelling (IAM), such as too short element-hydrogen distances, r(X-H), or too large atomic displacement parameters (ADPs). This study probes the accuracy and precision of anisotropic hydrogen and non-hydrogen ADPs and of r(X-H) values obtained from HAR. These quantities are compared and found to agree with those obtained from (i) accurate neutron diffraction data measured at the same temperatures as the X-ray data and (ii) multipole modelling (MM), an established alternative method for interpreting X-ray diffraction data with the help of aspherical atomic scattering factors. Results are presented for three chemically different systems: the aromatic hydro-carbon rubrene (orthorhombic 5,6,11,12-tetra-phenyl-tetracene), a co-crystal of zwitterionic betaine, imidazolium cations and picrate anions (BIPa), and the salt potassium hydrogen oxalate (KHOx). The non-hydrogen HAR-ADPs are as accurate and precise as the MM-ADPs. Both show excellent agreement with the neutron-based values and are superior to IAM-ADPs. The anisotropic hydrogen HAR-ADPs show a somewhat larger deviation from neutron-based values than the hydrogen SHADE-ADPs used in MM. Element-hydrogen bond lengths from HAR are in excellent agreement with those obtained from neutron diffraction experiments, although they are somewhat less precise. The residual density contour maps after HAR show fewer features than those after MM. Calculating the static electron density with the def2-TZVP basis set instead of the simpler def2-SVP one does not improve the refinement results significantly. All HARs were performed within the recently introduced HARt option implemented in the Olex2 program. They are easily launched inside its graphical user interface following a conventional IAM.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 46(17): 5522-5531, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28054684

RESUMO

The cross-conjugated ethynyl-vinylidene [Ph2C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH){C(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]CRu(PPh3)2Cp}]PF6 ([4a]PF6), and [FcC(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH){C(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]CRu(PPh3)2Cp}]PF6 ([4b]PF6), and ethynyl-alkynyl Ph2C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH){C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CRu(PPh3)2Cp} (5a), and FcC(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH){C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CRu(PPh3)2Cp} (5b) compounds (Cp = η5-cyclopentadienyl) have been prepared from reactions of the known 3-methylene-penta-1,4-diynes Ph2C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH)2 (3a) and [FcCH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH)2] (3b) with [RuCl(PPh3)2Cp]. The compounds derived from 3b incorporating the more electron-rich alkene proved to be unstable during work-up, and attempts to prepare bis(ruthenium) complexes from 3a and 3b or from transmetallation reactions of the bis(alkynylgold) complex FcCH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CAuPPh3)2 (7) with RuCl(PPh3)2Cp were unsuccessful. The related bis- and tris(ferrocenyl) derivatives Ph2C[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CFc)2 (6a) and FcCH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CFc)2 (6b) were more readily obtained from Pd(ii)/Cu(i) catalysed cross-coupling reactions of FcC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH with the 1,1-dibromo vinyl complexes PhC[double bond, length as m-dash]CBr2 (1a) and FcC(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]CBr2 (1b). Cyclic voltammetry of 6a and 6b using n-Bu4N[PF6] as the supporting electrolyte shows broad, overlapping waves arising from the sequential oxidation of the ferrocenyl moieties in electronically and chemically similar environments. Electrostatic effects between the ferrocenyl moieties are enhanced in solutions of the weakly ion-pairing electrolyte n-Bu4N[B{C6H3(CF3)2-3,5}4], leading to better resolution of the individual electrochemical processes. The comparative IR spectroelectrochemical response of 6a and 6b suggest the vinyl ferrocene moiety in 6b undergoes oxidation before the ethynyl ferrocene fragments. There is no evidence of electronic coupling between the metallocene moieties and [6a]+, [6b]n+ (n = 1, 2) are best described as Class I mixed-valence compounds.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 55(17): 9099-104, 2016 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27529564

RESUMO

The aluminum(I) compound NacNacAl (1) reacts with diphenyl disulfide and diethyl sulfide to form the respective four-coordinate bis(phenyl sulfide) complex NacNacAl(SPh)2 (2) and alkyl thiolate aluminum complex NacNacAlEt(SEt) (3). As well, reaction of 1 with tetraphenyl diphosphine furnishes the bis(diphenyl phosphido) complex NacNacAl(PPh2)2 (4). Production of 3 and 4 are the first examples of C(sp(3))-S and R2P-PR2 activation by a main-group element complex. All three complexes were characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure analysis. Furthermore, a variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic study was undertaken on 4 to study its dynamic behavior in solution.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 45(6): 2554-61, 2016 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26727669

RESUMO

The syntheses of novel Group 5 and Group 6 hydrosilylamido complexes of the type R(ArN[double bond, length as m-dash])M{N((t)Bu)SiMe2-H}X (M = Ta, R = Cp; M = Mo, R = ArN; X = Cl, H, OBn, Me) are described. The various substituents in the X position seem to play the key role in determining the extent of ß-agostic interaction with the Si-H bond. The Mo agostic hydrido complex (ArN[double bond, length as m-dash])2Mo{η(3)-N((t)Bu)SiMe2-H}H is a pre-catalyst for the hydrosilylation of carbonyls. The stoichiometric reaction between benzaldehyde and (ArN[double bond, length as m-dash])2Mo{η(3)-N((t)Bu)SiMe2-H}H gives the benzoxy complex (ArN[double bond, length as m-dash])2Mo{N((t)Bu)SiMe2-H}(OBn), which showed a similar catalytic reactivity compared to the parent hydride. Mechanistic studies suggest that a non-hydride mechanism is operative.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 45(1): 208-15, 2016 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26599264

RESUMO

Reaction of complex [CpRu(pyr)3][PF6] (3) with the NHC carbene IPr (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) results in the NHC complex [Cp(IPr)Ru(pyr)2][PF6] (4), which was studied by NMR specroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Reaction of [Cp(IPr)Ru(pyr)2][PF6] (4) with LiAlH4 leads to the trihydride Cp(IPr)RuH3 (5) characterised by spectroscopic methods. Heating compound 5 with hydrosilanes gives the dihydrido silyl derivatives Cp(IPr)RuH2(SiR3) (6). Systematic X-ray diffraction studies suggest that complexes 6 have stronger interligand Si∙∙∙H interactions than the isolobal phosphine complexes Cp(Pr3P)RuH2(SiR3).

9.
Org Lett ; 17(24): 6178-81, 2015 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624275

RESUMO

To produce a novel class of structurally ordered poly-ß-prolines, an emergent method for synthesizing chiral ß-peptide molecular frameworks was developed based on 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry of azomethine ylides. Functionalized short ß-peptides with up to six monomeric residues were efficiently synthesized in homochiral forms using a cycloadditive oligomerization approach. X-ray, NMR, and CD structural analyses of the novel ß-peptides revealed secondary structure features that were generated primarily by Z/E-ß-peptide bond isomerism. Anticancer in cellulo activity of the new ß-peptides toward hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells was observed and was dependent on the absolute configuration of the stereogenic centers and the chain length of the ß-proline oligomers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Mentol/química , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/química , Catálise , Reação de Cicloadição , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Prolina/síntese química , Prolina/química , Prolina/farmacologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estereoisomerismo , Tiossemicarbazonas/química
10.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(52): 13025-37, 2015 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26650887

RESUMO

Molecular self-assembly is an effective strategy for controlling the [2 + 2] photocycloaddition reaction of olefins. The geometrical properties of supramolecular assemblies are proven to have a critical effect on the efficiency and selectivity of this photoreaction both in the solid state and in solution, but the role of other factors remains poorly understood. Convenient supramolecular systems to study the structure-property relationships are pseudocyclic dimers spontaneously formed by styryl dyes containing a crown ether moiety and a remote ammonium group. New dyes of this type were synthesized to investigate the effects of structural and electronic factors on the quantitative characteristics of supramolecular dimerization and [2 + 2] photocycloaddition in solution. Variable structural parameters for the styryl dyes were the size and structure of macrocyclic moiety, the nature of heteroaromatic residue, and the length of the ammonioalkyl group attached to this residue. Quantum chemical calculations of the pseudocyclic dimers were performed in order to interpret the relationships between the structure of the ammonium dyes and the efficiency of the supramolecular photoreaction. One of the dimeric complexes was obtained in the crystalline state and studied by X-ray diffraction. The results obtained demonstrate that the photocycloaddition in the pseudocyclic dimers can be dramatically affected by the electronic structure of the styryl moieties, as dependent on the electron-donating ability of the substituents on the benzene ring, and by the conformational flexibility of the pseudocycle, which determines the mobility of the olefinic bonds. The significance of electronic factors is highlighted by the fact that the photocycloaddition quantum yield in geometrically similar dimeric structures varies from ≤10(-4) to 0.38. The latter value is unusually high for olefins in solution.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Corantes/química , Éteres de Coroa/química , Reação de Cicloadição , Processos Fotoquímicos , Estirenos/química , Corantes/síntese química , Ciclização , Dimerização , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
J Org Chem ; 80(22): 11501-12, 2015 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26496049

RESUMO

A series of cross-conjugated compounds based on an (E)-4,4'-(hexa-3-en-1,5-diyne-3,4-diyl)bis(N,N-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)aniline) skeleton (1-6) have been synthesized. The linear optical absorption properties can be tuned by modification of the substituents at the 1 and 5 positions of the hexa-3-en-1,5-diynyl backbone (1: Si(CH(CH3)2)3, 2: C6H4C≡CSi(CH3)3, 3: C6H4COOCH3, 4: C6H4CF3, 5: C6H4C≡N, 6: C6H4C≡CC5H4N), although attempts to introduce electron-donating (C6H4CH3, C6H4OCH3, C6H4Si(CH3)3) substituents at these positions were hampered by the ensuing decreased stability of the compounds. Spectroelectrochemical investigations of selected examples, supported by DFT-based computational studies, have shown that one- and two-electron oxidation of the 1,2-bis(triarylamine)ethene fragment also results in electronic changes to the perpendicular π-system in the hexa-3-en-1,5-diynyl branch of the molecule. These properties suggest that (E)-hexa-3-en-1,5-diynyl-based compounds could have applications in molecular sensing and molecular electronics.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 44(32): 14341-8, 2015 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26199183

RESUMO

Reactions of the vinylidene complexes [M([double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)(PP)Cp']PF6 with NH3 readily afford the acyclic amino carbene complexes [M{C(Me)NH2}(PP)Cp']PF6 [M(PP)Cp' = Fe(dppe)Cp, Ru(dppe)Cp, Ru(PPh3)2Cp, Ru(dppe)Cp*]. Crystallographic, spectroscopic and computational data support a description of these complexes in terms of a M-{C(Me)[double bond, length as m-dash]N(+)H2} mesomeric form, and simple σ-coordination of the singlet acyclic amino carbene.

13.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 71(Pt 5): o354-5, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25995945

RESUMO

In the title compound, C11H7Br3ClN, the quinoline ring system is approximately planar (r.m.s. = 0.011 Å). In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯Br inter-actions forming chains along [10-1]. The chains are linked by C-H⋯π and π-π inter-actions involving inversion-related pyridine rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.608 (4) Å], forming sheets parallel to (10-1). Within the sheets, there are two significant short inter-actions involving a Br⋯Cl contact of 3.4904 (18) Šand a Br⋯N contact of 3.187 (6) Å, both of which are significantly shorter than the sum of their van der Waals radii.

14.
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv ; 71(Pt 1): 59-75, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25537389

RESUMO

This paper describes the mathematical basis for olex2.refine, the new refinement engine which is integrated within the Olex2 program. Precise and clear equations are provided for every computation performed by this engine, including structure factors and their derivatives, constraints, restraints and twinning; a general overview is also given of the different components of the engine and their relation to each other. A framework for adding multiple general constraints with dependencies on common physical parameters is described. Several new restraints on atomic displacement parameters are also presented.

15.
Chemistry ; 21(3): 1036-47, 2015 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25370384

RESUMO

Diatrizoic acid (DTA), a clinically used X-ray contrast agent, crystallises in two hydrated, three anhydrous and nine solvated solid forms, all of which have been characterised by X-ray crystallography. Single-crystal neutron structures of DTA dihydrate and monosodium DTA tetrahydrate have been determined. All of the solid-state structures have been analysed using partial atomic charges and hardness algorithm (PACHA) calculations. Even though in general all DTA crystal forms reveal similar intermolecular interactions, the overall crystal packing differs considerably from form to form. The water of the dihydrate is encapsulated between a pair of host molecules, which calculations reveal to be an extraordinarily stable motif. DTA presents functionalities that enable hydrogen and halogen bonding, and whilst an extended hydrogen-bonding network is realised in all crystal forms, halogen bonding is not present in the hydrated crystal forms. This is due to the formation of a hydrogen-bonding network based on individual enclosed water squares, which is not amenable to the concomitant formation of halogen bonds. The main interaction in the solvates involves the carboxylic acid, which corroborates the hypothesis that this strong interaction is the last one to be broken during the crystal desolvation and nucleation process.


Assuntos
Diatrizoato/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Conformação Molecular , Difração de Nêutrons , Solventes/química , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria , Água/química
16.
J Org Chem ; 79(23): 11416-30, 2014 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25387102

RESUMO

The synthesis of new styryl dyes derived from 4-pyridine and 4-quinoline and having an ammonioalkyl N-substituent and benzocrown ether moieties of different sizes and with different sets of heteroatoms was developed. Spontaneous "head-to-tail" dimerization of these dyes via the formation of numerous hydrogen bonds between the terminal NH3(+) groups and crown ether moieties was detected in MeCN solutions. The stability constants of the dimeric complexes having pseudocyclic structure were studied by (1)H NMR titration. The most stable complexes (log Kd up to 8.2) were found in the case of dyes with the 18-crown-6 ether moiety, which is most complementary for binding a primary ammonium group. Stacking interaction of the conjugated systems in the dimeric complexes contributes to their stability to a much lesser extent. In dimeric complexes, the ethylene bonds of the dyes are preorganized for stereospecific [2 + 2] photocycloaddition (PCA) induced by visible light. PCA yields only rctt isomers of bis-crown-containing cyclobutane derivatives. The dyes were studied by X-ray diffraction; it was found that the dimeric arrangement is also retained in the crystalline state. The possibility of topochemical PCA of the dyes in single crystals without their destruction was demonstrated. The possibility of retro-PCA of the obtained cyclobutane derivatives to give the starting dyes was shown. The elucidated regularities of PCA can be used to fabricate optical data recording systems based on ammonioalkyl derivatives of crown ether styryl dyes.

17.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 68(6): 425-9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25198753

RESUMO

A short series of fluorotetrahydroquinolines was synthesised in two steps from diethyl fluoromalonate and appropriate ortho-nitrobenzyl bromide precursors.

18.
Chemistry ; 20(42): 13618-35, 2014 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25168267

RESUMO

Quadrupolar oligothiophene chromophores composed of four to five thiophene rings with two terminal (E)-dimesitylborylvinyl groups (4 V-5 V), and five thiophene rings with two terminal aryldimesitylboryl groups (5 B), as well as an analogue of 5 V with a central EDOT ring (5 VE), have been synthesized via Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in high yields (66-89%). Crystal structures of 4 V, 5 B, bithiophene 2 V, and five thiophene-derived intermediates are reported. Chromophores 4 V, 5 V, 5 B and 5 VE have photoluminescence quantum yields of 0.26-0.29, which are higher than those of the shorter analogues 1 V-3 V (0.01-0.20), and short fluorescence lifetimes (0.50-1.05 ns). Two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra have been measured for 2 V-5 V, 5 B and 5 VE in the range 750-920 nm. The measured TPA cross-sections for the series 2 V-5 V increase steadily with length up to a maximum of 1930 GM. We compare the TPA properties of 2 V-5 V with the related compounds 5 B and 5 VE, giving insight into the structure-property relationship for this class of chromophore. DFT and TD-DFT results, including calculated TPA spectra, complement the experimental findings and contribute to their interpretation. A comparison to other related thiophene and dimesitylboryl compounds indicates that our design strategy is promising for the synthesis of efficient dyes for two-photon-excited fluorescence applications.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Tiofenos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Modelos Moleculares , Teoria Quântica , Tiofenos/síntese química
19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 43(13): 4300-11, 2014 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24686464

RESUMO

This tutorial review looks at structural and supramolecular chemistry of molecular solids under extreme conditions, and introduces the instrumentation and facilities that enable single crystal diffraction studies on molecular crystals at both high pressure and low temperature. The equipment used for crystallography under extreme conditions is explored, particularly pressure cells such as the diamond anvil cell, and their mechanism of action, as well as the cryogenic apparatus which allows materials to be cooled to significantly low temperatures. The review also covers recent advances in the structural chemistry of molecular solids under extreme conditions with an emphasis on the use of single crystal crystallography in high pressure and low temperature environments to probe polymorphism and supramolecular interactions.

20.
Dalton Trans ; 43(22): 8446-53, 2014 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24740303

RESUMO

The bis(imido) complexes ((t)BuN[double bond, length as m-dash])2Mo(PMe3)(L) (L = PMe3, C2H4) react with up to three equivalents of silane PhSiH3 to give the imido-bridged disilyl silyl Mo(vi) complex ((t)BuN){µ-(t)BuN(SiHPh)2}Mo(H)(SiH2Ph)(PMe3)2 (3) studied by NMR, IR and X-ray diffraction. NMR data supported by DFT calculations show that complex 3 is an unusual example of a silyl hydride of Mo(VI), without significant SiH interaction. Mechanistic NMR studies revealed that silane addition proceeds in a stepwise manner via a series of Si-H∙∙∙M agostic and silanimine complexes whose structures were further elucidated by DFT calculations.

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