Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Data Brief ; 25: 104265, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453283

RESUMO

The data presented here represent estimates of the phosphorus content of crop production, phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and agricultural phosphorus inputs associated with it across the contiguous United States. Net Anthropogenic Phosphorus Input (NAPI) estimates and related data are also provided. Data are presented at county, sub-regional and regional scales. Here, subregions refer to multi-county areas delineated with the goal of obtaining more uniform reporting areas than individual counties. Regions refer to the USDA Farm Resource Regions. The data are reported for 6 agricultural census years, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012. Estimates of the variables were derived originally from USDA agricultural census data, US population census data, and other sources, using version 3.1 of the NANI/NAPI calculator toolbox (Hong et al.,2011).

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 174-188, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174115

RESUMO

Crop N use efficiency (NUE) and P use efficiency (PUE) might be expected to exhibit different patterns across agricultural regions due to their very different environmental dynamics and management strategies. Here, following our previous work on regional patterns of NUE, we review patterns of PUE and related variables, including major inputs of P to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS). Unlike N, P inputs to cropland only occur in the forms of P fertilizer, which has generally changed little over time relative to N fertilizer, and manure P, which has increased. Expressed as percentages of total P inputs, they necessarily have opposite impacts on PUE because of the stronger relationship of crop production to fertilizer compared to manure produced in a region. Across the US, PUE trends have varied significantly, increasing in some regions, in contrast to NUE which has generally remained constant or declined on decadal time scales. As with N, the Heartland region dominates national patterns due to the magnitude of crop production, showing a significant relationship with fertilizer P but none with manure P on a cropland area basis. Most other regions show similar responses, but the Northern Crescent, Eastern Uplands and Southern Seaboard regions shows a negative response to fertilizer on the same basis. The regional response of production to P inputs on a cropland area basis differs from that on a total area basis, suggesting that the type of scaling used is critical under changing cropland area. In the US, manure is still treated largely as a waste to be managed rather than a nutrient resource. Differences between P and N need to be considered in the context of management of environmental quality and food security.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes , Fósforo/análise , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fazendas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estados Unidos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 648: 1549-1559, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340300

RESUMO

The separation between crop- and livestock production is an important driver of agricultural nutrient surpluses in many parts of the world. Nutrient surpluses can be symptomatic of poor resource use efficiency and contribute to environmental problems. Thus, it is important not only to identify where surpluses can be reduced, but also the potential policy tools that could facilitate reductions. Here, we explored linkages between livestock production and nutrient flows for the Baltic Sea catchment and discuss management practices and policies that influence the magnitude of nutrient surpluses. We found that the majority of nutrients cycled through the livestock sector and that large nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses often occurred in regions with high livestock density. Imports of mineral fertilizers and feed to the catchment increased overall surpluses, which in turn increased the risk of nutrient losses from agriculture to the aquatic environment. Many things can be done to reduce agricultural nutrient surpluses; an important example is using manure nutrients more efficiently in crop production, thereby reducing the need to import mineral fertilizers. Also, existing soil P reserves could be used to a greater extent, which further emphasizes the need to improve nutrient management practices. The countries around the Baltic Sea used different approaches to manage agricultural nutrient surpluses, and because eight of the coastal countries are members in the European Union (EU), common EU policies play an important role in management. We observed reductions in surpluses between 2000 and 2010 in some countries, which suggested the influence of different approaches to management and policy and that there are opportunities for further improvement. However, the separation between crop and livestock production in agriculture appears to be an underlying cause of nutrient surpluses; thus, further research is needed to understand how policy can address these structural issues and increase sustainability in food production.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Gado/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica
4.
Data Brief ; 18: 1877-1888, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904691

RESUMO

[The data presented here represent estimates of the nitrogen content of crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and agricultural nitrogen inputs associated with it across the contiguous United States. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Input (NANI) estimates and related data are also provided. Data are presented at county, sub-regional and regional scales. Here, subregions refer to multi-county areas delineated with the goal of obtaining more uniform reporting areas than individual counties. Regions refer to the USDA Farm Resource Regions. The data are reported for 6 agricultural census years, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012. Estimates of the variables were derived originally from USDA agricultural census data, US population census data, and other sources, using version 3.1 of the NANI calculator toolbox [1], [2], [3]].

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 635: 498-511, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677675

RESUMO

National-level summaries of crop production and nutrient use efficiency, important for international comparisons, only partially elucidate agricultural dynamics within a country. Agricultural production and associated environmental impacts in large countries vary significantly because of regional differences in crops, climate, resource use and production practices. Here, we review patterns of regional crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and major inputs of nitrogen to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS). Across the US, NUE generally decreased over time over the period studied, mainly due to increased use in mineral N fertilizer above crop N requirements. The Heartland region dominates production of major crops and thus tends to drive national patterns, showing linear response of crop production to nitrogen inputs broadly consistent with an earlier analysis of global patterns of country-scale data by Lassaletta et al. (2014). Most other regions show similar responses, but the Eastern Uplands region shows a negative response to nitrogen inputs, and the Southern Seaboard shows no significant relationship. The regional differences appear as two branches in the response of aggregate production to N inputs on a cropland area basis, but not on a total area basis, suggesting that the type of scaling used is critical under changing cropland area. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is positively associated with fertilizer as a percentage of N inputs in four regions, and all regions considered together. NUE is positively associated with crop N fixation in all regions except Northern Great Plains. It is negatively associated with manure (livestock excretion); in the US, manure is still treated largely as a waste to be managed rather than a nutrient resource. This significant regional variation in patterns of crop production and NUE vs N inputs, has implications for environmental quality and food security.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(35): 27201-27214, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965271

RESUMO

China is undergoing a rapid transition from a rural to an urban society. This societal change is a consequence of a national drive toward economic prosperity. However, accelerated urban development resulting from rapid population migration from rural to urban lands has led to high levels of untreated sewage entering aquatic ecosystems directly. Consequently, many of these regions have been identified as hot spots of riverine nitrogen (N) pollution because of the increasing level of urban point-source discharge. In order to address this concern, we assessed effects of urban development on ammonia-nitrogen (AN) loads using a panel data regression model. The model, expressed as an exponential function of anthropogenic N inputs multiplied by a power function of streamflow, was applied to 20 subwatersheds of the Huai River Basin for the years 2003-2010. The results indicated that this model can account for 81% of the variation in annual AN fluxes over space and time. Application of this model to three scenarios of urban development and sewage treatment (termed urbanization priority, sustainable development, and environmental priority) suggests that future N pollution will inevitably deteriorate if current urban environmental management and investment are not significantly improved. Stronger support for environmental management is very critical to alleviate N pollution and improve water quality. More effort should focus on improving sewage treatment and the N removal rate of the current sewage system in light of the increasing degree of urbanization.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Migração Humana , Nitrogênio/análise , Rios/química , Urbanização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , População Rural , População Urbana , Qualidade da Água
7.
Ambio ; 44(7): 635-46, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25698057

RESUMO

The environmental degradation of lakes in China has become increasingly serious over the last 30 years and eutrophication resulting from enhanced nutrient inputs is considered a top threat. In this study, a quasi-mass balance method, net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI), was introduced to assess the human influence on N input into three typical Chinese lake basins. The resultant NANI exceeded 10,000 kg N km(-2) year(-1) for all three basins, and mineral fertilizers were generally the largest sources. However, rapid urbanization and shrinking agricultural production capability may significantly increase N inputs from food and feed imports. Higher percentages of NANI were observed to be exported at urban river outlets, suggesting the acceleration of NANI transfer to rivers by urbanization. Over the last decade, the N inputs have declined in the basins dominated by the fertilizer use but have increased in the basins dominated by the food and feed import. In the foreseeable future, urban areas may arise as new hotspots for nitrogen in China while fertilizer use may decline in importance in areas of high population density.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 505: 376-84, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461039

RESUMO

Due to a rapid increase in human population and development of neighborhood economy over the last few decades, nitrogen (N) and other nutrient inputs in Lake Dianchi drainage basin have increased dramatically, changing the lake's trophic classification from oligotrophic to eutrophic. Although human activities are considered as main causes for the degradation of water quality in the lake, a numerical analysis of the share of the effect of different anthropogenic factors is still largely unexplored. We use the net anthropogenic N input (NANI) method to estimate human-induced N inputs to the drainage basin from 1980 to 2010, which covers the period of dramatic socioeconomic and environmental changes. For the last three decades, NANI increased linearly by a factor of three, from 4700 kg km(-2)year(-1) in 1980 to 12,600 kg km(-2)year(-1) in 2010. The main reason for the rise of NANI was due to fertilizer N application as well as human food and animal feed imports. From the perspective of direct effects of food consumption on N inputs, contributions of drivers were estimated in terms of human population and human diet using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) factor decomposition method. Although human population density is highly correlated to NANI with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.999, human diet rather than human population is found to be the single largest driver of NANI change, accounting for 47% of total alteration, which illustrates that the role of population density in the change of NANI may be overestimated through simple relational analysis. The strong linear relationships (p<0.01) between NANI and total N concentrations in the lakes over time may indicate that N level in the lake is able to respond significantly to N inputs to the drainage basin.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Eutrofização , Fertilizantes/análise , Atividades Humanas , Fósforo/análise
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(17): 6237-42, 2014 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24733927

RESUMO

The identification and quantification of methane emissions from natural gas production has become increasingly important owing to the increase in the natural gas component of the energy sector. An instrumented aircraft platform was used to identify large sources of methane and quantify emission rates in southwestern PA in June 2012. A large regional flux, 2.0-14 g CH4 s(-1) km(-2), was quantified for a ∼ 2,800-km(2) area, which did not differ statistically from a bottom-up inventory, 2.3-4.6 g CH4 s(-1) km(-2). Large emissions averaging 34 g CH4/s per well were observed from seven well pads determined to be in the drilling phase, 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than US Environmental Protection Agency estimates for this operational phase. The emissions from these well pads, representing ∼ 1% of the total number of wells, account for 4-30% of the observed regional flux. More work is needed to determine all of the sources of methane emissions from natural gas production, to ascertain why these emissions occur and to evaluate their climate and atmospheric chemistry impacts.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(10): 5199-207, 2013 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23631661

RESUMO

The net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach is a simple quasi-mass-balance that estimates the human-induced nitrogen inputs to a watershed. Across a wide range of watersheds, NANI has been shown to be a good predictor of riverine nitrogen export. In this paper, we review various methodologies proposed for NANI estimation since its first introduction and evaluate alternative calculations suggested by previous literature. Our work is the first study in which a consistent NANI calculation method is applied across the U.S. watersheds and tested against available riverine N flux estimates. Among the tested methodologies, yield-based estimation of agricultural N fixation (instead of crop area-based) made the largest difference, especially in some Mississippi watersheds where the tile drainage was a significant factor reducing watershed N retention. Across the U.S. watersheds, NANI was particularly sensitive to farm N fertilizer application, cattle N consumption, N fixation by soybeans and alfalfa, and N yield by corn, soybeans, and pasture, although their relative importance varied among different regions.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/química , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
Ecol Appl ; 20(1): 16-29, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20349828

RESUMO

Worldwide increases in human and wildlife diseases have challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth's ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Along with the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens. The mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, however, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we highlight recent experimental advances to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the interrelated nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases, and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem, and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or toxicity, and the direct supplementation of pathogens. Collectively, these pathogens may be particularly dangerous because they can continue to cause mortality even as their hosts decline, potentially leading to sustained epidemics or chronic pathology. We suggest that interactions between nutrient enrichment and disease will become increasingly important in tropical and subtropical regions, where forecasted increases in nutrient application will occur in an environment rich with infectious pathogens. We emphasize the importance of careful disease management in conjunction with continued intensification of global nutrient cycles.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Zoonoses
15.
J Environ Qual ; 37(2): 318-24, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18268293

RESUMO

Renewable fuel production, particularly grain-based ethanol, is expanding rapidly in the USA. Although subsidized grain-based ethanol may provide a competitively priced transportation fuel, concerns exist about potential environmental impacts. This contribution focuses on potential water quality implications of expanded grain-based ethanol production and potential impacts of perennial-grass-based cellulosic ethanol. Expanded grain-based ethanol will increase and intensify corn production. Even with recommended fertilizer and land conservation measures, corn acreage can be a major source of N loss to water (20-40 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)). A greater acreage of corn is estimated to increase N and P loss to water by 37% (117 million kg) and 25% (9 million kg), respectively, and measures to encourage adoption of conservation practices are essential to mitigate water quality impairments. Dried distiller's grains remaining after ethanol production from corn grain are used as animal feed and can increase manure P content and may increase N content. Cellulosic fuel-stocks from perennials such as switchgrass and woody materials have the potential to produce ethanol. Although production, storage, and handling of cellulosic materials and conversion technology are limitations, accelerating development of cellulosic ethanol has the potential to reduce dependence on grain fuel-stocks and provide water quality and other environmental benefits. All alternative fuel production technologies could have environmental impacts. There is a need to understand these impacts to help guide policy and help make programmatic and scientific decisions that avoid or mitigate unintended environmental consequences of biofuel production.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Etanol , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Celulose , Grão Comestível , Nitrogênio , Panicum , Fósforo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zea mays
17.
Sci China C Life Sci ; 48 Spec No: 791-806, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16512202

RESUMO

Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Política Pública , Poluentes da Água , Poluição da Água , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Meio Ambiente , Combustíveis Fósseis , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Água do Mar , Estados Unidos , Poluição da Água/legislação & jurisprudência
18.
Sci China C Life Sci ; 48 Suppl 2: 791-806, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20549435

RESUMO

Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes. Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen pollution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NO(x) emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen. Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Nitrogênio/química , Política Pública , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Combustíveis Fósseis , Humanos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Formulação de Políticas , Água do Mar , Estados Unidos , Poluentes da Água , Poluição da Água/legislação & jurisprudência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA