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1.
Neurology ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sport-related concussions affect millions of individuals across the United States each year and current techniques to diagnose and monitor them rely largely on subjective measures. Our goal was to discover and validate objective, quantifiable non-invasive biomarkers with the potential to be used in sport-related concussion diagnosis. METHODS: Urine samples from a convenience series of healthy control collegiate athletes who had not sustained a concussion and athletes who sustained a concussion as diagnosed by a sports medicine physician within seven days were collected prospectively and studied. Participants also completed an instrumented single-task gait analysis as a functional measure. Participants were recruited from a single collegiate athletic program, were ≥18 years old, and were excluded if they had a concomitant injury, active psychiatric conditions or pre-existing neurological disorders. Using Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) mass spectroscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), urinary biomarkers of concussion were identified and validated. RESULTS: Forty-eight control and 47 concussion age- and sex-matched athletes were included in the study (51.6%F, 48.4%M, average age 19.6y). Participants represented both contact and non-contact sports. All but one of the post-concussion participants reported experiencing symptoms at the time of data collection. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) were downregulated in the urine of athletes with concussions compared to healthy controls. Multivariable risk algorithms developed to predict the probability of sport-related concussion showed that IGF-1 multiplexed with single-task gait velocity predicts concussion risk across a range of post-injury timepoints (AUC=0.786; 95% CI:0.690-0.884). When IGF-1 and IGFBP5 are multiplexed with single-task gait velocity, they accurately distinguish between healthy controls and concussion at acute timepoints (AUC=0.835, 95% CI:0.701-0·968, p<0.001). DISCUSSION: These noninvasive biomarkers, discovered in an objective and validated manner, may be useful in diagnosing and monitoring sport-related concussions in both acute phases of injury in addition to several days post-injury. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that urinary IGF-1 and IGFBP5 multiplexed with single-task gait velocity may be useful in diagnosing sport-related concussion. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02354469, submitted February 2015, first patient enrolled August 2015 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02354469).

2.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623439

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Dizziness, postural instability, and poor sleep quality are all commonly reported post-concussion and individually relate to poor outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine sleep quality and postural stability among adolescents who did and did not report dizziness within two weeks of concussion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Research laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Participants ages 12-18 years within 14 days of concussion (n=58, 15.2±1.8 years; 50% female; 7.1±3.1 days post-injury) and uninjured controls (n=73; 15.8±1.3 years; 42% female). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed pre-injury and current dizziness ratings on the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) and current sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Participants also completed postural stability assessments (single/dual-task tandem gait and modified Balance Error Scoring System [mBESS]). RESULTS: We grouped concussion patients into dizzy (n=21) or not dizzy (n=37) groups based on PCSI dizziness ratings: difference between current and pre-injury dizziness rating >3=dizzy; difference <3=not dizzy. The dizzy and not dizzy groups both reported significantly worse sleep quality than the control group (PSQI score: mean=9.6±3.7 vs 7.2±3.5 vs 4.3±2.6; p<0.001) upon univariable comparison. Similarly, the dizzy group performed slowest on single and dual-task tandem gait, followed by the not dizzy group, then the control group (single-task TG: mean= 27.2±11.7 sec vs 21.2±6.3 vs 14.7±3.6; p<0.001); (dual-task TG: mean=38.4±16.2 sec vs 29.9±7.2 vs 21.6±7.5; p<0.001). Both concussion groups demonstrated significantly more errors than the control group on the mBESS (mean=9.8±5.1 vs 6.9±5.8 vs 3.8±3.5; p<0.001). After controlling for total symptom severity in the multivariable model, tandem gait, but not mBESS or sleep quality, was associated with dizziness. CONCLUSION: Individuals with post-concussion dizziness also demonstrated impaired tandem gait performance, while poor sleep quality was associated with total symptom severity. Identifying and treating the underlying dysfunction contributing to dizziness and postural instability may guide individualized rehabilitation strategies and facilitate recovery.

3.
Neurology ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise has become a useful method to assist with post-concussion management. Exercise can exacerbate concussion symptoms even when symptoms are not apparent at rest. Few studies have examined the reasons for symptom exacerbation during exercise following a concussion. We had two primary objectives. 1) To delineate cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular responses to exercise in adolescents and young adults with a concussion and healthy controls. 2) To determine the association between cerebrovascular responses and symptom burden. METHODS: We recruited participants with a recent concussion from a sport concussion clinic between 9/1/2018-2/22/2020. They were included if their concussion occurred <3 weeks before initial testing and if they were symptomatic at rest. Participants were excluded if they sustained a concussion in the past year (excluding index injury), reported history of neurological disorders, or were using medications/devices that may alter neurological function. Participants completed a progressive, symptom-limited, sub-maximal exercise protocol on a stationary bike. We assessed heart rate, blood pressure, fraction of end tidal CO2 (FETCO2) and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBF) and cerebrovascular function (vasoreactivity and autoregulation) at seated rest and during exercise. RESULTS: We conducted 107 exercise tests (40 concussed, 37 healthy participants initially; 30 concussed at follow-up). Concussed participants were tested initially (mean=17.6±2.2 [SD] years old; 55% female; mean=12.5±4.7 days post-concussion) and again 8 weeks later (mean=73.3±9.5 days post-concussion). Control participants (mean=18.3±2.4 years; 62% female) were tested once. FETCO2 increased throughout the exercise protocol as heart rate increased, reached a plateau, and declined at higher exercise intensities. CO2 explained >25% of the variation in resting CBF (R2>0.25; p<0.01) in most (73% individuals). Within the concussion group, resting symptom severity and the heart rate at which FETCO2 reached a plateau explained ∼two-thirds of variation in exercise-induced symptom exacerbation (R 2 =0.65; FETCO2 ß=-1.210±0.517[S.E.], p<0.05). There was a moderate, statistically significant relationship between cerebrovascular responses to CO2 at rest (cerebral vasoreactivity) and cerebrovascular responses to exercise-induced changes in FETCO2 (R2=0.13, p=0.01). DISCUSSION: The arterial CO2 response and symptom exacerbation relationship during post-concussion aerobic exercise may be mediated by increased sensitivity of cerebral vasculature to exercise-related increase in CO2.

4.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent research supports initiating physical activity as soon as 24 to 48 hours after concussion to reduce persistent postconcussive symptoms. However, this practice has not been widely adopted. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of early physical activity with patient-reported and functional outcomes for pediatric patients following a concussion. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of patients who presented to a pediatric sports medicine clinic (48% female, mean age14.3 ± 2.6 years, and mean 9.8 ± 5.7 days postconcussion) were evaluated. Patients were grouped based on whether they reported engaging in physical activity prior to presenting to the clinic. Patient- and parent-reported symptom frequency (Health and Behavior Inventory), 11 different clinical outcomes (including missed school, memory recall, and balance assessments), the presence of symptoms persisting beyond 28 days, and a subgroup analysis of those patients receiving exercise versus symptom-limiting activity prescriptions were examined. Outcomes were compared between physical activity groups using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the chi-square test. To adjust for the effect of potential confounders, a logistic binary regression model was constructed. RESULTS: In total, 211 pediatric patients were included, 35 (17%) of whom reported early physical activity. A greater proportion of the no physical activity group reported a headache (85% vs 60%, p = 0.001). The no physical activity group also reported higher patient-reported (23.1 ± 13.4 vs 15.0 ± 13.4, p < 0.001) and parent-reported (19.4 ± 12.7 vs 11.2 ± 10.3, p = 0.001) symptom frequency at the initial visit. The early physical activity group had a lower proportion of patients with persistent symptoms (44% vs 22%, p = 0.02) and a shorter time to symptom resolution (15.6 ± 12.4 days vs 27.2 ± 24.2 days, p = 0.02). After adjusting for potential confounders, early physical activity was associated with 5.8 lower odds of experiencing persistent symptoms (adjusted OR 5.83, 95% CI 2.05-16.61; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A significant association between early physical activity and decreased symptom burden was observed. A lower proportion of those patients who engaged in early physical activity experienced persistent symptoms 28 days postinjury. However, low rates of early physical activity prior to the initial clinic visit were also observed, indicating that this approach may not be well known by acute care or primary care providers, or is not widely adopted by patients and families.

5.
PM R ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gymnastics is a competitive sport with numerous health benefits. However, few data exist that examine the lasting effects of injuries in retired gymnasts. OBJECTIVE: To examine pain interference among former collegiate gymnasts. Specifically, we focused on the relationship between gymnastics-related injuries sustained during middle/high school or college that required surgery and former collegiate gymnasts' current pain. We hypothesized that injuries requiring surgery would be associated with increased pain and reduced function after retirement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: An online questionnaire was distributed to former female collegiate gymnasts via social media. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 447 former female collegiate gymnasts completed the survey and were grouped according to whether they indicated an injury during their middle/high school or collegiate gymnastics career that required surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The association between current pain interference (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System [PROMIS] scale) and injuries in middle/high school or college that resulted in surgery. Pain interference elements included current enjoyment of life, ability to concentrate, participation in day-to-day activities, enjoyment of recreational activities, ability to perform errands, and ability to socialize with others. RESULTS: Those who reported an injury that resulted in surgery (n = 260; mean current age ± SD = 32.8 ± 9.5 years) were younger than those who did not at the time of survey completion (n = 187; current age: 37.0 ± 11.0 years) and reported beginning gymnastics at an earlier age (4.4 ± 2.0 years vs. 5.1 ± 2.5 years; p = .001). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on any PROMIS questions. In secondary analyses, we found a small but significant association between beginning gymnastics at an earlier age and the odds of requiring surgery (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.21; p = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Most retired gymnasts reported a gymnastics-related injury that required surgery. Gymnasts who start gymnastics at a younger age were more likely to sustain an injury that required surgery, but surgery was not associated with higher levels of pain interference.

6.
Phys Ther Sport ; 52: 132-139, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of an 8-week neuromuscular training program initiated upon return-to-play clearance following concussion. DESIGN: Feasibility trial. SETTING: A single sports medicine center. PARTICIPANTS: We approached n = 54 patients; n = 32 agreed to participate (59%). N = 27 participants returned for their second visit at return-to-play clearance (84%) and were randomized to neuromuscular training (n = 13) or standard-of-care (n = 14). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed three assessments: within 14 days post-concussion, immediately after return-to-play clearance, and 8-weeks following return-to-play clearance. The intervention aimed to achieve positive neuromuscular adaptations and occurred 2x/week for 8 weeks under supervision. RESULTS: N = 2 participants randomized to the intervention elected not to participate, both due to schedule conflicts (e.g., time required to meet with the study team). Participants began the intervention an average of 11 days after return-to-play clearance, the majority (91%) completed >75% of training sessions, and training sessions lasted an average of 18.2 ± 4.8 min. One participant stopped the intervention after 7 training sessions due to time availability. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to initiate a neuromuscular training program for most athletes shortly after returning to play following concussion. Clinicians and researchers may consider this approach to mitigate the increased musculoskeletal injury risk for concussion patients returning to sports.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Medicina Esportiva , Atletas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos
7.
Gait Posture ; 90: 289-294, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dizziness and gait impairments are commonly observed following a concussion, and both are associated with prolonged concussion recovery. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there a correlation between combined self-reported dizziness and balance impairment severity with objective gait impairments after concussion? METHODS: Participants (n = 51; 15.4 ± 1.6 years; 51 % female; 7.3 ± 3.2 days post-injury) age 12-18 years self-reported ratings of dizziness and balance impairment using the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) within 14 days of injury. Individual ratings of dizziness, balance impairment, and moving clumsily on the PCSI were combined to create a comprehensive dizziness and imbalance score. Participants also completed a smartphone-based gait evaluation under single-task and dual-task conditions. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r for normally distributed and Spearman rho for non-normally distributed variables) were calculated between self-reported symptoms and single and dual-task spatiotemporal gait parameters, specifically step velocity, step time, and step length. RESULTS: Correlation coefficients indicated that there was low to no correlation between self-reported dizziness and imbalance impairment severity and smartphone-obtained gait parameters under single- or dual-task conditions, including step velocity (single-task: r=-0.22, p = 0.13; dual-task: r=-0.05, p = 0.72), step time (single-task: rho = 0.16, p = 0.27; dual-task: rho = 0.14, p = 0.33), and step length (single-task: r=-0.15, p = 0.30; dual-task: r = 0.03, p = 0.84). SIGNIFICANCE: Self-reported dizziness and balance impairment severity within the first two weeks of concussion may not reflect objectively measured gait performance, given the lack of association between subjective symptom ratings and functional measures. Further, smartphone collected gait parameters may not provide the necessary sensitivity to detect an association with dizziness. The lack of significant correlation between self-reported symptoms and objective gait performance highlights the importance of using both objective and subjective measures to obtain a more complete picture of concussion deficits.

8.
J Sci Med Sport ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine kinesiophobia (i.e. fear of movement) among adolescent athletes with concussion compared to controls, and correlations of kinesiophobia with symptoms and reaction time. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: We evaluated 49 adolescent athletes twice. The concussion group was assessed within 14 days of injury and at return-to-play clearance. The control group was tested initially and approximately 28 days later. Participants completed Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory, and clinical reaction time assessments. RESULTS: We included 32 concussion participants (15 ± 2 years; 50% female) and 17 controls (16 ± 1 years; 47% female). Acutely (<14 days post-injury), the concussion group reported greater Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia scores (38.5 ± 5.4 vs. 29.4 ± 6.7; p < 0.001; Cohen's d = 1.54), and a greater proportion of "high" (≥37) scores than controls (69% vs. 6%; p < 0.001). At return-to-play, there were no significant between-group differences (33.3 ± 6.5 vs. 30.8 ± 7.4; p = 0.23; Cohen's d = 0.36); 28% of the concussion group reported "high" Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia scores. At return-to-play, kinesiophobia was significantly/moderately correlated with clinical reaction time for the concussion group (r = 0.50; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents recovering from concussion commonly reported high kinesiophobia initially postconcussion, while 28% continued to report high kinesiophobia at return-to-play clearance. Additionally, a correlation between Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia scores and clinical reaction time was observed for the concussion group. This finding would benefit from further study to determine potential perception-behavior relationships following concussion.

9.
Brain Inj ; 35(10): 1218-1228, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scores, Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores, and oculomotor deficits post-concussion. METHODS: Records of adolescent patients examined in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic between July 2014 and May 2019 were reviewed. PCSS and CISS scores, results of eye examination and oculomotor assessment, concussion history, and demographics were abstracted. RESULTS: One hundred and forty patient records (median age, 15.3 years; 52 males, presented 109 days (median) from their most recent concussion) met inclusion criteria. Mean total scores on PCSS and CISS were 46.67 ± 25.89 and 27.13 ± 13.22, respectively, and were moderately correlated with each other (r = 0.53, p < .001). Oculomotor deficits were observed in 123 (88%) patients. Step-wise linear regression identified increased PCSS total score to be significantly associated with decreased amplitude of accommodation (p < .001). Increased CISS total score was significantly associated with receded near point of convergence, developmental eye movement test error scores, and cause of concussion. CONCLUSION: High PCSS scores may indicate an accommodation deficit and thus prompt an oculomotor assessment in patients following a concussion. Using the CISS and a detailed oculomotor assessment may reveal underlying oculomotor deficits, which may benefit from treatment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/epidemiologia
10.
Physiol Meas ; 42(9)2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450608

RESUMO

Objective.We investigated the relation between prior concussion history and working memory (WM), self-reported cognitive symptom burden, and cerebrovascular function in adolescents and young adults (14-21 years old).Approach.We recruited 59 participants, 34 clinically diagnosed with a sports-related concussion and 25 controls. Concussed subjects were studied at baseline (within 28 days of their injury) and eight weeks after, while control subjects only had one assessment. We assessed WM (n-back task up to four-back), and neurovascular coupling (cerebrovascular responses at middle cerebral artery duringn-back tasks) using a transcranial Doppler ultrasonograph.Main results.There was no significant difference in WM between controls and concussed participants (p = 0.402). However, WM capacity was lower in those who had sustained ≥3 concussions (7.1% with WM capacity of four) compared to those with their first ever concussion (33.3%) and controls (28.0%, overallp = 0.025). At the sub-acute point (n = 24), self-reported cognitive symptom burden was mostly resolved in all but two participants. Despite the resolution of symptoms, WM performance was not different eight weeks post injury (p = 0.706). Neurovascular coupling was not different between controls and concussed participants regardless of prior concussion history.Significance. Up to 20% of concussed individuals experience covert sequelae lasting beyond the resolution of self-reported overt symptoms. How a prior history of concussion impacts the potential for sequelae is not well established, and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Despite no alterations in neurovascular coupling, a history of prior concussion was associated with significant deficits in WM capacity, and lasted beyond self-reported cognitive symptom resolution.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Adolescente , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Appl Biomech ; : 1-8, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257159

RESUMO

Our purpose was to investigate the reliability and minimal detectable change characteristics of a smartphone-based assessment of single- and dual-task gait and cognitive performance. Uninjured adolescent athletes (n = 17; mean age = 16.6, SD = 1.3 y; 47% female) completed assessments initially and again 4 weeks later. The authors collected data via an automated smartphone-based application while participants completed a series of tasks under (1) single-task cognitive, (2) single-task gait, and (3) dual-task cognitive-gait conditions. The cognitive task was a series of continuous auditory Stroop cues. Average gait speed was consistent between testing sessions in single-task (0.98, SD = 0.21 vs 0.96, SD = 0.19 m/s; P = .60; r = .89) and dual-task (0.92, SD = 0.22 vs 0.89, SD = 0.22 m/s; P = .37; r = .88) conditions. Response accuracy was moderately consistent between assessments in single-task standing (82.3% accurate, SD = 17.9% vs 84.6% accurate, SD = 20.1%; P = .64; r = .52) and dual-task gait (89.4% accurate, SD = 15.9% vs 85.8% accurate, SD = 20.2%; P = .23; r = .81) conditions. Our results indicate automated motor-cognitive dual-task outcomes obtained within a smartphone-based assessment are consistent across a 1-month period. Further research is required to understand how this assessment performs in the setting of sport-related concussion. Given the relative reliability of values obtained, a smartphone-based evaluation may be considered for use to evaluate changes across time among adolescents, postconcussion.

12.
Skeletal Radiol ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the correlation between the bone end and soft tissue end of the quadriceps tendon-patellar bone autograft (QPA) size and pre-operative MRI measurements of the quadriceps tendon along sections to be included in the graft harvest in adolescents. We also assessed association between graft diameter and anthropometric measures (height, weight, and BMI), age, and sex. METHODS: Patients (10-18 years) who underwent QPA ACL reconstruction and had a pre-operative MRI were considered for inclusion. Age, height, and weight, tibial and femoral side graft diameter, and patellar bone block dimensions were collected. Using a pre-operative 2D sagittal plane MRI, we measured the quadriceps at 10-mm increments above the patella, up to 40 mm. We assessed correlation between the bone-end graft diameter and the AP measure at 10 mm above the patella, and correlation between the soft-tissue end graft diameter and the most proximal AP measure. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were included. A significant correlation between the soft-tissue side graft diameter and most proximal AP measurement was observed (rs = 0.51; p < 0.001). However, measurements significantly underestimated the soft-tissue end graft diameter (9.6 ± 0.8 vs. 7.4 ± 1.1; p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the bone-end graft diameter and AP measurement 10 mm above the patella. Anthropometric measures were not associated with graft size. Skeletal maturity was associated with smaller graft size (p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: Soft-tissue end graft diameter is associated with the AP measure of the quadriceps at 20-40 mm above the superior pole of the patella.

13.
Phys Ther Sport ; 51: 71-78, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the condition-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of athletes six months and one-year following sport-related concussion. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study. SETTING: Clinical research centre at university school of public health. PARTICIPANTS: Amateur athletes who were diagnosed with sport-related concussion within one-week after presenting to a hospital emergency department were recruited along with sex-, age-, and activity-matched, non-concussed, control athletes. Concussion and control participants were assessed six months and one-year following sport-related concussion and study enrolment, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale and five condition-specific HRQoL patient-reported outcome measures - Headache Impact Test-6, Fatigue Severity Scale, Neck Disability Index, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7, and Dizziness Handicap Inventory. We performed Frequentist and Bayesian mixed-design analyses of variance to compare the concussion group and control group at both assessments and quantify whether there was greater evidence in favour of the null hypothesis compared with the alternative hypothesis. RESULTS: At six-month and one-year assessments, the concussion group (n = 47; male = 72%; mean (SD) age = 22.68 (5.07)) and the control group (n = 47; male = 72%; mean (SD) age = 23.81 (4.60)) reported similar clinical symptom severity scores and condition-specific HRQoL. The proportion of athletes in the concussion group with clinically-impaired scores was similar to the proportion of non-concussed athletes with clinically-impaired scores. At six-month and one-year assessments, there was moderate-to-very strong evidence that there was no difference between concussion and control participants' perceptions of the effects of headache, fatigue, neck pain, anxiety, and dizziness on HRQoL. CONCLUSION: There was moderate-to-very strong evidence in favour of no difference between the concussion and control groups on symptom severity scores and condition-specific HRQoL patient-reported outcome measures at six-month and one-year assessments. These results suggest that condition-specific HRQoL returns to the levels of non-concussed individuals within six months following sport-related concussion.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Adulto , Atletas , Teorema de Bayes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299824

RESUMO

Concussion management has evolved to de-emphasize rest in favor of early introduction of post-injury physical activity. However, the optimal quantity, frequency and intensity of physical activity are unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between objective physical activity metrics and clinical recovery after concussion. We prospectively enrolled a cohort of 32 youth athletes with concussion, evaluated within 14 days of injury and after return-to-play (RTP) clearance. For two weeks after enrollment, we quantified steps/day and exercise frequency, duration, and intensity via wrist-worn actigraphy. We grouped participants by RTP clearance timing (<28 days vs. ≥28 days). Seventeen (53%) participants required ≥28 days post-concussion for RTP clearance. Groups were similar in age (14.9 ± 1.9 vs. 15.4 ± 1.5 years; p = 0.38), proportion of females (47% vs. 40%; p = 0.69), and concussion history (59% vs. 47%; p = 0.49). During the study period, the RTP ≥ 28 days group took fewer steps/day (8158 ± 651 vs. 11,147 ± 4013; p = 0.02), exercised fewer days/week (2.9 ± 2.4 vs. 5.0 ± 1.9 days/week; p = 0.01), and exercised fewer total minutes/week (117 ± 122 vs. 261 ± 219 min/week; p = 0.03). Furthermore, we observed ≥10,251 average steps/day, ≥4 exercise sessions/week, and exercising ≥134 total minutes/week were optimal cutpoints to distinguish between groups. These findings support the benefit of physical activity during concussion recovery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Adolescente , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Volta ao Esporte
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between postconcussion exercise volume and changes in depression, anxiety, dizziness, and postural stability. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a single-site prospective clinical trial. SETTING: Cerebrovascular research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Participants completed questionnaires and underwent tests of gait and balance within 2 weeks of a concussion (mean = 11 ± 3 days postconcussion) and approximately 1 month later (mean = 41 ± 7 days postconcussion). Exercise volume was tracked by weekly exercise logs. INTERVENTIONS: On the basis of a previous work classifying exercise volume following concussion, we grouped participants according to self-reported exercise volume between visits as high exercise volume (≥150 min/wk) or low exercise volume (<150 min/wk). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed assessments evaluating anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), dizziness (Dizziness Handicap Inventory), and postural stability (tandem gait and modified Balance Error Scoring System). RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants completed the study, of which 22 were in the high exercise volume group (mean = 71 ± 40 min/wk; 16.8 ± 2.1 years; 59% female) and 16 were in the low exercise volume group (mean = 379 ± 187 min/wk; 17.5 ± 2.1 years; 31% female). Although depression symptoms were not significantly different initially (mean difference = 1.5; 95% CI, -0.68 to 3.68; P = .24), the high exercise volume group had significantly lower depression symptom scores at follow-up (mean difference = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.47; P < .001). Anxiety symptoms (mean difference = 2.8; 95% CI, 0.3 to 5.4; P = 0.03), dizziness symptoms (mean difference = 10.9; 95% CI, 0.2 to 21.5; P = .047), single-task tandem gait (mean difference = 3.1 seconds; 95% CI, 0.2 to 6.0; P = .04), and dual-task tandem gait (mean difference = 4.2 seconds; 95% CI, 0.2 to 8.2; P = .04) were significantly better among the high exercise volume group. CONCLUSION: Greater exercise volumes were associated with lower depression, anxiety, and dizziness symptoms, and faster tandem gait performance. These preliminary findings suggest a potentially beneficial role for exercise within several different domains commonly affected by concussion.

16.
J Pediatr Rehabil Med ; 14(3): 443-450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219677

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of age on postural control outcomes among patients being seen during their initial post-concussion clinical visit. METHODS: Youth patients were seen≤14 days post-concussion, and completed a series of postural control evaluations: tandem gait, Romberg, and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) tests. RESULTS: We included 109 children 8-12 years of age (24% female, evaluated median = 7 [interquartile range = 4-10] days post-injury) and 353 adolescents aged 13-18 years (36% female, evaluated median = 7 [4-10] days post-injury). There was a higher proportion of children who demonstrated abnormal tandem gait relative to adolescents (26% vs. 11%; p < 0.001). They also made more BESS errors in single (median = 5 [2-10] vs. 4 [2-6] errors) and tandem (median = 3 [1-6] vs. 2 [0-4]) firm stances. After covariate adjustment, children demonstrated worse tandem gait (adjusted odds ratio = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.68-5.53) and more firm surface BESS errors (double stance ß=0.51, 95% CI = 0.22-0.80; single stance ß= 1.18, 95% CI = 0.42-1.95; tandem stance ß= 0.98, 95% CI = 0.28-1.68) than adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Tandem gait and BESS performance following concussion differ in children compared to adolescents who present within 2 weeks of injury. Clinicians assessing and managing concussion should recognize age differences in postural control performance when assessing those with concussion.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Equilíbrio Postural , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(7): 826-832, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328459

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Concussions are complex injuries that require a multifaceted testing battery. Vision impairments are common after concussion, but it is unknown exactly how eye tracking may be affected after injury and how it is associated with other clinical concussion assessments. PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between eye tracking performance (BOX score) and other common concussion evaluations, (2) identify if eye tracking adds novel information that augments baseline concussion evaluations, and (3) examine the effect of age, concussion history, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on eye tracking and other ophthalmological measures. METHODS: A total of 102 male high school football athletes (age, 16.0 years; 95% confidence interval, 15.8 to 16.2 years) completed a series of visual and neurocognitive tests during their pre-season baseline assessment. The main outcome measures were BOX score, near point of convergence (NPC) distance, binocular accommodative amplitude (BAA) distance, Standardized Assessment of Concussion score, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing composite scores. RESULTS: BOX score was not significantly associated with symptoms, Standardized Assessment of Concussion score, NPC distance, BAA distance, or any Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing composite scores. Age, concussion history, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and number of prior years playing football were not significantly associated with BOX score or NPC distance, but there was a significant association between concussion history and greater BAA distance (ß = 1.60; 95% confidence interval = 0.19 to 3.01; P < .03). The BOX score cutoff of 10 resulted in a 12% false-positive rate. CONCLUSIONS: Eye tracking was not significantly associated with the commonly used clinical concussion assessments. These results suggest that an objective eye tracking variable may be a valuable addition to the current concussion battery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Futebol Americano , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
Phys Sportsmed ; : 1-6, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, depressive symptoms, or perceptions of sport participation differ between high-, moderate-, and low-specialized high school athletes with or without prior injuries. METHODS: During pre-participation physical examinations (PPE), high school athletes completed questionnaires on sport specialization level, history of time-loss orthopedic injury, perceptions of sport participation, as well as sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®)). Athletes were grouped according to sport specialization level and history of prior time-loss orthopedic injury. RESULTS: A total of 186 athletes completed the study: 49% (n = 92; mean age = 15.3 ± 2.0 yrs; 50% female) were low specialized, 34% (n = 64; mean age = 15.3 ± 1.3 yrs; 47% female) were moderately specialized, and 16% (n = 30; mean age = 15.7 ± 1.1 yrs; 57% female) were highly specialized. Groups were similar for demographics, training volume, and injury history. Compared to the moderate-specialization group, highly specialized athletes reported higher levels of fatigue (3.1 ± 3.7 vs. 1.5 ± 2.2; p = 0.02), anxiety (3.6 ± 4.1 vs. 1.8 ± 2.6; p = 0.02), and depressive symptoms (2.4 ± 4.0 vs. 0.8 ± 2.0; p = 0.02). No differences in psychometric ratings, sleep quality, or perceptions of sport participation were observed between the low/moderate- or low/high-specialization groups. We did not observe any significant differences between groups who did and did not report a history of prior time-loss orthopedic injury. CONCLUSIONS: Highly specialized high school athletes report higher levels of fatigue, more anxiety symptoms, and more depressive symptoms than their moderately specialized peers, despite no differences in training volume or injury history. Low specialized athletes did not differ from moderately specialized or highly specialized athletes in the aforementioned domains, and there were no differences in sleep quality across specialization groups. These findings add to the current body of literature on early sport specialization by illustrating the distinctive psychosocial implications of sport specialization and demonstrating the need for further prospective research.

19.
Front Sports Act Living ; 3: 653743, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124655

RESUMO

Objective: To establish normative reference values for the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-5th Edition (SCAT5) for the new National Rugby League Women's Premiership. Methods: Preseason SCAT5 baseline testing was administered individually to all National Rugby League Women's Premiership players (N = 117). Testing was completed by the medical staff. Normative reference values were calculated for the components of the SCAT5, including the Standardized Assessment of Concussion, modified Balance Error Scoring System, and the Symptom Scale. A small case series of players who sustained concussions were included to illustrate the use of the new normative data. Results: The median Standardized Assessment of Concussion total score was 27.0 (M = 26.9, SD = 2.1). The median modified Balance Error Scoring System score was 2.0 (M = 2.4, SD = 2.2). The median number of symptoms score was 1.0 (M = 3.2, SD = 4.7) and the median symptom severity score was 2.0 (M = 5.4, SD = 8.2). The most common baseline symptom was fatigue or low energy (33%), followed by trouble sleeping (24%), headache (23%), neck pain (22%), and difficulty remembering (21%). In the total sample, 41% reported no symptoms. The clinical interpretation of these new normative data to a case series of women with concussions is provided. Conclusions: Normative reference values are provided for the SCAT5 for women who are professional rugby league players. Using these normative data will improve clinical interpretation of SCAT5 scores following a concussion.

20.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(11): 1105-1109, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research suggests that a recent concussion increases subsequent lower extremity injury risk; however, data in high school athletes is limited. This study evaluates the association between concussion and subsequent injury risk among male, collision sport, high school athletes over a single season. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2005/06-2014/15 in the High School Reporting Information Online database. A two stage, multi-method matching process was used to identify athletes who suffered multiple injuries over a single athletic season. Demographics and injury characteristics were compared with Chi square and Student's t-tests. Multiple Cox Proportional Hazards regression analysis was used to test whether index injury type was associated with hazard of subsequent injury following return to play from index injury. RESULTS: Overall 1364 HS athletes sustained 2 injuries over a single athletic season (subsequent injury within 45 days of the index injury). Index injuries included 686 (50.2%) lower extremity injuries, 417 (30.6%) upper extremity injuries, and 261 (19.1%) concussions. Hazard of subsequent concussion was increased in the index concussion group relative to the index lower extremity injury group [hazard ratio (HR): 1.60, 95% CI: 1.15-2.23, p = 0.0052]. Hazard of a subsequent lower extremity injury was not significantly different for the index lower extremity injury group relative to the index concussion group [HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.98-1.65, p = 0.0728]. CONCLUSIONS: History of recent concussion or recent lower extremity injury are both risk factors for subsequent lower extremity injury in male, collision sport, high school athletes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Relesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volta ao Esporte , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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