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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for routine cancer distress screening is endorsed globally as a quality-care standard. However, there is little research on the integration of PROs in "real-world" oncology practices using implementation science methods. The Improving Patient Experience and Health Outcome Collaborative (iPEHOC) intervention was established at multisite disease clinics to facilitate the use of PRO data by clinicians for precision symptom care. The aim of this study was to examine if patients exposed to the intervention differed in their healthcare utilization compared with contemporaneous controls in the same time frame. METHODS: We used a PRE- and DURING-intervention population cohort comparison study design to estimate the effects of the iPEHOC intervention on the difference in difference (DID) for relative rates (RR) for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, psychosocial oncology (PSO), palliative care visits, and prescription rates for opioids and antidepressants compared with controls. RESULTS: A small significantly lower Difference in Difference (DID) (- 0.223) in the RR for ED visits was noted for the intervention compared with controls over time (0.947, CI 0.900-0.996); and a DID (- 0.0329) for patients meeting ESAS symptom thresholds (0.927, CI 0.869-0.990). A lower DID in palliative care visits (- 0.0097), psychosocial oncology visits (- 0.0248), antidepressant prescriptions (- 0.0260) and an increase in opioid prescriptions (0.0456) in the exposed population compared with controls was also noted. A similar pattern was shown for ESAS as a secondary exposure variable. CONCLUSION: Facilitating uptake of PROs data may impact healthcare utilization but requires examination in larger scale "real-world" trials.

2.
Evid Based Nurs ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041773
3.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944866

RESUMO

Background: Early referral of cancer patients for palliative care significantly improves the quality of life. It is not clear which patients can benefit from an early referral, and when the referral should occur. A Delphi Panel study proposed 11 major criteria for an outpatient palliative care referral. Objective: To operationalize major Delphi criteria in a cohort of lung cancer patients, using a prospective approach, by linking health administrative data. Design: Population-based observational cohort study. Setting/Subjects: The study population comprised 38,851 cases of lung cancer in the Ontario Cancer Registry, diagnosed from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016. Measurements: We operationalized 6 of the 11 major criteria (4 diagnosis or prognosis based and 2 symptom based). Patients were considered eligible (index event) for palliative care if they qualified for any criterion. Among eligible patients, we identified those who received palliative care. Results: Twenty-eight thousand one hundred sixty-four patients were eligible for palliative care by qualifying for either the diagnosis- or prognosis-based criteria (n = 21,036, 76.5%), or for symptom-based criteria (n = 7128, 23.5%). A total of 23,199 (82.4%) patients received palliative care. The median time from palliative care eligibility to the receipt of first palliative care or death or maximum study follow-up was 56 days (range = 17-348). Conclusions: We operationalized six major criteria that identified the majority of lung cancer patients who were eligible for palliative care. Most eligible patients received the palliative care before death. Future research is warranted to test these criteria in other cancer populations.

4.
Nurs Inq ; 27(1): e12316, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398774

RESUMO

Although many studies have previously examined medicalisation, we add a new dimension to the concept as we explore how contemporary oncological medicine shapes the dying self as predominantly medical. Through an analysis of multiple case studies collected within a comprehensive cancer centre in Ontario, Canada, we examine how people with late-stage cancer and their healthcare providers enacted the process of medicalisation through engaging in the search for oncological treatments, such as experimental drug trials, despite the incurability of their disease. The seven cases included 20 interviews with patients, family, physicians and nurses, the analysis of 30 documents and 5 hr of field observation. A poststructural perspective informed our study. We propose that searching for life extension enacts medicalisation by shaping the dying person afflicted with terminal cancer into new medical subjectivities that are knowledgeable, active, entrepreneurial and curative. Participants initially took up medical thinking from the formal oncology system, but then began to apply and internalise medical rationalities to alter their personhood, thereby generating new curative possibilities for themselves. For people seeking life extension, the embodied and day-to-day experiences of suffering and being close to death became expressed and moderated in fundamentally medicalised terms.

5.
Cancer Nurs ; 43(2): E105-E112, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-management plays an important role in improving quality of life among patients with breast cancer. Self-management behaviors change with treatment periods, and the trajectory varies in patients with different demographic and psychosocial characteristics. However, the trajectory patterns and the predictive factors have not been fully studied. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the trajectory patterns of self-management behaviors in Chinese patients with breast cancer and their predictive factors. METHODS: A total of 128 patients with breast cancer were recruited. Demographic and disease-related information, self-management behaviors, self-efficacy, coping modes, emotional distress, and social support were investigated across 5 time points. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify the trajectory patterns of self-management behaviors. Logistic regression was used to determine the predictors for membership. RESULTS: The best-fit growth mixture modeling revealed a 2-class model; model fit indices were all in acceptable ranges. Class 1 and 2 were named as the group of "stable" (34.38%) and the group of "sharply decreased" (65.62%), respectively, based on the tendency of change. Modified radical mastectomy, avoidance coping mode, anxiety, and low self-efficacy level were predictors of the patients' membership to the sharply decreased group. CONCLUSION: Our study proved the heterogeneity of self-management behaviors and the influencing effect of treatment and psychosocial factors on the development of self-management behaviors in Chinese patients with breast cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Health professionals should pay more attention to patients who are at higher risk of developing a poor self-management pattern. Targeted interventions should be developed across subpopulations and treatment periods accordingly.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837454

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with advanced breast cancer have low rates of survival that can be associated with symptom burden. OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to characterize the effect of longitudinally collected symptom scores on predicting time to death for patients with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: A cohort of 993 Stage IV breast cancer patients was constructed using linked population-level health administrative databases that captured longitudinally collected symptom data using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System. Data were captured on individual symptom scores (20,371 assessments) for pain, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, appetite, dyspnea, depression, anxiety, and wellbeing, as well as three summative scores of total symptom distress score, physical subscore, and psychological subscore. A joint modeling approach was undertaken to simultaneously model repeated-measures longitudinal data and time-to-event data. RESULTS: Of patients who died in the study, 56.11% survived for a mean time of less than three years and had lower mean symptom scores for all symptoms except shortness of breath, in comparison with patients who lived for more than three years. Symptom burden was predictive of patient time to death for all symptoms, with risk of death increasing with worsening symptom scores. For total symptom distress score, age at diagnosis (0.009; P < 0.05), chemotherapy (-0.63; P < 0.001), and palliative care (3.15; P < 0.001) were significant predictors of patient time to death. CONCLUSION: Patients with advanced breast cancer experience chronic ongoing low symptom burden, which predicts patient time to death. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which patient characteristics, treatment, and supportive and palliative care can have an impact on patient survival.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745248

RESUMO

Certain subgroups of patients may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive decline after treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). The objective of this study was to identify predictors of cognitive functioning changes within the first 6 months after HCT. Fifty-eight adults treated with allogeneic HCT (53% male, mean 48 years of age) completed neuropsychological tests of learning/memory, psychomotor efficiency/processing speed, and executive functioning/working memory at three time points: pre-HCT and day 100 and 6 months post transplant. On average, there was significant improvement in learning/memory (p = 0.002), psychomotor efficiency/processing speed (p < 0.0001), and executive functioning/working memory (p < 0.0001), at 6 months. Multilevel modeling identified predictors of divergence from this trajectory; Karnofsky performance status <80 was associated with worsening learning/memory over time; peak severity of acute graft-versus-host disease >=Grade 2 was associated with worsening psychomotor efficiency/processing speed; and greater years of education predicted a faster improvement in psychomotor efficiency/processing speed. Other factors were associated with cognitive functioning over time: higher intelligence quotient (IQ) was associated with better cognitive functioning, and older age, being male, and greater pretransplant comorbidities were associated with worse cognitive functioning. Overall, cognitive performance appears to improve over the first 6 months after transplant. However, pretransplant and posttransplant factors may influence this trajectory.

8.
Support Care Cancer ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is an integral part of cancer survivorship. To help improve survivorship education, clinicians need an understanding of patient awareness of the harms of continued smoking. METHODS: Cancer survivors from Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Toronto, ON) were surveyed on their awareness of the harms of continued smoking on cancer-related outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed factors associated with awareness and whether awareness was associated with subsequent cessation among smokers at diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 1118 patients, 23% were current smokers pre-diagnosis and 54% subsequently quit; 25% had lung and 30% head and neck cancers. Many patients reported being unaware that continued smoking results in greater cancer surgical complications (53%), increased radiation side effects (62%), decreased quality of life during chemotherapy (51%), decreased chemotherapy or radiation efficacy (57%), increased risk of death (40%), and increased development of second primaries (38%). Being a current smoker was associated with greater lack of awareness of some of these smoking harms (aORs = 1.53-2.20, P < 0.001-0.02), as was exposure to any second-hand smoke (aORs = 1.45-1.53, P = 0.006-0.04) and being diagnosed with early stage cancer (aORs = 1.38-2.31, P < 0.001-0.06). Among current smokers, those with fewer pack-years, being treated for cure, or had a non-tobacco-related cancer were more likely unaware. Awareness that continued tobacco use worsen quality of life after chemotherapy was associated with subsequent cessation (aOR = 2.26, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Many cancer survivors are unaware that continued smoking can negatively impact cancer-related outcomes. The impact of educating patients about the potential harms of continued smoking when discussing treatment plans should be further evaluated.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 884, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies suggest that emergency department visits and hospitalizations are common among patients receiving chemotherapy and that rates in routine practice are higher than expected from clinical trials. Chemotherapy-related toxicities are often predictable and, consequently, acute care visits may be preventable with adequate treatment planning and support between visits to the cancer centre. We will evaluate the impact of proactive telephone-based toxicity management on emergency department visits and hospitalizations in women with early stage breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: In this pragmatic covariate constraint-based cluster randomized trial, 20 centres in Ontario, Canada are randomly allocated to either proactive telephone toxicity management (intervention) or routine care (control). The primary outcome is the cluster-level mean number of ED + H visits per patient evaluated using Ontario administrative healthcare data. Participants are all patients with early stage (I-III) breast cancer commencing adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy at participating institutions during the intervention period. At least 25 patients at each centre participate in a patient reported outcomes sub-study involving the collection of standardized questionnaires to measure: severity of treatment toxicities, self-care, self-efficacy, quality of life, and coordination of care. Patients participating in the patient reported outcomes (PRO) sub-study are asked to provide written consent to link their PRO data to administrative data. Unit costs will be applied to each per person resource utilized, and a total cost per population and patient will be generated. An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis will be undertaken to compare the incremental costs and outcomes between the intervention and control groups from the health system perspective. DISCUSSION: This study evaluates the effectiveness of a proactive toxicity management intervention in a routine care setting. The use of administrative healthcare data to evaluate the primary outcome enables an evaluation in a real world setting and at a much larger scale than previous studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT02485678. Registered 30 June 2015.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Enfermagem Oncológica/métodos , Ontário , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade de Vida , Tamanho da Amostra , Autocuidado , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone
10.
Oncologist ; 24(11): e1219-e1227, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated improved outcomes with real-time patient-reported outcome questionnaires (PRO questionnaires) using questions adapted for patient use from the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Outside of the clinical trial setting, limited information exists on factors affecting the completion of PRO questionnaires in routine practice. The primary aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to evaluate patient willingness to complete PRO questionnaires on a regular basis and to better understand responder biases to improve patient feedback. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients performing PRO-CTCAE toxicity and symptom PRO questionnaires in oncology clinics at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre from 2013 to 2016 were assessed for their willingness to complete PRO questionnaires using a nine-item, tablet-based acceptability survey. Patient-reported characteristics (i.e., age, sex, language, marital status, education, occupation, etc.), cancer type, treatment modalities, and health metrics (i.e., Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) were also collected. Characteristics were evaluated by logistic regression (odds ratios [OR]) using the primary outcome with prespecified levels of significance for univariate (p ≤ .10), and additional multivariate (p ≤ .05) testing. RESULTS: A total of 1,792 patients (median age 60 years; range 18-97) with various cancer diagnoses were assessed. A greater proportion of female (56%) and white (74%) respondents with an annual household income of <$100,000 (69%) participated. More than half (58%) of respondents were willing to complete PRO questionnaires at every clinic visit, and a high proportion (77%) found utility in reporting physical and emotional feelings to clinicians using PRO questionnaires. In general, patients did not find that PRO questionnaires made clinic visits more difficult (93%). In uni- and multivariable testing, patients were more willing to complete sleep- and fatigue-related PRO questionnaires relative to chemotoxicity-based PRO questionnaires (OR 1.52; p = .012). Patients aged 40-65 versus 18-40 years were also more likely to report high PRO questionnaire acceptability (OR 1.49; p = .025). Additional patient characteristics such as white ethnicity (OR 1.76), Canada as country of birth (OR 1.66), and English language (OR 2.15) relative to other had higher acceptability on uni- (p < .001) and multivariable (p < .001) analyses. Patients reporting treatment intent as palliative (OR 0.69; p = .0013) or hematological (OR 0.73; p = .027) were less likely to report high PRO questionnaire acceptability on univariable analysis; however, only palliative patients (OR 0.72) maintained this effect on multivariable testing (p = .012). Patients reporting higher health utility scores (per change in .05) also had significantly increased PRO questionnaire acceptability in uni- (OR 1.06; p < .001) and multivariable (OR 1.05; p = .008) analyses. No significant differences in PRO questionnaire acceptability were seen between cancer types, education level, household income, employment status, or treatment modality. CONCLUSION: Routine assessment using PRO questionnaires is associated with moderate acceptability by patients with cancer. Specific patient characteristics are associated with higher completion willingness. Additional research is necessary to identify factors associated with low acceptability of PRO questionnaires and to develop site-, ethnicity-, and treatment-specific instruments to assess the value of PRO questionnaires for symptom monitoring in clinical practice. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study will help to identify the clinical, demographic, and survey characteristics associated with willingness to complete patient-reported outcome questionnaires regularly in the cancer outpatient setting.

11.
Cancer Nurs ; 42(5): E31-E40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is a crucial variable that is related to quality of life. Patients who have high self-efficacy will exert sufficient effort and have better health outcomes and improved quality of life. Appropriate and precise measurement of self-efficacy can help promote better care. The Breast Cancer Survivor Self-efficacy Scale (BCSES) is designed to measure the perceived confidence of breast cancer patients in managing the tasks for self-management. Originally developed in America, it has not been used in China. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to translate BCSES into Chinese and assess its psychometric properties among Chinese patients. METHODS: In phase 1, the translation of BCSES closely followed the Principles of Good Practices. In phase 2, data on reliability and validity were evaluated in terms of internal consistency, item-total correlations, test-retest reliability, criterion validity, and construct validity. A total sample of 630 native Chinese-speaking patients from 5 hospitals in China participated, including a pilot sample of 182 and a validation sample of 448. RESULTS: Minor modifications in 5 items were recommended after translation. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a 2-factor structure was more ideal than the original 1-factor model. Cronbach's α coefficient for the Chinese version of BCSES was .82, intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97, and item-total correlations were from 0.61 to 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese version of BCSES appears to be culturally appropriate, reliable, and valid for assessing self-efficacy among patients with breast cancer in China. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: The Chinese version of BCSES could help measure the breast cancer patients' self-efficacy and provide evidence to develop culturally sensitive interventions for Chinese patients.

12.
Can Oncol Nurs J ; 29(2): 103-109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148739

RESUMO

La détresse physique et émotionnelle que peuvent causer au patient et à sa famille les plaies malignes dues à un cancer est souvent négligée. Malheureusement, nous ne disposons pas d'outils de dépistage et d'évaluation fiables et valides pouvant aider à mieux traiter ces plaies. Cette étude a cherché à valider un outil de mesure des résultats rapportés par les patients : le Malignant Wound Assessment Tool - Research (MWAT-R). Pour ce faire, huit patients ont été recrutés et interrogés selon la méthodologie de l'entretien cognitif. La compréhension et l'impression générale des patients vis-à-vis de cet outil ont été analysées. Nous avons constaté que la formulation et les choix de réponse posaient problème aux patients. En général, les participants ont néanmoins trouvé que les questions saisissaient bien les principaux enjeux relatifs aux plaies malignes et tenaient compte du point de vue du patient. Le fait d'établir la validité apparente et de contenu du MWAT-R du point de vue des patients par la technique d'entretien cognitif vient étayer la validité de cet outil.

13.
Can Oncol Nurs J ; 29(2): 97-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148749

RESUMO

Malignant wounds as a result of cancer are under-recognized for the physical and emotional distress they cause patients and their families. Unfortunately, there is a lack of valid and reliable screening and assessment tools to aid in the management of malignant wounds. This study aims to validate a patient-reported outcome measurement tool, Malignant Wound Assessment Tool - Research (MWAT-R). Eight patients were recruited and interviewed using the cognitive interviewing methodology to validate this tool. Patients' understanding and overall impression of the MWAT-R were explored. Our findings showed that the wording and response options posed challenges for patients in completing the tool. Overall, participants felt that questions captured the key issues related to dealing with a malignant wound and accounted for the patients' perspective. Establishing the content and face validity of the MWAT-R from the patients' perspectives using cognitive interviews has provided further evidence to the validity of this tool.

14.
Oncologist ; 24(7): e501-e509, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In lung cancer, brain metastases (BM) and their treatment are associated with high economic burden and inferior health-related quality of life. In the era of targeted therapy, real world evidence through health utility scores (HUS) is critical for economic analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study (2014-2016), outpatients with stage IV lung cancer completed demographic and EQ-5D-3L surveys (to derive HUS). Health states and clinicopathologic variables were obtained from chart abstraction. Patients were categorized by the presence or absence of BM; regression analyses identified factors that were associated with HUS. A subset of patients prospectively completed neurocognitive function (NCF) tests and/or the FACT-brain (FACT-Br) questionnaire, which were then correlated with HUS (Spearman coefficients; regression analyses). RESULTS: Of 519 patients with 1,686 EQ-5D-3L-derived HUS, 94 (18%) completed NCF tests and 107 (21%) completed FACT-Br; 301 (58%) never developed BM, 24 (5%) developed first BM during study period, and 194 (37%) had BM at study entry. The sample was enriched (46%) for EGFR mutations (EGFRm) and ALK-rearrangements (ALKr). There were no HUS differences by BM status overall and in subsets by demographics. In multivariable analyses, superior HUS was associated with having EGFRm/ALKr (p < .0001), no prior radiation for extracranial disease (p < .001), and both intracranial (p = .002) and extracranial disease control (p < .01). HUS correlated with multiple elements of the FACT-Br and tests of NCF. CONCLUSION: Having BM in lung cancer is not associated with inferior HUS in a population enriched for EGFRm and ALKr. Patients exhibiting disease control and those with oncogene-addicted tumors have superior HUS. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In the setting of EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangement non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a diagnosis of brain metastases no longer consigns the patient to an inferior health state suggesting that new economic analyses in NSCLC are needed in the era of targeted therapies. Additionally, the EQ-5D questionnaire is associated with measures of health-related quality of life and neurocognitive scores suggesting this tool should be further explored in prospective clinical studies.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891308

RESUMO

Background: Chemotherapy is associated with a significant risk of toxicity, which often peaks between ambulatory visits to the cancer centre. Remote symptom management support is a tool to optimize self-management and healthcare utilization, including emergency department visits and hospitalizations (ED+H) during chemotherapy. We performed a single-arm pilot study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of a telephone symptom management intervention on healthcare utilization during chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer (EBC). Methods: Women starting adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for EBC at two cancer centres in Ontario, Canada, received standardized, nurse-led calls to assess common toxicities at two time points following each chemotherapy administration. Feasibility outcomes included patient enrollment, retention, RN adherence to delivering calls per the study schedule, and resource use associated with calls; acceptability was evaluated based on patient and provider feedback. Impact on acute care utilization was evaluated post hoc by linking individual patient records to provincial data holdings to examine ED+H patterns among participating patients compared to contemporaneous controls. Results: Between September 2013 and December 2014, 77 women were enrolled (mean age 55 years). Most commonly used regimens were AC-paclitaxel (58%) and FEC-docetaxel (16%); 78% of patients received primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis. 83.8% of calls were delivered per schedule; mean call duration was 9 min. The intervention was well received by both patients and clinicians. Comparison of ED+H rates among study participants versus controls showed that there were fewer ED visits in intervention patients [incidence rate ratio (IRR) (95% CI) = 0.54 (0.36, 0.81)] but no difference in the rate of hospitalizations [IRR (95% CI) = 1.02 (0.59, 1.77)]. Main implementation challenges included identifying eligible patients, fitting the calls into existing clinical responsibilities, and effective communication to the patient's clinical team. Conclusions: Telephone-based pro-active toxicity management during chemotherapy is feasible, perceived as valuable by clinicians and patients, and may be associated with lower rates of acute care use. However, attention must be paid to workflow issues for scalability. Larger scale evaluation of this approach is in progress.

16.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 58(1): 100-107.e2, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with opioid use in patients with cancer surviving more than five years without recurrence. We evaluated exposures of opioid use before cancer diagnosis, opioid use between cancer diagnosis and five-year anniversary, surgeries, and chemotherapy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked provincial administrative data. Patients were aged 24-70 years and eligible for government-funded pharmacare. The index date was the five-year anniversary from diagnosis. Patients were accrued between 2010 and 2015. The main outcome was opioid prescription rate after index date. The main exposures were opioid use before diagnosis, opioid use between diagnosis and index, surgeries, and chemotherapy. A negative binomial regression model was used to estimate relative rates (RR) of opioid use after index date. RESULTS: Our cohort included 7431 individuals. The overall crude prescription rate after the index date was 2 per person-year. The factor most strongly associated with a higher rate of opioid use after index was continuous opioid use between diagnosis and index (RR 46.1, 95% confidence interval 34.8-61.2). Opioid use before diagnosis was also a factor (RR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.44-2.19). A history of depression, comorbidity, and more than two years of diabetes were also associated with higher risk of post-index date opioid use. Significant interactions were identified between prior opioid use and opioid use between diagnosis and index. Most prescriptions are from family physicians. CONCLUSION: Patients who use opioids continuously between diagnosis and index date are at increased risk of continued use after five years of survival. Safe and appropriate pain management is an important survivorship issue.

17.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2623-2635, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health behaviors including smoking cessation, physical activity (PA), and alcohol moderation are key aspects of cancer survivorship. Immigrants may have unique survivorship needs. We evaluated whether immigrant cancer survivors had health behaviors and perceptions that were distinct from native-born cancer survivors. METHODS: Adult cancer patients from Princess Margaret Cancer Centre were surveyed on their smoking, PA, and alcohol habits and perceptions of the effects of these behaviors on quality of life (QoL), 5-year survival, and fatigue. Multivariable models evaluated the association of immigration status and region-of-origin on behaviors and perceptions. RESULTS: Of the 784 patients, 39% self-identified as immigrants. Median time of survey was 24 months after histological diagnosis. At baseline, immigrants had trends toward not meeting Canadian PA guidelines or being ever-drinkers; patients from non-Western countries were less likely to smoke (aORcurrent  = 0.46, aORex-smoker  = 0.47, P = 0.02), drink alcohol (aORcurrent  = 0.22, aORex-drinker  = 0.52, P < 0.001), or meet PA guidelines (aOR = 0.44, P = 0.006). Among immigrants, remote immigrants (migrated ≥40 years ago) were more likely to be consuming alcohol at diagnosis (aOR = 5.70, P < 0.001) compared to recent immigrants. Compared to nonimmigrants, immigrants were less likely to perceive smoking as harmful on QoL (aOR = 0.58, P = 0.008) and survival (aOR = 0.56, P = 0.002), and less likely to perceive that PA improved fatigue (aOR = 0.62, P = 0.04) and survival (aOR = 0.64, P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Immigrants had different patterns of health behaviors than nonimmigrants. Immigrants were less likely to perceive continued smoking as harmful and were less likely to be aware of PA benefits. Culturally tailored counselling may be required for immigrants who smoke or are physically sedentary at diagnosis.

20.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 37, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors face a myriad of biopsychosocial consequences due to cancer and treatment that may be potentially mitigated through enabling their self-management skills and behaviors for managing illness. Unfortunately, the cancer system lags in its systematic provision of self-management support (SMS) in routine care, and it is unclear what implementation approaches or strategies work to embed SMS in the cancer context to inform health policy and administrator decision-making. METHODS/DESIGN: A comprehensive scoping review study of the literature will be conducted based on methods and steps identified by Arksey and O'Malley and experts in the field. Electronic searches will be conducted in multiple databases including CINAHL, CENTRAL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (up to Issue 2, 2015), ISI Proceedings (Web of Science), PsychAbstracts, and Sociological Abstracts from January 1997 to November 5, 2018. Following the PRISMA-Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR), two authors will independently screen all titles/abstracts to determine eligibility, data will be abstracted by one author and checked by a second author, and findings will be narratively summarized based on constructs of implementation in the Normalization Process Theory. DISCUSSION: This will be the first scoping review study to synthesize knowledge of implementation of SMS in the cancer care context and the implementation approaches and strategies on embedding in care. This information will be critical to inform health policy and knowledge end users about the necessary changes in care to embed SMS in practices and to stimulate future research.

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