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2.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854335

RESUMO

Over 257 million individuals worldwide are chronically infected with the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are the first-line treatment option for most patients. Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are both potent, safe antiviral agents, have a high barrier to resistance, and are now off patent. They effectively suppress HBV replication to reduce the risk of cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment is continued long-term in most patients, as NA therapy rarely induces HBsAg loss or functional cure. Two diverging paradigms in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B have recently emerged. First, the public health focussed "treat-all" strategy, advocating for early and lifelong antiviral therapy to minimise the risk of HCC as well as the risk of HBV transmission. In LMICs, this strategy may be cost saving compared to monitoring off treatment. Second, the concept of "stopping" NA therapy in patients with HBeAg-negative disease after long-term viral suppression, a personalised treatment strategy aiming for long-term immune control and even HBsAg loss off treatment. In this manuscript, we will briefly review the current standard of care approach to the management of hepatitis B, before discussing emerging evidence to support both the "treat-all" strategy, as well as the "stop" strategy, and how they may both have a role in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest that coffee has a dose-dependent protective effect on liver-related mortality. AIM: To estimate the potential impact of increased per capita coffee consumption on global liver-related mortality. METHODS: Using the Global Burden of Disease 2016 dataset (adults > 15 years), we modelled the impact of increased per capita coffee consumption on liver-related mortality in 2016 for 194 countries using published risk ratios for >2 cups coffee/ day (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.42-0.69) and ≥4 cups/ day (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.17-0.50), adjusted for confounders and tested model assumptions using sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Worldwide, there were an estimated 1,240,201 (95% CI 118 4300-1 354 410) adult liver-related deaths in 2016. Median global liver mortality rate in 2016 was 15 deaths/ 100 000 population/ year (all ages, both genders; IQR 11-21 deaths per 100 000). If all countries with per capita coffee intake ≤2 cups/ day increased to >2 cups/ day, the predicted total number of liver-related deaths would have been 630 947 in 2016 (95% CI 629 693-631 861) with 452 861 (95% CI 451 948-454 116) deaths averted (PPR 7.8 liver-related deaths/ 100 000/ year). If per capita consumptions was ≥ 4 cups/ day, the predicted number of liver-related deaths in 2016 would have been 360 523 (95% CI 359 825-361 992) with 723 287 (95% CI 721 817-723 984) deaths averted (PPR 12.1 liver-related deaths/100 000/year). CONCLUSION: Increasing per capita coffee consumption to > 2 cups per day on a population level has the potential to avert hundreds of thousands of liver-related deaths annually if the impact of coffee on liver-related mortality is confirmed in clinical trials.

5.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 940-947, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730785

RESUMO

Major gains in reducing the burden of hepatitis C are now possible because of the discovery of a cure. The prevention of premature deaths and increased workforce participation among people who are cured are likely to provide substantial indirect economic benefits. We developed an investment case for hepatitis C for the six WHO world regions, which, to our knowledge, is the first to consider both indirect and direct economic benefits in this context. Scaling up of testing and treatment to reach the 2030 WHO hepatitis C elimination targets was estimated to prevent 2·1 million (95% credible interval 1·3-3·2 million) hepatitis C-related deaths and 10 million (4-14 million) new hepatitis C virus infections globally between 2018 and 2030. This elimination strategy was estimated to cost US$41·5 billion (33·1-48·7 billion) in testing, treatment, and health care between 2018 and 2030 ($23·4 billion more than the status quo scenario of no testing or treatment scale up), with a global average of $885 (654-1189) per disability-adjusted life-year averted at 2030. Compared with the status quo scenario, the elimination scenario generated $46·1 billion (35·9-53·8 billion) in cumulative productivity gains by 2030. These indirect costs made elimination cost-saving by 2027, with a net economic benefit of $22·7 billion (17·1-27·9 billion) by 2030. This model shows that countries might be underestimating the true burden of hepatitis C and will benefit from investing in elimination.

6.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 927-939, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730786

RESUMO

WHO has set global targets for the elimination of hepatitis B and hepatitis C as a public health threat by 2030. However, investment in elimination programmes remains low. To help drive political commitment and catalyse domestic and international financing, we have developed a global investment framework for the elimination of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The global investment framework presented in this Health Policy paper outlines national and international activities that will enable reductions in hepatitis C incidence and mortality, and identifies potential sources of funding and tools to help countries build the economic case for investing in national elimination activities. The goal of this framework is to provide a way for countries, particularly those with minimal resources, to gain the substantial economic benefit and cost savings that come from investing in hepatitis C elimination.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C elimination will require widespread access to treatment and responses at the health-service level to increase testing among populations at risk. We explored changes in hepatitis C testing and the cascade of care before and after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral treatments in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: De-identified clinical data were retrospectively extracted from eighteen primary care clinics providing services targeted towards people who inject drugs. We explored hepatitis C testing within three-year periods immediately prior to (pre-DAA period) and following (post-DAA period) universal access to DAA treatments on 1st March 2016. Among ever RNA-positive individuals, we constructed two care cascades at the end of the pre-DAA and post-DAA periods. RESULTS: The number of individuals HCV-tested was 13,784 (12.2% of those with a consultation) in the pre-DAA period and 14,507 (10.4% of those with a consultation) in the post-DAA period. The pre-DAA care cascade included 2,515 RNA-positive individuals; 1,977 (78.6%) were HCV viral load/genotype tested; 19 (0.8%) were prescribed treatment; and 12 had evidence of cure (0.5% of those RNA-positive and 63.6% of those eligible for cure). The post-DAA care cascade included 3,713 RNA-positive individuals; 3,276 (88.2%) were HCV viral load/genotype tested; 1,674 (45.1%) were prescribed treatment; and 863 had evidence of cure (23.2% of those RNA-positive and 94.9% of those eligible for cure). CONCLUSION: Marked improvements in the cascade of hepatitis C care among patients attending primary care clinics were observed following the universal access of DAA treatments in Australia, although improvements in testing were less pronounced.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Br Dent J ; 229(2): 105-109, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710056

RESUMO

Due to the coronavirus pandemic, all routine dental care in the UK ceased on 25 March 2020. Liverpool University Dental Hospital (LUDH) responded by commencing an emergency dental service on the same date. Clinicians were redeployed within the Hospital to meet the needs of the service, including staffing of the radiology department. LUDH followed Royal College recommendations by taking extraoral radiographs in preference to intraoral radiographs due to the risk of inducing an aerosol. Issues were identified with clinical diagnosis from sectional panoramic radiographs, which led to the introduction of extraoral bitewings being taken as an alternative. A quality assurance audit found that these images provided a substantially lower radiation dose and produced excellent quality images with improved diagnostic accuracy. This article aims to summarise how our radiography practices changed in response to the coronavirus and how the lessons that we have learnt provide an opportunity to modify and improve future practice, beyond the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Radiografia Dentária , Radiografia Panorâmica
9.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(6): 802-805, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the routine use of postoperative antibiotics following percutaneous auditory osseointegrated implant placement reduces skin reactivity. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective matched case-controlled series. SETTINGS: Tertiary academic medical center. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A total of 44 patients who underwent percutaneous auditory osseointegrated implant placement were divided into those who received 5 days of postoperative antibiotics (AB) and those who received no antibiotics (NAB). All surgery was performed using the same surgical technique (Minimally Invasive Ponto Surgery). Variables recorded included patient demographics, Holgers skin reaction score, complications, and need for further intervention. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients received prophylactic postoperative antibiotics (AB) while 21 patients did not (NAB). At the first postoperative visit (AB 12.7 d versus NAB 12.3 d, p = 0.9) there were no differences in average Holgers score (AB 0.3 ±â€Š0.7 versus NAB 0.2 ±â€Š0.5, p = 0.27). The odds ratio for skin reactivity at the first visit was 0.11 (95% CI 0.01-2.32). There were also no statistical differences in Holgers score (AB 0.05 ±â€Š0.2 versus NAB 0.1 ±â€Š0.3, p = 0.25) at most recent followup visit (AB mean 97.5 d versus NAB 102.8 d, p = 0.84). The odds ratio for skin reactivity at the most recent visit was 0.16 (95% CI 0.01-3.64). CONCLUSIONS: The use of postoperative antibiotics does not appear to confer significant difference in skin reactivity in patients receiving percutaneous osseointegrated auditory implants. Such findings support the theory that skin reactivity, when it does occur, may not be an infectious-mediated process.

11.
Int J Drug Policy ; 76: 102633, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus elimination may be possible by scaling up direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. Due to the safety and simplicity of DAA treatment, primary care-based treatment delivery is now feasible, efficacious and may be cheaper than hospital-based specialist care. In this paper, we use Prime Study data - a randomised controlled trial comparing the uptake of DAA treatment between primary and hospital-based care settings amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) - to estimate the cost of initiating treatment for PWID diagnosed with hepatitis C in primary care compared to hospital-based care. METHODS: The total economic costs associated with delivering DAA treatment (post hepatitis C diagnosis) within the Prime study - including health provider time/training, medical tests, equipment, logistics and pharmacy costs - were collected. Appointment data were used to estimate the number/type of appointments required to initiate treatment in each case, or the stage at which loss to follow up occurred. RESULTS: Among the hepatitis C patients randomised to be treated within primary care, 43/57 (75%) commenced treatment at a mean cost of A$885 (95% CI: A$850-938) per patient initiating treatment. In hospital-based care, 18/53 hepatitis C patients (34%) commenced treatment at a mean cost of A$2078 (range: A$2052-2394) per patient initiating treatment - more than twice as high as primary care. The lower cost in the primary care arm was predominantly the result of increased retention in care compared to the hospital-based arm. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to hospital-based care, providing hepatitis C services for PWID in primary care can improve treatment uptake and approximately halve the average cost of treatment initiation. To improve treatment uptake and cure, countries should consider primary care as the main model for hepatitis C treatment scale-up.

12.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(5): 526-536, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856377

RESUMO

If Australia is to successfully eliminate hepatitis B as a public health threat, it will need to enhance the chronic hepatitis B (CHB) care cascade. This study used a Markov model to assess the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of scaling up CHB diagnosis, linkage to care and treatment to reach national and international elimination targets for hepatitis B in Australia. Compared to continued current trends, the model calculated the difference in care cascade projection, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), costs and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), of scaling up CHB diagnosis, linkage to care and treatment to reach: (a) Australia's 2022 national targets and (b) the WHO's 2030 global targets. Achieving the national and WHO targets had ICERs of A$13 435 (A$10 236-A$21 165) and A$14 482 (A$13 031-A$25 641) per DALY averted between 2016 and 2030 in Australia, respectively. However, this excluded implementation and demand generation costs. The ICER for the National Strategy and WHO Strategy remained under A$50 000 per DALY averted if Australia spent up to A$328 or A$538 million, respectively, per annum (for 2016-2030) on implementation and demand generation activities. Sensitivity analysis showed that cost-effectiveness was predominately driven by the cost of CHB treatment and influenced by disease progression rates. Hence for Australia to reach the National Hepatitis B Strategy 2022 targets and WHO Strategy 2030 targets, it requires an improvement in the CHB care cascade. We estimated it is cost-effective to spend up to A$328 million or A$538 million per year to reach the National and WHO Strategy targets, respectively.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1355, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The low diagnosis rate and poor access to clinical care among people with CHB is a major barrier to reducing HBV-related morbidity and mortality in Australia. One explanation for this is a lack of disease-specific knowledge among people living with CHB. Health literacy has been shown to be important for maximising engagement with medical care and adherence to recommended management. The 'teach-back' communication strategy has been shown to improve patient understanding in other clinical areas. This study aims to assess disease-specific knowledge; and evaluate the efficacy of the teach-back strategy for improving HBV knowledge, compared to a standard medical consultation. METHOD: A randomized pilot study was conducted between February and June 2017. Participants were recruited from the liver clinic at an inner-city tertiary hospital. English-speaking patients aged ≥18 years and diagnosed with CHB were eligible for the study. Participants were randomised to a control group (medical specialist appointment) and intervention group (teach-back). Knowledge was assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at one month using a validated questionnaire. Participants in the intervention group received a one-on-one teach-back session about CHB. The main outcome measure was a combined knowledge score of the domains assessed - transmission, natural history, epidemiology and prevention and clinical management. RESULTS: Seventy participants were recruited (control n = 32, teach-back n = 38). Mean baseline knowledge score was 19.1 out of 23 with 55 (79%) participants scoring ≥17.3 (defined as high knowledge) (7). Sub-analysis of CHB knowledge domains identified focal deficits concerning transmission and whether HBV is curable. Knowledge scores were found to be positively associated with English proficiency and antiviral treatment experience (p < 0.05). Teach-back was associated with a significant increase in CHB knowledge at early recall (22.5 vs 18.7, p < 0.001) and at 1-month follow-up (21.9 vs 18.7, p < 0.001); there was no improvement in CHB knowledge associated with standard clinical consultant (early recall: 19.6 vs 19.4, p = 0.49, one-month follow-up: 19.5 vs 19.4, p = 0.94). CONCLUSION: In a tertiary hospital liver clinic population, baseline knowledge about CHB was good, but there were focal deficits concerning transmission and potential for cure. Teach-back was associated with improvement in CHB knowledge and it is a simple communication tool suitable for incorporation into a standard medical consultation.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Liver Int ; 39(10): 1818-1836, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433902

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but has long been neglected by national and international policymakers. Recent modelling studies suggest that investing in the global elimination of viral hepatitis is feasible and cost-effective. In 2016, all 194 member states of the World Health Organization endorsed the goal to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030, but complex systemic and social realities hamper implementation efforts. This paper presents eight case studies from a diverse range of countries that have invested in responses to viral hepatitis and adopted innovative approaches to tackle their respective epidemics. Based on an investment framework developed to build a global investment case for the elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030, national activities and key enablers are highlighted that showcase the feasibility and impact of concerted hepatitis responses across a range of settings, with different levels of available resources and infrastructural development. These case studies demonstrate the utility of taking a multipronged, public health approach to: (a) evidence-gathering and planning; (b) implementation; and (c) integration of viral hepatitis services into the Agenda for Sustainable Development. They provide models for planning, investment and implementation strategies for other countries facing similar challenges and resource constraints.

16.
Cell Chem Biol ; 26(9): 1203-1213.e13, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231029

RESUMO

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cellular metabolic processes. Dysregulation of this kinase complex can result in a variety of human diseases. Rapamycin and its analogs target mTORC1 directly; however, chronic treatment in certain cell types and in vivo results in the inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. We have developed a high-throughput cell-based screen for the detection of phosphorylated forms of the mTORC1 (4E-BP1, S6K1) and mTORC2 (Akt) substrates and have identified and characterized a chemical scaffold that demonstrates a profile consistent with the selective inhibition of mTORC1. Stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture-based proteomic target identification revealed that class I glucose transporters were the primary target for these compounds yielding potent inhibition of glucose uptake and, as a result, selective inhibition of mTORC1. The link between the glucose uptake and selective mTORC1 inhibition are discussed in the context of a yet-to-be discovered glucose sensor.

17.
Eur J Cancer ; 116: 56-66, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing globally. Prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed to guide treatment and reduce mortality. Tumour-derived circulating cell-free DNA (ctDNA) is a novel, minimally invasive means of determining genetic alterations in cancer. We evaluate the accuracy of ctDNA as a biomarker in HCC. METHODS: Plasma cell-free DNA, matched germline DNA and HCC tissue DNA were isolated from patients with HCC (n = 51) and liver cirrhosis (n = 10). Targeted, multiplex polymerase chain reaction ultra-deep sequencing was performed using a liver cancer-specific primer panel for genes ARID1A, ARID2, AXIN1, ATM, CTNNB1, HNF1A and TP53. Concordance of mutations in plasma ctDNA and HCC tissue DNA was determined, and associations with clinical outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: Plasma cell-free DNA was detected in all samples. Lower plasma cell-free DNA levels were seen in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC A compared with BCLC stage B/C/D (median concentration 122.89 ng/mL versus 168.21 ng/mL, p = 0.041). 29 mutations in the eight genes (21 unique mutations) were detected in 18/51 patients (35%), median 1.5 mutations per patient (interquartile range 1-2). Mutations were most frequently detected in ARID1A (11.7%), followed by CTNNB1 (7.8%) and TP53 (7.8%). In patients with matched tissue DNA, all mutations detected in plasma ctDNA detected were confirmed in HCC DNA; however, 71% of patients had mutations identified in HCC tissue DNA that were not detected in matched ctDNA. CONCLUSION: ctDNA is quantifiable across all HCC stages and allows detection of mutations in key driver genes of hepatic carcinogenesis. This study demonstrates high specificity but low sensitivity of plasma ctDNA for detecting mutations in matched HCC tissue.

18.
Int J Drug Policy ; 72: 91-98, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving hepatitis C elimination requires novel approaches to engage people at highest risk of infection into care pathways. Point-of-care-tests may help to overcome some of the barriers preventing people who inject drugs (PWID) accessing testing and progressing to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV). We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of HCV point-of-care testing at needle and syringe exchange programs (NSPs) co-located in three community health clinics in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: NSP clients were offered an oral fluid point-of-care test for HCV antibody by NSP staff. Positive HCV antibody tests were followed by a point-of-care test for HCV RNA alongside standard-of-care laboratory testing for hepatitis C treatment work-up. Participants were offered same-day point-of-care results on site, via phone or text message, or upon return to the service. Participants were scheduled for follow-up review with the study nurse for assessment and linkage to treatment. RESULTS: A total of 174 participants completed HCV antibody point-of-care test; 150 (86%) had a reactive result. Of these, 140 (93%) underwent a HCV RNA point-of-care test and 76 (54%) tested positive; few participants (5%) waited on site for results delivery, but the majority of RNA positive (63%) attended a follow-up visit for treatment work-up (median time to follow-up visit = 11 days; IQR = 7-20 days). The majority of participants reported a preference for point-of-care tests (66%) and supported NSP staff involvement in testing (90%). CONCLUSION: Provision of HCV point-of-care tests, follow-up and linkage to treatment services through NSPs was feasible and acceptable to PWID. Despite few participants waiting to receive same-day results, there was effective linkage to care, suggesting value in further evaluation of this approach.

19.
Med J Aust ; 210(10): 462-468, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or past exposure to HBV infection have a substantial risk of reactivation during immunosuppressive cancer therapy. HBV reactivation can lead to liver failure, cancer treatment interruption or death. Clinical concordance with screening and treatment guidelines is inconsistent in practice, and existing international guidelines are not specific to the Australian context. We developed an Australian consensus statement with infectious diseases, hepatology, haematology and oncology specialists to inform hepatitis B screening and antiviral management for immunocompromised patients with haematological and solid organ malignancies in Australia. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations address four key areas of HBV infection management for immunocompromised patients with haematological and solid organ malignancies: who to test for HBV infection, when to start antiviral agents, when to stop antiviral agents, and how to monitor patients during cancer therapy. We recommend testing all patients undergoing cancer treatment for hepatitis B (including HBV surface antigen [HBsAg], HBV core antibody [anti-HBc], and HBV surface antibody) before cancer treatment. Individuals with chronic HBV infection (HBsAg positive) or past exposure (HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive) receiving higher risk chemotherapy require antiviral prophylaxis using entecavir or tenofovir. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THIS STATEMENT: This consensus statement will simplify the approach to testing and prophylaxis for HBV infection during cancer therapy, and harmonise approaches to discontinuing and monitoring individuals which have been highly variable in practice. We advocate for broader Medicare Benefits Schedule and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme access to HBV testing and treatment for patients undergoing cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Oncologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Ativação Viral
20.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 98(6): 330-333, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983388

RESUMO

A retrospective review of children with confirmed hearing loss identified through universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) in Virginia from 2010 to 2014 was conducted in order to compare the incidence of Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH) risk factors in children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) to bilateral hearing loss (BHL). Over the 5-year study period, 1004 children (0.20% of all births) developed a confirmed hearing loss, with 544 (51%) children having at least one JCIH risk factor. Overall, 18% of children with confirmed hearing loss initially passed UNHS. Of all children with risk factors, 226 (42%) demonstrated UHL and 318 (58%) had BHL. The most common risk factors for UHL were neonatal indicators (69%), craniofacial anomalies (30%), stigmata of HL syndromes (14%), and family history (14%). The most common risk factors in BHL were neonatal indicators (49%), family history (27%), stigmata of HL syndromes (19%), and craniofacial anomalies (16%). Children with the risk factor for positive family history were more likely to have BHL, while those with craniofacial anomalies were more likely to have UHL (P < .001). Neonatal indicators were the most commonly identified risk factor in both UHL and BHL populations. Children with UHL were significantly more likely to have craniofacial anomalies, while children with BHL were more likely to have a family history of hearing loss. Further studies assessing the etiology underlying the hearing loss and risk factor associations are warranted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/uso terapêutico , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gentamicinas , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/congênito , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/congênito , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tobramicina , Virginia/epidemiologia
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