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1.
Caribbean health ; 4(2): 18-20, Apr. 2001. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17322

RESUMO

Findings have highlighted the need to improve asthma management in the Caribbean. The Caribbean Guidelines for the Management and Treatment of Asthma were developed at a meeting in Trinidad in July 1997, organised by the Commonwealth Caribbean Medical Research Council (CCMRC) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). The guidelines recommend that the best way to control asthma is the use of anti-inflammatory agents, particularly inhaled corticosteroid, since these are currently the most effective long-term control medication. Haahtela et al in their seminal study demonstrated that controlling airway inflammation with inhaled corticosteroids is beneficial in asthma. Compared with trebutaline, regular treatment with the inhaled corticosteroid, budesonide, resulted in improved control of lung function, fewer symptoms and fewer asthmatic exacerbations (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncoconstrição , Anti-Inflamatórios , Budesonida/análise , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Barbados , Asma/complicações , Antiasmáticos , Região do Caribe
2.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Suppl 2): 20, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the cost of treating acute asthma at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) and to identify ways of reducing these costs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Case notes of all patients presenting to the Asthma Bay of the QEH during a two-week period in March 1999, were reviewed. Data, extracted included gender, arrival time, number of nebulizations, dosage of oral prednisolone and inhalers prescribed. A questionnaire was completed by a sample of these patients regarding use of inhalers, follow-up care and time lost from work and school. RESULTS: A total of 303 cases were reviewed and 75 patients completed questionnaires. The majority of asthmatics received oral prednisolone (74 percent) and/or three nebulizations (42 percent). The cost of treating each patient was determined to be approximately US $22.00, including medical and nursing salary costs. The annual cost to the QEH was estimated to be US $214,000 including the costs of admitting patients. Indirect costs included the time lost from work or school in 86 percent of patients and in 56 percent of parents taking time off to look after their sick children. The questionnaire survey revealed that 63 percent of patients with "preventer" medications were not using them and only 38 percent received follow-up care. Seventy-four percent of these patients had repeated asthmatic attacks during the preceding 3 months with 11 percent having more than six attacks. CONCLUSIONS: A significant amount of money is spent on asthma care at the QEH. However, improper understanding and use of medication coupled with lack of continuity of care lead to poor control and frequent attacks. These findings justify the need for an asthma clinic for these patients.(Au)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Asma/economia , Asma/terapia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Barbados , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Coleta de Dados , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
3.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Suppl 2): 19, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the annual cost of treating asthma in Barbados over a ten-year period. METHODS: The Barbados Drug Service is the central procurement agent for drugs on the Barbados National Formulary. Information on the costs of the various asthma medications, and the number of prescriptions written for these drugs, were obtained from the Barbados Drug Service records. The prescriptions written for asthma medications between 1986 and 1997 were analysed and the annual cost of the various categories of asthma calculated. RESULTS: The annual drug cost of treating asthma in Barbados increased from $293,111 in 1987 to $1,268,348 in 1996, a four-fold increase over ten years. There was a rapid rise in the cost of anti-inflammatory drugs during the study period, from $48,628 or 16.5 percent of total drug cost in 1986 to $503,092 or 39.6 percent of total drug cost in 1997. The cost of inhaled beta-2-agonists over the same period increased from $131,154 or 44.7 percent of the total drug cost in 1997. However, the cost of oral beta-2-agonists decreased over the ten-year period, reflecting the increased use of the inhaled form of the medication. With the increasing number of acute asthmatics seen in the Accident and Emergency Department at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the cost of nebulization solutions increased eight-fold, from $8,361 in 1986 to $69,172 in 1997. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma has been an increasing burden on the medical resources of Barbados over the past decade. The drug costs of treating asthma have increased significantly over the 10-year period 1986 to 1997 and accounted for 5.8 percent of the annual budget of the Barbados Drug Service in 1997.(Au)


Assuntos
Humanos , Asma/economia , Asma/terapia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Coleta de Dados/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
4.
West Indian med. j ; 47(suppl. 2): 22-3, Apr. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1912

RESUMO

In Barbados, there has been a fourfold increase in the number of asthmatic visits to the Accident and Emergency department of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital between 1980 and 1994. However, there are no data on the prevalence of asthma in Barbados. This study was done to determine the prevalence of childhood asthma using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of 3,894 pupils (age group 6-7 years) in all 91 primary schools in Barbados, and 3,500 questionnaires were completed by pupils (age 13-14 years) in all 46 secondary schools. The data analysis was carried out by Systems Caribbean Limited utilising SPSS. In the 6-7 years olds, the prevalence of self-reported asthma was 16.8 percent with doctor diagnosed asthma of 16.5 percent wheeze had occurred at some time in 30.7 percent and in the previous 12 months in 18.3 percent. In the 13-14 year-olds, self reported asthma was 17 percent, doctor diagnosed asthma 15.9 percent, wheeze occurring at some time was 30.1 percent and wheeze in the previous 12 months was 17.7 percent. Of the 6-7 year-olds, of those who wheezed in the previous 12 months, 78 percent had 1-3 attacks, 18.5 percent had 4-12 attacks and 3.5 percent had more than 12 attacks. In the 13-14 year-olds, 76.5 percent had 1-3 attacks in the previous 12 months, 18.2 percent had 4-12 attacks, 5.3 percent had more than 12 attacks. There was no difference in frequency of smokers in the household between those who wheezed in the previous 12 months and those who never wheezed. Overall, wheezing was more frequent in boys than in girls. The prevalence of asthma in Barbados is high for a tropical island with relatively little atmospheric pollution. The increase has coincided with increasing affluence and trend toward urbanisation and modernisation of the domestic environment.(AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Asma/epidemiologia , Sons Respiratórios , Barbados/epidemiologia
7.
West Indian med. j ; 46(suppl. 2): 26, Apr. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2288

RESUMO

The Drug Utilization Review (DUR) of asthma treatment comprises simultaneous cross-sectional studies conducted in the OECS countries of St. Lucia, St. Kitts/Nevis and Grenada. The review sought to assess prescribing behaviour in order to devise intervention strategies for enhanced prescribing practice. 1412 prescriptions written for asthmatic patients were drawn for public and private pharmacies on a quota basis. Despite certain inherent constraints in a prescription audit, some meaningful observations and conclusions can be made and drawn. The study revealed that the pattern of prescribing was similar among the countries under review. The top ranking drug was the beta agonist, salbutamol, in tablet form, which was prescribed for 92 percent of patients. Inhaled salbutamol was sparingly used. Experts agree that oral inhalation is the preferred delivery system and is best given on an as-needed basis. Inhaled glucocorticoids, the most effective available drug for controlling asthma, were used in only 6 percent of patients, a gross underutilization of the inhaled steriod. Oral prednisolone emerged as the second most popular drug but was given in multiple daily doses and unecessarily tapered for short one-week courses. The survey showed that the following drugs were frequently prescribed for asthmatic patients despite their dubious efficacy: antibiotics, cough mixtures, decongestants and antihistamines. NSAIDs which are contraindicated in asthma, were prescribed in 3 percent of patients. The DUR pointed to areas of inappropriate prescribing with respect to low use of an inhaled beta agonist and glucocorticoids and concurrent use of supplementary agents of doubtful efficacy(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Região do Caribe
8.
West Indian med. j ; 46(Suppl. 2): 37, Apr.1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2461

RESUMO

In 1995 and 1996 the Barbados National Asthma and Allergy Study, a questionnaire survey of all schoolchildren 6 - 7 years and aged 13 - 14 year, was conducted. The aim of the survey was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in children living in Barbados, to make meaningful comparisions with other countries (e.g Jamaica) and to obtain baseline measures for asessment of future trends in the prevalence and severity of this disease. The questionnaire sought to discover the presence of an itchy rash, persisting for more than six months, and in the typical anatomical distribution of atopic eczema. In addition, doctor diagnosed eczema was sought. Three thousand, eight hundred and ninety-four (3894) questionnaires were returned in the 6 - 7 years old age group (97 percent) and 3552 in the 13 - 14 year- old age group (88 percent). The prevalence of atopic eczema in the 6 - 7 year-old age group was 10.6 percent and in the 13 - 14 year-old age group was 10.0 percent. Diagnosis by a doctor reduced the prevalence to 6.2 percent in the primary school group and 3.6 percent in the secondary school group. This study has demonstrated for the first time in a Caribbean country the prevalence of this common childhood complaint. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Barbados/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários
9.
Postgrad Doc - Caribbean ; 9(1): 2-8, Sept.-Oct. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9500

RESUMO

Hypertension is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the Caribbean and the role of the general practitioner is central to the proper management of this disease. The recognition that the hypertensive population is heterogenous, that there are ethnic differences in the response to different antihypertensive medication and that hypertension often coexists with other diseases, has led to the individualization of the treatment based on patient profiling. The step care approach to the treatment of hypertension is inappropriate for the population in the Caribbean. (Summary)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Hipertensão/terapia , Grupos Étnicos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico
10.
Postgrad Doc - Caribbean ; 9(2): 50-9, Mar.-Apr. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9447

RESUMO

The management of hypertension is a constant challenge to the general practitioner in the Caribbean. It is one of the most common disease in the population and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortallity. There are certain cultural beliefs that make compliance and the treatment difficult and patient education is essential to dispel the cultural misconceptions of cause and treatment. (Summary)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Monitores de Pressão Arterial , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Índias Ocidentais , Cooperação do Paciente , Cultura
11.
West Indian med. j ; 41(1): 38, Apr. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6445

RESUMO

The incidence of allergy to 14 different household pests, including 2 house dust mite species (D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus), was investigated among 156 asthmatic children in Barbados. Independent variables, including urban/rural residence, building material of the home, and presence of carpeting, were found to be significant factors related to the house dust mite allergy. The continuing trend of modernization of the domestic environment, which provides an optimal microhabitat for several household pests, is implicated as a probable contributing factor in the increasing overall prevalence of asthma reported in Barbados. Children between the ages of 5 and 18 years with a diagnosis of bronchial asthma were selected from attendees at six polyclinics distributed throughout the island, an urban private general practice, and the accident and emergency department of the only acute general hospital on the island. Skin tests were done by scratching, and by intradermal injection, if the scratch test proved negative. Allergy to the house dust mite was the most common of the reactions to the household pests tested, and was found in 81 percent of the asthmatic children (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Ácaros , Asma/complicações , Barbados , Testes Cutâneos
12.
West Indian med. j ; 41(Suppl 1): 70, Apr. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6511

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in a general practice population in Barbados, and to determine whether hypercholesterolaemia is a public health problem for which screening would be worthwhile. A total of 498 patients (96 percent over 35 years) drawn from a general practice population of 15,000 patients, were studied. Two hundred and two (202) non-diabetic, non-hypertensives, 152 hypertensives, 123 diabetics and 21 hypertensive diabetics were selected, comprising every third patient in each diagnostic category to visit the clinic. One hundred and forty-two (28. percent) of all patients had a cholesterol level in the desirable range, 185 (37.1 percent) had a borderline high level, and 171 (34.4 percent) had a high-risk level of serum cholesterol. The prevalence of high-risk serum cholesterol was lowest in non-diabetic/non-hypertensive patients, and highest in diabetic hypertensives. The results suggest that the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in the Barbadian population is high and that screening is worthwhile (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Barbados/epidemiologia
13.
Postgrad Doc - Caribbean ; 8(1): 11-22, 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9494

RESUMO

The mortality and morbidity of asthma are unacceptably high worldwide given that there is an effective treatment for this condition. The recognition that asthma is an inflammatory disease has led to use of anti-inflammatory medication as a first line treatment, with the use of bronchodilators on an as required basis. A stepwise approach to treatment based on the severity of the condition is now accepted as the best way to treat the disease. The general practitioner is usually the first contact the asthmatic makes with the health services. Therefore, if asthma is to be treated effectively it is at the primary care level that improvement in management must take place (Summary)


Assuntos
Humanos , Asma/terapia , Asma/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias , Asma/etiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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