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1.
J Dent Sci ; 17(1): 361-367, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028059

RESUMO

Background/purpose: Numerous studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in cancer progression and chemotherapy resistance. Nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) is an lncRNA. It affects tumor cell progression and drug resistance in various tumors. However, the relation of NEAT1 and survival rate in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) requires further study. Materials and methods: One normal gingival epithelium cell line, SG, three oral cancer cell lines (HSC3, OEC-M1, and SAS), 34 paired non-cancerous matched tissues (NCMT), and OSCC tissues were used in this study. Tri-reagent was used for total RNA extraction. NEAT1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Results: NEAT1 expression in oral cancer cell lines was lower than that in normal cells and was significantly downregulated in OSCC. NEAT1 upregulation reduced the survival rate of patients with OSCC. NEAT1 upregulation also reduced the survival rate of OSCC patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Conclusion: These results indicate that NEAT1 expression is a valuable biomarker for the prediction and prognosis of oral cancer.

2.
Food Funct ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854443

RESUMO

Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seeds have been used in Asia for thousands years to treat warts, chapped skin, rheumatism, and neuralgia. The anti-allergic activity of dehulled adlay (DA) seeds was identified, and the bran (AB) is regarded as the main functional constituent in the edible part. However, no study has focused on in vivo acute anti-allergic airway inflammation. In the present report, we investigated DA methanolic extract (DAM) reversed ovalbumin (OVA)/methacholine (Mch)-induced airway hypersensitivity, decreased interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels from splenocytes, suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1ß, and IL-13 levels and reduced eosinophil counts and eotaxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), which imply that the modulatory effects of DA should involve allergic degranulation. Further, seven phytosterols were isolated from AB ethanolic extract (ABE); among them, 3-O-caffeoyl-5ß-sitostan-3-ol, ß-sitosterol 3-O-glucopyranoside and ß-sitosterol inhibited ß-hexosaminidase release from A23187-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells with percentages of 54.1%, 52.0% and 48.5%, respectively, at 50 µM. In addition, ß-sitosterol reduced immunoglobulin (Ig)E-stimulated degranulation on RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The phytosterols were the predominant components based on gas chromatography (GC) analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate that DA suppressed OVA/Mch-induced acute airway inflammation. The phytosterols in AB showed significant anti-degranulation activities, and may be regarded as the indicative components of AB for anti-allergy effects.

3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828511

RESUMO

Health education increases older adults' health knowledge and affects their health outcomes. Older adults have physical changes with aging, such as blurred vision and cognitive decline. Therefore, health education materials must be legible in their case. This study, following the "easy (EZ) to read" concept, designed oral health education material and tested the learning effectiveness of older adults in rural community-based care centers in central Taiwan. Three of the communities were provided EZ to read health education material (n = 72), while three were given general text material (n = 57) as the control group. We collected pre-test and post-test scores using the Mandarin version of the oral health literacy adult questionnaire (MOHL-AQ). The demographic background of the EZ to read and general text groups showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the EZ to read material significantly improved total scores of oral health literacy (p < 0.001). The chi-square test showed a significant improvement in oral health literacy levels (p < 0.001). We suggest applying EZ to read concepts to widen the field of older adult education and to reduce illegibility-induced health knowledge disparities.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640640

RESUMO

Studies have shown that there is a disparity between males and females in south-east Asia with regard to oral cancer morbidity. A previous study found that oral cancer tissue showed loss of heterozygosity of the X-linked lncRNA XIST gene. We suggest that XIST may play an important role in oral cancer morbidity when associated with sex. Saliva contains proteins and RNAs that are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases. This study investigated salivary XIST expression and the correlation to clinical-pathological data among oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Salivary XIST expression was only observed in females, and a high proportion of females with OSCC lack salivary lncRNA XIST expression (88%). The expression showed no correlation with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking habits. People lacking salivary lncRNA XIST expression had a significantly increased odds ratio of suffering from OSCC (OR = 19.556, p < 0.001), particularly females (OR = 33.733, p < 0.001). The ROC curve showed that salivary lncRNA XIST expression has acceptable discrimination accuracy to predict the risk of OSCC (AUC = 0.73, p < 0.01). Lack of salivary lncRNA XIST expression was associated with an increased risk of OSCC. We provided an insight into the role of salivary lncRNA XIST as a biomarker to predict the morbidity of OSCC.

5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503035

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to compare the cytotoxicity of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) with conventional dental implant-abutment materials, namely titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), to evaluate the cell metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, and inflammation potential of human oral fibroblasts (HOF) on these materials. Disk-shaped specimens were designed and prepared via a dental computer-aided manufacturing technology system. Surface topography, roughness, and free energy were investigated by atomic force microscope and contact angle analyzer; cell metabolic activity and cytotoxicity by MTT assay; and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's honest significant difference tests. PEEK and PEKK exhibited higher submicron surface roughness (0.04 µm) and hydrophobicity (>80°) than the control. Although the cell activity of PEEK was lower than that of Ti-6Al-4V and Y-TZP for the first 24 h (p < 0.05), after 48 h there was no difference (p > 0.05). According to the cell cytotoxicity and the pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression assays, there was no difference between the materials (p > 0.05). SEM observations indicated that HOF adhered poorly to PEKK but properly to Ti-6Al-4V, Y-TZP, and PEEK. PEEK and PEKK show comparable epithelial biological responses to Ti-6Al-4V and Y-TZP as implant-abutment materials. Between the two polymeric materials, the PEEK surface, where the HOF showed better cell metabolic activity and cytotoxicity, was a more promising implant-abutment material.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578952

RESUMO

Leiomyoma is the most common benign uterine tumor in reproductive-age women. Increasing numbers of studies are focusing on the effects of environmental exposure on the incidence and progression of tumors. One major step taken in the food industry is the addition of food preservatives to maintain freshness. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a synthetic phenolic antioxidant, which is widely used as an additive to develop fat-soluble characteristics, as well as in cosmetics and rubber. Previous studies also highlighted that BHT may be related to increased fibrosis capacity and carcinogenic effects. In this study, we explored the effects of the commonly used food additive BHT on leiomyoma progression, and the related mechanism. The exposure of the ELT-3 leiomyoma cell line to BHT for 48 h increased the proliferative effect. Since leiomyoma progression is related to increases in extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), BHT could effectively increase ECM-related protein expression, as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression. This increase in ECM, in response to BHT, may be linked to the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Through PI3K inhibition, BHT's effect on leiomyoma progression could be partially modulated. These results suggest the harmful effect of BHT exposure on leiomyoma progression may relate to PI3K modulation. However, an in vivo study is necessary to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Hidroxitolueno Butilado/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Humanos
7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356312

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex multifactorial disease characterized by insulin resistance and dysfunction of pancreatic ß-cells. Rice husk silica liquid (RHSL) is derived from rice husks and has not been explored in diabetes mellitus until now. Previous studies showed that rice husk is enriched with silica, and its silica nanoparticles are higher more biocompatible. To investigate the potential protective role of RHSL on pancreatic ß cells, we utilized RIN-m5F pancreatic ß cells and explored RHSL effect after streptozotocin (STZ)-stimulation. The recovery effects of RHSL were evaluated using flow cytometry, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis. Results of our study showed that RHSL reversed the cell viability, insulin secretion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the change of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) in STZ-treated RIN-m5F cells. Moreover, the expression of phospho-receptor-interacting protein 3 (p-RIP3) and cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and sequestosome-1 (p62/SQSTM1) were significantly decreased, while the transition of light chain (LC)3-I to LC3-II was markedly increased after RHSL treatment in STZ-induced RIN-m5F cells. Interestingly, using autophagy inhibitors such as 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) both showed an increase in cleaved-PARP protein level, indicating apoptosis induction. Taken together, this study demonstrated that RHSL induced autophagy and alleviated STZ-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis in RIN-m5F cells.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361036

RESUMO

Hinokitiol is a natural tropolone derivative that is present in the heartwood of cupressaceous plants, and has been extensively investigated for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties in the context of various diseases. To date, the effects of hinokitiol on endometrial cancer (EC) has not been explored. The purpose of our study was to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of hinokitiol on EC cells. Cell viability was determined with an MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, and the quantification of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) was performed by using flow cytometry, while protein expression was measured with the Western blotting technique. Hinokitiol significantly suppressed cell proliferation through the inhibition of the expression of cell-cycle mediators, such as cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), as well as the induction of the tumor suppressor protein p53. In addition, hinokitiol increased the number of apoptotic cells and increased the protein expression of cleaved-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and active cleaved-caspase-3, as well as the ratio of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Interestingly, except for KLE cells, hinokitiol induced autophagy by promoting the accumulation of the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) and reducing the sequestosome-1 (p62/SQSTM1) protein level. Furthermore, hinokitiol triggered ROS production and upregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) in EC cells. These results demonstrate that hinokitiol has potential anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic benefits in the treatment of endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa, HEC-1A, and KLE).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Tropolona/análogos & derivados , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tropolona/toxicidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
9.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440086

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of several chemotherapeutic agents in clinical use as a standard of care to treat colorectal cancers (CRCs). As an antimetabolite, 5-FU inhibits thymidylate synthase to disrupt the synthesis and repair of DNA and RNA. However, only a small proportion of patients benefit from 5-FU treatment due to the development of drug resistance. This study applied pharmacogenomic analysis using two public resources, the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) and the Connectivity Map, to predict agents overcoming 5-FU resistance in CRC cells based on their genetic background or gene expression profile. Based on the genetic status of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), the most frequent mutated gene found in CRC, we found that combining a MEK inhibitor with 5-FU exhibited synergism effects on CRC cells with APC truncations. While considering the gene expression in 5-FU resistant cells, we demonstrated that targeting ROCK is a potential avenue to restore 5-FU response to resistant cells with wild-type APC background. Our results reveal MEK signaling plays a pivotal role in loss-of-function, APC-mediated 5-FU resistance, and ROCK activation serves as a signature in APC-independent 5-FU resistance. Through the use of these available database resources, we highlight possible approaches to predict potential drugs for combinatorial therapy for patients developing resistance to 5-FU treatment.

10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200422

RESUMO

Hydrolysis of protein by proteases produces small molecular weights (MWs) peptides as nanomaterials that are easily absorbed. This study investigated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of three plant protein isolates (PIs) including soy, wheat and pea after multi-enzyme hydrolysis. The MWs, particle size and microstructure of PI hydrolysate (PIH) were determined by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS mass spectrometry, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cell viability was determined in vitro using a mouse skeletal muscle cell line (C2C12) and crystal violet staining. The MWs and particle sizes of the three plant PIs were reduced after hydrolysis by three proteases (bromelain, Neutrase and Flavourzyme). The MWs of soy, wheat and pea PIH were 103.5-383.0 Da, 103.5-1146.5 Da and 103.1-1937.7 Da, respectively, and particle size distributions of 1.9-2.0 nm, 3.2-5.6 nm and 1.3-3.2 nm, respectively. All three plant PIHs appeared as aggregated nanoparticles. Soy PIH (100 µg/mL) provided better protection against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to C2C12 than wheat or pea PIH. In summary, soy PIH had the best antioxidant activity, and particle size than wheat PIH and pea PIH. Therefore, soy PIH might be a dietary supplement for healthy diet and medical applications.

11.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203783

RESUMO

Dysmenorrhea is one of the most prevalent disorders in gynecology. Historically, adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf.) has been explored for its anti-tumor, pain relief, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adlay seeds on the inhibition of uterine contraction and thus dysmenorrhea relief, in vitro and in vivo. HPLC-MS and GC were used to elucidate the ethyl acetate fraction of adlay testa ethanolic extract (ATE-EA) and ethyl acetate fraction of adlay hull ethanolic extract (AHE-EA). Elucidation yielded flavonoids, phytosterols, and fatty acids. Uterine leiomyomas and normal adjacent myometrial tissue were evaluated by oxytocin- and PG-induced uterine contractility. ATE-EA and AHE-EA suppressed uterine contraction induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α), oxytocin, carbachol, and high-KCl solution ex vivo. In addition, the external calcium (Ca2+) influx induced contraction, and increased Ca2+ concentration was inhibited by ATE-EA and AHE-EA on the uterine smooth muscle of rats. Furthermore, ATE-EA and AHE-EA effectively attenuated the contraction of normal human myometrium tissues more than adjacent uterine leiomyoma in response to PGF2α. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone and chrysoeriol produced a remarkable inhibition with values of IC50 = 24.91 and 25.59 µM, respectively. The experimental results showed that treatment with ATE-EA at 30 mg/day effectively decreased the writhing frequency both on the oxytocin-induced writhing test and acetic acid writhing test of the ICR mouse.


Assuntos
Coix/química , Endométrio/metabolismo , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Etanol/química , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Gerontology ; : 1-7, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139690

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of malnutrition among inpatient older adults is as high as 20∼50%. Masticatory performance is known to affect the nutritional status of individuals. However, an objective measurement to reflect the real status of masticatory muscle performance is lacking at the bedside. METHODS: This pilot study analyzed the masticatory performance using surface electromyography (sEMG) of masticatory muscles that measures both muscle strength and muscle tone at the bedside. The nutritional status was measured using the Mini Nutritional Assessment tool. The handgrip strength was measured using a hand dynamometer. The statistical data were analyzed using SPSS 25 software. RESULTS: The data revealed that female inpatient older adults more frequently had substandard handgrip strength (p = 0.028), an at-risk and poor nutritional status (p = 0.005), and a higher masseter muscle tone (p = 0.024). Inpatient older adults with an at-risk and poor nutritional status had an older age (p = 0.016), lower handgrip strength (p = 0.001), and higher average masseter muscle tone (p = 0.01). A high masseter muscle tone predicted the risk of having an at-risk and poor nutritional status. The at-risk or poor nutritional status predicted having a substandard handgrip strength by 5-fold. CONCLUSIONS: A high masticatory muscle tone predicts malnutrition and frailty. Medical professionals should combat masticatory dysfunction-induced malnutrition by detecting masticatory muscle performance using sEMG and referring patients to dental professionals. Additionally, encouraging inpatient older adults to perform oral motor exercise is recommended.

13.
Mar Drugs ; 19(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073219

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aortic valve sclerosis involve inflammatory reactions triggered by various stimuli, causing increased oxidative stress. This increased oxidative stress causes damage to the heart cells, with subsequent cell apoptosis or calcification. Currently, heart valve damage or heart valve diseases are treated by drugs or surgery. Natural antioxidant products are being investigated in related research, such as fucoxanthin (Fx), which is a marine carotenoid extracted from seaweed, with strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of Fx on heart valves under high oxidative stress, as well as the underlying mechanism of action. Rat heart valve interstitial cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress were treated with Fx. Fx improved cell survival and reduced oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, which was assessed by cell viability analysis and staining with propidium iodide. Alizarin Red-S analysis indicated that Fx has a protective effect against calcification. Furthermore, Western blotting revealed that Fx abrogates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via reducing the expression of apoptosis-related proteins as well as modulate Akt/ERK-related protein expression. Notably, in vivo experiments using 26 dogs treated with 60 mg/kg of Fx in combination with medical treatment for 0.5 to 2 years showed significant recovery in their echocardiographic parameters. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results highlight the potential of Fx to protect heart valve cells from high oxidative stress-induced damage.

14.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803736

RESUMO

Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is an aesthetically pleasing natural material with good biocompatibility and shock absorption characteristics. The application of PEEK as a dental implant or abutment is expected to reduce the risk of failure and enhance aesthetics. Given that approximately one in 15 patients have allergic reactions to antibiotics, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been gaining attention as an alternative treatment. Herein, the applicability of PEEK dental implants or abutments was investigated using material analyses, biofilm formation assay, and cell viability tests. The possible use of PDT for peri-implant mucositis was evaluated with the biofilm removal assay. The obtained data were analyzed based on the multivariate analysis of variance, paired t-tests, and the Pearson correlation coefficient (α = 0.05). The results revealed that PEEK was significantly less conducive to the formation of biofilms with S. mutans and A. actinomycetemcomitan (p < 0.001) but exhibited comparable MG-63 (human osteoblast-like) osteoblast cell viability (p > 0.05) to the other materials. PDT had similar antimicrobial efficacy and yielded similar biofilm removal effects to antibiotics. Altogether, these findings suggest that PEEK has attractive features and can serve as an alternative material for dental implants or abutments. In cases where peri-implant mucositis occurs, PDT can be used as an accessible therapeutic approach.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799801

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is a common gynecological cancer with a poor prognosis, mostly attributed to tumor metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can be mediated via transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signaling pathway, facilitating the ability of cancer cell invasion and migration. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a flavonoid derived from licorice with reported antineoplastic activities. This study aims to investigate the anti-metastatic potential of ISL on endometrial cancer both in vitro and in vivo. First, human endometrial cancer cell lines (HEC-1A, Ishikawa, and RL95-2) were treated with ISL and then subjected to functional assays such as migration assay as well as molecular analyses including immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and RT-qPCR. In addition, HEC-1A-LUC cells were implanted into female nude mice and treated with ISL by intraperitoneal injection for four weeks. Results showed that ISL inhibited cell migration and reversed the effect of TGF-ß on the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, α-SMA, p-Smad3, and TWIST1/2 In vitro. Interestingly, In vivo study revealed that ISL reduced peritoneal dissemination and serum level of TGF-ß1, as well as decreased the expression levels of N-cadherin, p-Smad2/3, TWIST1/2, while increased E-cadherin. Overall, ISL reverses the EMT through targeting the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway and features a potential therapeutic treatment for metastatic endometrial cancer.

16.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807346

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most common malignant tumors of gynecologic neoplasms in Western society. In recent years, the incidence of endometrial cancer has increased, and it has become the third most common female gynecological cancer (after ovarian and cervical cancer) in Taiwan. Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf.) has been demonstrated to have bioactive polyphenols, flavonoids, phytosterols, and essential nutrients for health benefits, including anticancer effects in humans. However, little is known about the effect of adlay seeds on endometrial cancer. Our study aimed to investigate the potential growth inhibitory effects of several adlay seed fractions, including ethyl acetate (ATE-EA) and its bioactive constituents, separately on endometrial cancer cells-HEC-1A (phosphatase and tensin homolog-positive) and RL95-2 (phosphatase and tensin homolog-negative)-and identify related active ingredients. In addition, the potential active fractions and the phytochemical compounds were elucidated. The results demonstrate superior activity of ATE-EA with significant in vitro cell proliferation inhibitory capacity, particularly its C.D.E.F-subfraction. Moreover, HPLC- and GC/FID-based quantification of ATE-EA subfractions showed that phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde), flavonoids, steroids, and fatty acid compounds exert anti-proliferative effects in the cell model. Finally, it was shown that cell growth and cell cycle arrest most significantly occurred in the in G1 or G2/M phase under ATE-EA treatment. Collectively, our results demonstrate an antiproliferative effect of ATE-EA on endometrial cancer cells that suggest a positive health outcome for women from consumption of these compounds.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Coix/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esteroides/farmacologia
17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917369

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia is the main cause of gout and involved in the occurrence of many other diseases such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension correlated with metabolic disorders. Chrysin is a flavonoid compound found naturally in honey, propolis, and mushrooms and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its mechanism of action is not clear yet. This study investigated the mechanism of chrysin's anti-hyperuricemic effect in hyperuricemia-induced rats fed with high-fructose corn syrup. Orally administrated chrysin for 28 consecutive days effectively decreased uric acid by inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in the liver. Moreover, chrysin markedly downregulated the protein expression of uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) and glucose transporter type 9 (GLUT9) and upregulated the protein expression of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and human ATP-binding cassette subfamily G-2 (ABCG2). In addition, chrysin showed prominent anti-oxidative and inflammatory effects as the malondialdehyde (MDA) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) concentration was reduced in both rat kidney and serum, which aligned with the inhibition of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signaling pathway activation. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that chrysin exhibits potent anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory effects that may yield new adjuvant treatments for gout.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401375

RESUMO

Isoliquiritigenin (2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone, ISL), one of the most important bioactive compounds with a chalcone structure, is derived from licorice root. Licorice is commonly known as Glycyrrhiza, including Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Glycyrrhiza radix, and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are generally available in common foods and Chinese herbal medicines based on a wide variety of biological functions and pharmacological effects, and its derivative (ISL) is utilized as a food additive and adjunct disease treatment. In this review, we summarized the progress over the last 10 years in the targeted pathways and molecular mechanisms of ISL that are involved in the regulation of the onset and progression of different types of cancers.

20.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(5): 849-857, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity is a key risk factor for asthma and impaired pulmonary function. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the critical period of life course adiposity for asthma in childhood and young adulthood, and to determine whether associations of adiposity and asthma vary across ages. METHODS: Birth weight and body mass index (BMI) from birth to 17 years of age were assessed in 6130 children from the Taiwan Children Health Study. Logistic regression for asthma outcome and linear regression for pulmonary function outcome were used to investigate associations of adiposity with asthma. Seventeen BMI-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used to obtain genetic instrumental variables for adiposity to perform Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. RESULTS: Using both regression model and MR analyses, we confirmed that the critical period of adiposity in predicting childhood asthma would be before age 6 years. Further, we discovered that the sensitive period of adiposity gain related to young adulthood asthma was the prepubertal stage. Risks of asthma at age 17 per unit increase in z-score of the BMI increased from 0.94 (95% CI: 0.79-1.11) at birth, and became greater than 1.00 between age 11 and 12, then increased to 1.08 (95% CI: 0.95-1.22) at age 17. The associations of life course BMI with asthma and pulmonary function impairment at age 12 and with asthma at age 17 increased with age. The aforementioned association was most prominent among central obesity indicators. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent asthma in childhood and young adulthood, we should aim at promoting healthy growth at the toddler period and prepubertal stage.


Assuntos
Asma , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Pulmão , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adulto Jovem
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