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1.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(3): 553-562, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144579

RESUMO

Recent research on visual object recognition has suggested that the right hemisphere can engage either holistic or part-based processing depending on whether the recognition relies on configural (exact distances among features) or featural information, respectively. Consistent with this finding, expert Chinese reading has been marked by a left-side bias (an indication of right-hemisphere lateralization) with decreased holistic processing (as assessed using the composite paradigm) due to its reliance on featural information. Here we examine two common perceptual expertise phenomena in object recognition - holistic processing and left-side bias - of Chinese characters in adolescents with developmental dyslexia and matched controls. We found that those with dyslexia showed stronger holistic processing, a weaker left-side bias, and worse performance in Chinese character dictation than controls. This was in contrast to Limited writers (proficient readers with limited writing experience) reported in Tso, Au, and Hsiao (Psychological Science, 25, 1757-1767, 2014), who showed stronger holistic processing and worse dictation performance, but the same level of left-side bias as controls. This result demonstrated two different perceptual mechanisms underlying holistic processing: Limited writers' holistic processing may be due to difficulties in de-emphasizing configural information unimportant to Chinese characters, whereas readers with dyslexia may have deficits selectively attending to character components to form appropriate part-based representations in the right hemisphere.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 19(2): 283-295, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460483

RESUMO

Sleep deprivation is suggested to impact emotion regulation, but few studies have directly examined it. This study investigated the influence of sleep deprivation on three commonly used emotion regulation strategies (distraction, reappraisal, suppression) in Gross's (1998) process model of emotion regulation. Young healthy adults were randomly assigned to a sleep deprivation group (SD; n = 26, 13 males, age = 20.0 ± 1.7) or a sleep control group (SC; n = 25, 13 males, age = 20.2 ± 1.7). Following 24-h sleep deprivation or normal nighttime sleep, participants completed an emotion regulation task, in which they naturally viewed or applied a given emotion regulation strategy towards negative pictures, with electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A reduction in the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes towards negative pictures from the naturally viewing condition to a regulated condition was calculated as an index of regulatory effects. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that sleep deprivation significantly impaired the regulatory effects of distraction and reappraisal on LPP amplitudes. Suppression did not reduce LPP amplitudes in either group. In addition, habitual sleep quality moderated the effect of sleep deprivation on subjective perception of emotional stimuli, such that sleep deprivation only made good sleepers perceive negative pictures as more unpleasant and more arousing, but it had no significant effect on poor sleepers' perception of negative pictures. Altogether, this study provides the first evidence that sleep deprivation may impair the effectiveness of applying adaptive emotion regulation strategies (distraction and reappraisal), creating potentially undesirable consequences to emotional well-being.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cognition ; 176: 159-173, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558721

RESUMO

Music notation and English word reading both involve mapping horizontally arranged visual components to components in sound, in contrast to reading in logographic languages such as Chinese. Accordingly, music-reading expertise may influence English word processing more than Chinese character processing. Here we showed that musicians named English words significantly faster than non-musicians when words were presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH) or the center position, suggesting an advantage of RH processing due to music reading experience. This effect was not observed in Chinese character naming. A follow-up ERP study showed that in a sequential matching task, musicians had reduced RH N170 responses to English non-words under the processing of musical segments as compared with non-musicians, suggesting a shared visual processing mechanism in the RH between music notation and English non-word reading. This shared mechanism may be related to the letter-by-letter, serial visual processing that characterizes RH English word recognition (e.g., Lavidor & Ellis, 2001), which may consequently facilitate English word processing in the RH in musicians. Thus, music reading experience may have differential influences on the processing of different languages, depending on their similarities in the cognitive processes involved.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Música/psicologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Campos Visuais , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychol Sci ; 25(9): 1757-67, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25085866

RESUMO

Holistic processing and left-side bias are both behavioral markers of expert face recognition. By contrast, expert recognition of characters in Chinese orthography involves left-side bias but reduced holistic processing, although faces and Chinese characters share many visual properties. Here, we examined whether this reduction in holistic processing of Chinese characters can be better explained by writing experience than by reading experience. Compared with Chinese nonreaders, Chinese readers who had limited writing experience showed increased holistic processing, whereas Chinese readers who could write characters fluently showed reduced holistic processing. This result suggests that writing and sensorimotor experience can modulate holistic-processing effects and that the reduced holistic processing observed in expert Chinese readers may depend mostly on writing experience. However, both expert writers and writers with limited experience showed similarly stronger left-side bias than novices did in processing mirror-symmetric Chinese characters; left-side bias may therefore be a robust expertise marker for object recognition that is uninfluenced by sensorimotor experience.


Assuntos
Cognição , Escrita Manual , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Brain Lang ; 119(2): 89-98, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21620456

RESUMO

In Chinese orthography, a dominant character structure exists in which a semantic radical appears on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); a minority opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). As the number of phonetic radical types is much greater than semantic radical types, in SP characters the information is skewed to the right, whereas in PS characters it is skewed to the left. Through training a computational model for SP and PS character recognition that takes into account of the locations in which the characters appear in the visual field during learning, but does not assume any fundamental hemispheric processing difference, we show that visual field differences can emerge as a consequence of the fundamental structural differences in information between SP and PS characters, as opposed to the fundamental processing differences between the two hemispheres. This modeling result is also consistent with behavioral naming performance. This work provides strong evidence that perceptual learning, i.e., the information structure of word stimuli to which the readers have long been exposed, is one of the factors that accounts for hemispheric asymmetry effects in visual word recognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Idioma , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Leitura , Vocabulário
6.
Psychol Sci ; 19(10): 998-1006, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19000210

RESUMO

It is well known that there exist preferred landing positions for eye fixations in visual word recognition. However, the existence of preferred landing positions in face recognition is less well established. It is also unknown how many fixations are required to recognize a face. To investigate these questions, we recorded eye movements during face recognition. During an otherwise standard face-recognition task, subjects were allowed a variable number of fixations before the stimulus was masked. We found that optimal recognition performance is achieved with two fixations; performance does not improve with additional fixations. The distribution of the first fixation is just to the left of the center of the nose, and that of the second fixation is around the center of the nose. Thus, these appear to be the preferred landing positions for face recognition. Furthermore, the fixations made during face learning differ in location from those made during face recognition and are also more variable in duration; this suggests that different strategies are used for face learning and face recognition.


Assuntos
Face , Fixação Ocular , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Eletroculografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação , Tempo de Reação , Movimentos Sacádicos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 20(12): 2298-307, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18457514

RESUMO

Anatomical evidence shows that our visual field is initially split along the vertical midline and contralaterally projected to different hemispheres. It remains unclear at which processing stage the split information converges. In the current study, we applied the Double Filtering by Frequency (DFF) theory (Ivry & Robertson, 1998) to modeling the visual field split; the theory assumes a right-hemisphere/low-frequency bias. We compared three cognitive architectures with different timings of convergence and examined their cognitive plausibility to account for the left-side bias effect in face perception observed in human data. We show that the early convergence model failed to show the left-side bias effect. The modeling, hence, suggests that the convergence may take place at an intermediate or late stage, at least after information has been extracted/encoded separately in the two hemispheres, a fact that is often overlooked in computational modeling of cognitive processes. Comparative anatomical data suggest that this separate encoding process that results in differential frequency biases in the two hemispheres may be engaged from V1 up to the level of area V3a and V4v, and converge at least after the lateral occipital region. The left-side bias effect in our model was also observed in Greeble recognition; the modeling, hence, also provides testable predictions about whether the left-side bias effect may also be observed in (expertise-level) object recognition.


Assuntos
Face , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
J Vis ; 8(14): 17.1-14, 2008 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19146318

RESUMO

We present a Bayesian version of J. Lacroix, J. Murre, and E. Postma's (2006) Natural Input Memory (NIM) model of saccadic visual memory. Our model, which we call NIMBLE (NIM with Bayesian Likelihood Estimation), uses a cognitively plausible image sampling technique that provides a foveated representation of image patches. We conceive of these memorized image fragments as samples from image class distributions and model the memory of these fragments using kernel density estimation. Using these models, we derive class-conditional probabilities of new image fragments and combine individual fragment probabilities to classify images. Our Bayesian formulation of the model extends easily to handle multi-class problems. We validate our model by demonstrating human levels of performance on a face recognition memory task and high accuracy on multi-category face and object identification. We also use NIMBLE to examine the change in beliefs as more fixations are taken from an image. Using fixation data collected from human subjects, we directly compare the performance of NIMBLE's memory component to human performance, demonstrating that using human fixation locations allows NIMBLE to recognize familiar faces with only a single fixation.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Face , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Probabilidade , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Percept Psychophys ; 69(3): 338-44, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17672421

RESUMO

Auclair and Siéroff examined lateralized cuing effects in the identification of centrally presented letter strings and reported no cuing effects for short word stimuli. They argued for a redistribution of attention over the entire word for short familiar words. We explored cuing effects with Chinese phonetic compounds, which can be considered extreme examples of short words, in a character-level semantic judgment task. When the semantic radical position was placed on the left of the characters, strong radical combinability and semantic transparency effects were observed. There was also a significant interaction between cue position (left vs. right) and radical combinability: A left cue facilitated semantic judgment of characters with small radical combinability more than did a right cue. This behavior reflects the information profile of Chinese phonetic compounds. Semantic radicals with small combinability are more informative than those with large combinability in determining the meaning of the whole character; they therefore benefit more from a left than a right cue. A mechanism redistributing attention over the whole of the character was not in evidence at the level of semantic processing.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Semântica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Linguística , Masculino
10.
Neuropsychologia ; 45(6): 1280-92, 2007 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17098263

RESUMO

Recent research on foveal structure and reading suggests that the two halves of a centrally fixated word seem to be initially projected to, and processed in, different hemispheres. In the current study, we utilize two contrasting structures in Chinese orthography, "SP" (the semantic radical on the left and the phonetic radical on the right) and "PS" characters (the opposite structure), to examine foveal splitting effects in event-related potential (ERP) recordings. We showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was a significant interaction between character type and hemisphere in N1 amplitude: SP characters elicited larger N1 compared with PS characters in the left hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere had the opposite pattern. This effect is consistent with the split fovea claim, suggesting that the two halves of a character may be initially projected to and processed in different hemispheres. There was no such interaction observed in an earlier component P1. Also, there was an interaction between character type and sex of the reader in N350 amplitude. This result is consistent with Hsiao and Shillcock's [Hsiao, J. H., & Shillcock, R. (2005b). Foveal splitting causes differential processing of Chinese orthography in the male and female brain. Cognitive Brain Research, 25, 531-536] behavioural study, which showed a similar interaction in naming response time. They argued that this effect was due to a more left-lateralized network for phonological processing in the male brain compared with the female brain. The results hence showed that foveal splitting effects in visual word recognition were observed in N1 the earliest, and could extend far enough to interact with the sex of the reader as revealed in N350.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Caracteres Sexuais , Visão Binocular/fisiologia
11.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 35(5): 405-26, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16897357

RESUMO

The complexity of Chinese orthography has hindered the progress of research in Chinese to the same level of sophistication of that in alphabetic languages such as English. Also, there has been no publicly available resource concerning the decomposition of Chinese characters, which is essential in any attempt to model the cognitive processes of Chinese character recognition. Here we report our construction and analysis of a Chinese lexical database containing the most frequent phonetic compounds decomposed into semantic and phonetic radicals according to Chinese etymology. Each radical was further decomposed into basic stroke patterns according to a Chinese transcription system, Cangjie (Chu, 1979 Laboratory of chu Bong-Foo Retrieved August 25, 2004, from http://www.cbflabs.com/). Other information such as pronunciation and character frequency were also incorporated. We examine the distribution of different types of character, the information skew in phonetic compounds, the relations between subcharacter orthographic units and the pronunciation of the entire character, and the processing implications of these phenomena in terms of universal psycholinguistic principles.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Idioma , Fonética , Leitura , Semântica , Redação , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Escrita Manual , Humanos , Orientação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Psicolinguística
12.
Brain Res ; 1078(1): 159-67, 2006 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16499892

RESUMO

The proposal of human foveal splitting assumes a vertical meridian split in the foveal representation and the consequent contralateral projection of information in the two hemifields to the two hemispheres and has been shown to have important implications for visual word recognition. According to this assumption, in Chinese character recognition, the two halves of a centrally fixated character may be initially projected to and processed in different hemispheres. Here, we describe a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) investigation of hemispheric processing in Chinese character recognition, through examining semantic radical combinability effects in a character semantic judgment task. The materials used were a dominant type of Chinese character which consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. Thus, according to the split fovea assumption, the semantic and phonetic radicals are initially projected to and processed in the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere, respectively. We show that rTMS over the left occipital cortex impaired the facilitation of semantic radicals with large combinability, whereas right occipital rTMS did not. This interaction between stimulation site and radical combinability reveals a flexible division of labor between the hemispheres in Chinese character recognition, with each hemisphere responding optimally to the information in the contralateral visual hemifield to which it has direct access. The results are also consistent with the split fovea claim, suggesting functional foveal splitting as a universal processing constraint in reading.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Semântica , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Vocabulário , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Brain Res Cogn Brain Res ; 25(2): 531-6, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16154326

RESUMO

Chinese characters contain separate phonetic and semantic radicals. A dominant character type exists in which the semantic radical is on the left and the phonetic radical on the right; an opposite, minority structure also exists, with the semantic radical on the right and the phonetic radical on the left. We show that, when asked to pronounce isolated tokens of these two character types, males responded significantly faster when the phonetic information was on the right, whereas females showed a non-significant tendency in the opposite direction. Recent research on foveal structure and reading suggests that the two halves of a centrally fixated character are initially processed in different hemispheres. The male brain typically relies more on the left hemisphere for phonological processing compared with the female brain, causing this gender difference to emerge. This interaction is predicted by an implemented computational model. This study supports the existence of a gender difference in phonological processing, and shows that the effects of foveal splitting in reading extend far enough into word recognition to interact with the gender of the reader in a naturalistic reading task.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Idioma , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Campos Visuais , Vocabulário
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