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1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829679

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is routinely used for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the therapeutic efficacy is usually reduced by acquired radioresistance and locoregional recurrence. In this study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) analysis showed that radiotherapy upregulated the miR-182/96/183 cluster and that miR-182 was the most significantly upregulated. Overexpression of miR-182-5p enhanced the radiosensitivity of HNSCC cells by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, suggesting that expression of the miR-182 family is beneficial for radiotherapy. By intersecting the gene targeting results from three microRNA target prediction databases, we noticed that sestrin2 (SESN2), a molecule resistant to oxidative stress, was involved in 91 genes predicted in all three databases to be directly recognized by miR-182-5p. Knockdown of SESN2 enhanced radiation-induced ROS and cytotoxicity in HNSCC cells. In addition, the radiation-induced expression of SESN2 was repressed by overexpression of miR-182-5p. Reciprocal expression of the miR-182-5p and SESN2 genes was also analyzed in the TCGA database, and a high expression of miR-182-5p combined with a low expression of SESN2 was associated with a better survival rate in patients receiving radiotherapy. Taken together, the current data suggest that miR-182-5p may regulate radiation-induced antioxidant effects and mediate the efficacy of radiotherapy.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829812

RESUMO

The multi-domain non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) is an oncogenic molecule that has been concomitantly implicated in the progression of coronavirus infection. However, its oncological role in lung cancer and whether it plays a role in modulating the tumor immune microenvironment is not properly understood. In the present in silico study, we demonstrated that NSP3 (SH2D3C) is associated with advanced stage and poor prognoses of lung cancer cohorts. Genetic alterations of NSP3 (SH2D3C) co-occurred inversely with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) alterations and elicited its pathological role via modulation of various components of the immune and inflammatory pathways in lung cancer. Our correlation analysis suggested that NSP3 (SH2D3C) promotes tumor immune evasion via dysfunctional T-cell phenotypes and T-cell exclusion mechanisms in lung cancer patients. NSP3 (SH2D3C) demonstrated a high predictive value and association with therapy resistance in lung cancer, hence serving as an attractive target for therapy exploration. We evaluated the in silico drug-likeness and NSP3 (SH2D3C) target efficacy of six organosulfur small molecules from Allium sativum using a molecular docking study. We found that the six organosulfur compounds demonstrated selective cytotoxic potential against cancer cell lines and good predictions for ADMET properties, drug-likeness, and safety profile. E-ajoene, alliin, diallyl sulfide, 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, allicin, and S-allyl-cysteine docked well into the NSP3 (SH2D3C)-binding cavity with binding affinities ranging from -4.3~-6.70 A and random forest (RF) scores ranging from 4.31~5.26 pKd. However, S-allyl-cysteine interaction with NSP3 (SH2D3C) is unfavorable and hence less susceptible to NSP3 ligandability. In conclusion, our study revealed that NSP3 is an important onco-immunological biomarker encompassing the tumor microenvironment, disease staging and prognosis in lung cancer and could serve as an attractive target for cancer therapy. The organosulfur compounds from A. sativum have molecular properties to efficiently interact with the binding site of NSP3 and are currently under vigorous preclinical study in our laboratory.

3.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834289

RESUMO

This review outlines the methods for preparing carbon dots (CDs) from various natural resources to select the process to produce CDs with the best biological application efficacy. The oxidative activity of CDs mainly involves photo-induced cell damage and the destruction of biofilm matrices through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby causing cell auto-apoptosis. Recent research has found that CDs derived from organic carbon sources can treat cancer cells as effectively as conventional drugs without causing damage to normal cells. CDs obtained by heating a natural carbon source inherit properties similar to the carbon source from which they are derived. Importantly, these characteristics can be exploited to perform non-invasive targeted therapy on human cancers, avoiding the harm caused to the human body by conventional treatments. CDs are attractive for large-scale clinical applications. Water, herbs, plants, and probiotics are ideal carbon-containing sources that can be used to synthesize therapeutic and diagnostic CDs that have become the focus of attention due to their excellent light stability, fluorescence, good biocompatibility, and low toxicity. They can be applied as biosensors, bioimaging, diagnosis, and treatment applications. These advantages make CDs attractive for large-scale clinical application, providing new technologies and methods for disease occurrence, diagnosis, and treatment research.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients frequently develop neuroendocrine differentiation, with high mortality and no effective treatment. However, the regulatory mechanism that connects neuroendocrine differentiation and metabolic adaptation in response to therapeutic resistance of prostate cancer remain to be unravelled. METHODS: By unbiased cross-correlation between RNA-sequencing, database signatures, and ChIP analysis, combining in vitro cell lines and in vivo animal models, we identified that PCK1 is a pivotal regulator in therapy-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer through a LIF/ZBTB46-driven glucose metabolism pathway. RESULTS: Upregulation of PCK1 supports cell proliferation and reciprocally increases ZBTB46 levels to promote the expression of neuroendocrine markers that are conducive to the development of neuroendocrine characteristic CRPC. PCK1 and neuroendocrine marker expressions are regulated by the ZBTB46 transcription factor upon activation of LIF signalling. Targeting PCK1 can reduce the neuroendocrine phenotype and decrease the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovers LIF/ZBTB46 signalling activation as a key mechanism for upregulating PCK1-driven glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine differentiation of CRPC, which may yield significant improvements in prostate cancer treatment after ADT using PCK1 inhibitors.

5.
Oncogenesis ; 10(11): 81, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799554

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) is associated with WNT signaling activation and can be significantly observed after failure of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostatic adenocarcinomas. Cytokine signaling is stimulated in NED prostate cancer; however, how ADT-upregulated WNT signaling promotes activation of cytokine signaling and contributes to NED of prostate cancer is poorly understood. In this study, we identified ADT-mediated upregulation of transcription factor 7 like 1 (TCF7L1), which increases the cytokine response and enhances NED of prostate cancer through interleukin (IL)-8/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 2 (CXCR2) signaling activation. ADT induced the secretion of WNT4 which upon engagement of TCF7L1 in prostate cancer cells, enhanced IL-8 and CXCR2 expressions. TCF7L1 directly binds to the regulatory sequence region of IL-8 and CXCR2 through WNT4 activation, thus upregulating IL-8/CXCR2 signaling-driven NED and cell motility. Analysis of prostate tissue samples collected from small-cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer (SCPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) tumors showed an increased intensity of nuclear TCF7L1 associated with CXCR2. Our results suggest that induction of WNT4/TCF7L1 results in increased NED and malignancy in prostate cancer that is linked to dysregulation of androgen receptor signaling and activation of the IL-8/CXCR2 pathway.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768921

RESUMO

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high prevalence and predicted global mortality rate of 67.1%, necessitating better therapeutic strategies. Moreover, the recurrence and resistance of OSCC after chemo/radioresistance remains a major bottleneck for its effective treatment. Molecular targeting is one of the new therapeutic approaches to target cancer. Among a plethora of targetable signaling molecules, PDK1 is currently rising as a potential target for cancer therapy. Its aberrant expression in many malignancies is observed associated with glycolytic re-programming and chemo/radioresistance. Methods: Furthermore, to better understand the role of PDK1 in OSCC, we analyzed tissue samples from 62 patients with OSCC for PDK1 expression. Combining in silico and in vitro analysis approaches, we determined the important association between PDK1/CD47/LDHA expression in OSCC. Next, we analyzed the effect of PDK1 expression and its connection with OSCC orosphere generation and maintenance, as well as the effect of the combination of the PDK1 inhibitor BX795, cisplatin and radiotherapy in targeting it. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that higher PDK1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in OSCC. The immunoprecipitation assay indicated PDK1/CD47 binding. PDK1 ligation significantly impaired OSCC orosphere formation and downregulated Sox2, Oct4, and CD133 expression. The combination of BX795 and cisplatin markedly reduced in OSCC cell's epithelial-mesenchymal transition, implying its synergistic effect. p-PDK1, CD47, Akt, PFKP, PDK3 and LDHA protein expression were significantly reduced, with the strongest inhibition in the combination group. Chemo/radiotherapy together with abrogation of PDK1 inhibits the oncogenic (Akt/CD47) and glycolytic (LDHA/PFKP/PDK3) signaling and, enhanced or sensitizes OSCC to the anticancer drug effect through inducing apoptosis and DNA damage together with metabolic reprogramming. Conclusions: Therefore, the results from our current study may serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic strategies against chemo/radioresistant OSCC.

7.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 308, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627267

RESUMO

In Asia, including Taiwan, malignant tumors such as Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) one of the liver cancer is the most diagnosed subtype. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been a typical diagnostic method for accurately diagnosing HCC. When it is difficult to demonstrate non-enhanced MRI of tumors, radiologists can use contrast agents (such as Gd3+, Fe3O4, or FePt) for T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging remain in the liver for a long time to facilitate diagnosis via MRI. However, it is sometimes difficult for T2-weighted imaging to detect small tumor lesions because the liver tissue may absorb iron ions. This makes early cancer detection a challenging goal. This challenge has prompted current research to create novel nanocomposites for enhancing the noise-to-signal ratio of MRI. To develop a method that can more efficiently diagnose and simultaneously treat HCC during MRI examination, we designed a functionalized montmorillonite (MMT) material with a porous structure to benefit related drugs, such as mitoxantrone (MIT) delivery or as a carrier for the FePt nanoparticles (FePt NPs) to introduce cancer therapy. Multifunctional FePt@MMT can simultaneously visualize HCC by enhancing MRI signals, treating various diseases, and being used as an inducer of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). After loading the drug MIT, FePt@MMT-MIT provides both MFH treatment and chemotherapy in one nanosystem. These results ultimately prove that functionalized FePt@MMT-MIT could be integrated as a versatile drugs delivery system by combining with MRI, chemotheraeutic drugs, and magnetic guide targeting.

8.
Chin J Physiol ; 64(5): 218-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708713

RESUMO

Positive feeling or rewarding experience is crucial for individuals to operative their cognitive activities via an outcome evaluation of incentive reinforcement. For a long time, rewarding process or outcome evaluation is assumed greatly influenced by neuronal construct that holds individuals' impulsiveness, a capacity to inhibit unwanted behaviors provoked in a given situation. In the present study, we proposed that the outcome evaluation or rewarding experience can influence the occurrence of impulsiveness too. We hypothesized that animals would be more likely to deliver impulsive action in the place where it was previously associated with reinforcing process, in which central dopamine may play an important role. By employing five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), we examined whether one of the five holes where rats made a correct response to get the reward would gain a higher probability to deliver premature or perseverative activities than other holes in the next trial of 5-CSRTT under baseline or longer waiting period condition. The effects of D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 were also evaluated in the above paradigm. We demonstrated that (i) the influence on motoric impulsive response from previous rewarded experience can be described in a behavioral paradigm such as the 5-CSRTT, (ii) both prematures and perseverations at the hole associated with previous rewarding were about one-fifth of probability, however were statistically not correlated unless the interventions of inter-trial interval = 7 plus SCH23390, and (iii) the hole associated with the positive reinforcement of the 5-CSRTT appears more likely for rats to carry out an intuitive impetus under SCH23390 in a longer waiting condition. Our results may shed some insight toward the role of rewarding process in impulsive behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Recompensa , Animais , Dopamina , Ratos , Tempo de Reação
9.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 313, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702798

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal cancer. Existing therapies do not have significant efficacy for GBM patients. Previous studies have shown that the collagen family is involved in the regulation of the extracellular environment of cancer cells, and these conditions could become an important factor for effective treatment. Therefore, we screened various collagen types and observed that the type V collagen α1 chain (COL5A1) gene plays a pivotal role in GBM. We further examined whether the overexpression of COL5A1 is common in mesenchymal subtypes and is related to the survival rate of GBM patients through several in silico cohorts. In addition, our cohort also showed a consistent trend in COL5A1 protein levels. Most importantly, we validated the cell mobility, metastatic ability and actin polymerization status caused by COL5A1 with two-way models. Based on these results, we established a transcriptomics dataset based on COL5A1. Moreover, PPRC1, GK and ESM1 were predicted by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) to be transcription factors or to participate downstream. We investigated the involvement of COL5A1 in extracellular remodeling and the regulation of actin filaments in the metastasis of GBM. Our results indicate that the COL5A1-PPRC1-ESM1 axis may represent a novel therapeutic target in GBM.

10.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572040

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive brain malignancies with high incidences of developing treatment resistance, resulting in poor prognoses. Glioma stem cell (GSC)-derived exosomes are important players that contribute to GBM tumorigenesis and aggressive properties. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory roles of GBM-N019, a novel small molecule on the transfer of aggressive and invasive properties through the delivery of oncogene-loaded exosomes from GSCs to naïve and non-GSCs. Our results indicated that GBM-N019 significantly downregulated the expressions of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) signaling networks with concomitant inhibitory activities against viability, clonogenicity, and migratory abilities of U251 and U87MG cells. Treatments with GBM-N019 halted the exosomal transfer of protein kinase B (Akt), mTOR, p-mTOR, and Ras-related protein RAB27A to the naïve U251 and U87MG cells, and rescued the cells from invasive and stemness properties that were associated with activation of these oncogenes. GBM-N019 also synergized with and enhanced the anti-GBM activities of palbociclib in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our results suggested that GBM-N019 possesses good translational relevance as a potential anti-glioblastoma drug candidate worthy of consideration for clinical trials against recurrent glioblastomas.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Feminino , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Prognóstico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572346

RESUMO

Changes in cell growth and metabolism are affected by the surrounding environmental factors to adapt to the cell's most appropriate growth model. However, abnormal cell metabolism is correlated with the occurrence of many diseases and is accompanied by changes in galectin (Gal) performance. Gals were found to be some of the master regulators of cell-cell interactions that reconstruct the microenvironment, and disordered expression of Gals is associated with multiple human metabolic-related diseases including cancer development. Cancer cells can interact with surrounding cells through Gals to create more suitable conditions that promote cancer cell aggressiveness. In this review, we organize the current understanding of Gals in a systematic way to dissect Gals' effect on human disease, including how Gals' dysregulated expression affects the tumor microenvironment's metabolism and elucidating the mechanisms involved in Gal-mediated diseases. This information may shed light on a more precise understanding of how Gals regulate cell biology and facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment by targeting the Gal family.

12.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572451

RESUMO

Epithelial and mesenchymal transition mechanisms continue to occur during the cell cycle and throughout human development from the embryo stage to death. In embryo development, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can be divided into three essential steps. First, endoderm, mesoderm, and neural crest cells form, then the cells are subdivided, and finally, cardiac valve formation occurs. After the embryonic period, the human body will be subjected to ongoing mechanical stress or injury. The formation of a wound requires EMT to recruit fibroblasts to generate granulation tissues, repair the wound and re-create an intact skin barrier. However, once cells transform into a malignant tumor, the tumor cells acquire the characteristic of immortality. Local cell growth with no growth inhibition creates a solid tumor. If the tumor cannot obtain enough nutrition in situ, the tumor cells will undergo EMT and invade the basal membrane of nearby blood vessels. The tumor cells are transported through the bloodstream to secondary sites and then begin to form colonies and undergo reverse EMT, the so-called "mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)." This dynamic change involves cell morphology, environmental conditions, and external stimuli. Therefore, in this manuscript, the similarities and differences between EMT and MET will be dissected from embryonic development to the stage of cancer metastasis.

13.
J Pers Med ; 11(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442426

RESUMO

Survival analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset is a well-known method for discovering gene expression-based prognostic biomarkers of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A cutoff point is usually used in survival analysis for patient dichotomization when using continuous gene expression values. There is some optimization software for cutoff determination. However, the software's predetermined cutoffs are usually set at the medians or quantiles of gene expression values. There are also few clinicopathological features available in pre-processed datasets. We applied an in-house workflow, including data retrieving and pre-processing, feature selection, sliding-window cutoff selection, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard modeling for biomarker discovery. In our approach for the TCGA HNSCC cohort, we scanned human protein-coding genes to find optimal cutoff values. After adjustments with confounders, clinical tumor stage and surgical margin involvement were found to be independent risk factors for prognosis. According to the results tables that show hazard ratios with Bonferroni-adjusted p values under the optimal cutoff, three biomarker candidates, CAMK2N1, CALML5, and FCGBP, are significantly associated with overall survival. We validated this discovery by using the another independent HNSCC dataset (GSE65858). Thus, we suggest that transcriptomic analysis could help with biomarker discovery. Moreover, the robustness of the biomarkers we identified should be ensured through several additional tests with independent datasets.

14.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440089

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bile duct. The current standard first-line treatment for advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma is gemcitabine and cisplatin. However, few effective treatment choices exist for refractory cholangiocarcinoma, and additional therapeutic drugs are urgently required. Our previous work demonstrated that the ALDH isoform 1A3 plays a vital role in the malignant behavior of cholangiocarcinoma and may serve as a new therapeutic target. In this study, we found a positive correlation between ALDH1A3 protein expression levels and the cell migration abilities of three cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, which was verified using ALDH1A3-overexpressing and ALDH1A3-knockdown clones. We also used ALDH1A3-high and ALDH1A3-low populations of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines from the library of integrated network-based cellular signatures (LINCS) program and assessed the effects of ruxolitinib, a commercially available JAK2 inhibitor. Ruxolitinib had a higher cytotoxic effect when combined with gemcitabine. Furthermore, the nuclear translocation STAT1 and STAT3 heterodimers were markedly diminished by ruxolitinib treatment, possibly resulting in decreased ALDH1A3 activation. Notably, ruxolitinib alone or combined with gemcitabine led to significantly reduced tumor size and weight. Collectively, our studies suggest that ruxolitinib might suppress the ALDH1A3 activation through the JAK2/STAT1/3 pathway in cholangiocarcinoma, and trials should be undertaken to evaluate its efficacy in clinical therapy.

15.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440135

RESUMO

The relatively high incidence and mortality rates for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) make it a formidable malignant tumor. Comprehensive strategies have been applied to predict patient survival and diagnosis. Various clinical regimens have also been developed to improve the therapeutic outcome. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are recently proposed cellular structures that can be produced by natural or artificial methods and have been extensively studied. In addition to their innate functions, EVs can be manipulated to be drug carriers and exert many biological functions. The composition of EVs, their intravesicular components, and the surrounding tumor microenvironment are closely related to the development of colorectal cancer. Determining the expression profiles of exocytosis samples and using them as indicators for selecting effective combination therapy is an indispensable direction for EV study and should be regarded as a novel prediction platform in addition to cancer stage, prognosis, and other clinical assessments. In this review, we summarize the function, regulation, and application of EVs in the colon cancer research field. We provide an update on and discuss potential values for clinical applications of EVs. Moreover, we illustrate the specific markers, mediators, and genetic alterations of EVs in colorectal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we outline the vital markers present in the EVs and discuss their plausible uses in colon cancer patient therapy in combination with the currently used clinical strategies. The development and application of these EVs will significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis, lead to more precise prognoses, and may lead to the improved treatment of colorectal cancer.

16.
Oncogenesis ; 10(7): 56, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315851

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are current standard of care for patients with EGFR mutation and metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), but most patients using EGFR TKIs acquire resistance later. So, overcoming resistance of EGFR TKIs has become an important issue in the treatment of NSCLC. Previously, therapeutics targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) have been successful in treating several hematologic malignancies. However, the role of BTK in NSCLC is still unknown. In this study, by examining surgical specimens from 80 NSCLC patients and their clinicopathologic parameters, we found significant correlation between high BTK expression and tumor differentiation, p-stage, lymph node metastatic status, maximum tumor size, and poor prognosis of patients. Using two NSCLC cell lines A540 and PC9, we demonstrated that BTKpos cells exhibited more stemness (OCT4, SOX2) and EMT (E-Cadherin, Slug) markers than BTKneg cells. Knockdown of BTK sensitized the NSCLC cells to Gefitinib. Meanwhile, the second-generation BTK inhibitor Acalabrutinib effectively suppressed SOX2, STAT3/JAK2/Akt axis and potentiated the anti-proliferative effect of Gefitinib and Osimertinib in NSCLC cells, including the T790M H1975 cells. Furthermore, Acalabrutinib and Osimertinib combination exhibited significant tumor growth inhibition of H1975-derived tumors in vivo. Our findings suggested that BTK mediates stemness and EMT properties, and inhibition of BTK potentiates the effect of Gefitinib and Osimertinib in NSCLC cells resistant to TKI. This implies a new approach to treat the NSCLC patients with resistance to previous TKI treatment.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15430, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326410

RESUMO

Mesothelin (MSLN) is an attractive candidate of targeted therapy for several cancers, and hence there are increasing needs to develop MSLN-targeting strategies for cancer therapeutics. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) targeting MSLN have been demonstrated to be a viable strategy in treating MSLN-positive cancers. However, developing antibodies as targeting modules in ADCs for toxic payload delivery to the tumor site but not to normal tissues is not a straightforward task with many potential hurdles. In this work, we established a high throughput engineering platform to develop and optimize anti-MSLN ADCs by characterizing more than 300 scFv CDR-variants and more than 50 IgG CDR-variants of a parent anti-MSLN antibody as candidates for ADCs. The results indicate that only a small portion of the complementarity determining region (CDR) residues are indispensable in the MSLN-specific targeting. Also, the enhancement of the hydrophilicity of the rest of the CDR residues could drastically increase the overall solubility of the optimized anti-MSLN antibodies, and thus substantially improve the efficacies of the ADCs in treating human gastric and pancreatic tumor xenograft models in mice. We demonstrated that the in vivo treatments with the optimized ADCs resulted in almost complete eradication of the xenograft tumors at the treatment endpoints, without detectable off-target toxicity because of the ADCs' high specificity targeting the cell surface tumor-associated MSLN. The technological platform can be applied to optimize the antibody sequences for more effective targeting modules of ADCs, even when the candidate antibodies are not necessarily feasible for the ADC development due to the antibodies' inferior solubility or affinity/specificity to the target antigen.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 135, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091600

RESUMO

Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is involved in glycolytic and various metabolic events. Dysfunction of PGK may induce metabolic reprogramming and the Warburg effect. In this study, we demonstrated that PGK1, but not PGK2, may play a key role in tumorigenesis and is associated with metastasis. We observed an inverse correlation between PGK1 and the survival rate in several clinical cohorts through bioinformatics statistical and immunohistochemical staining analyses. Surprisingly, we found that PGK1 was significantly increased in adenocarcinoma compared with other subtypes. Thus, we established a PGK1-based proteomics dataset by a pull-down assay. We further investigated HIV-1 Tat Specific Factor 1 (HTATSF1), a potential binding partner, through protein-protein interactions. Then, we confirmed that PGK1 indeed bound to HTATSF1 by two-way immunoprecipitation experiments. In addition, we generated several mutant clones of PGK1 through site-directed mutagenesis, including mutagenesis of the N-terminal region, the enzyme catalytic domain, and the C-terminal region. We observed that even though the phosphoglycerate kinase activity had been inhibited, the migration ability induced by PGK1 was maintained. Moreover, our immunofluorescence staining also indicated the translocation of PGK1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its colocalization with HTATSF1. From the results presented in this study, we propose a novel model in which the PGK1 binds to HTATSF1 and exerts functional control of cancer metastasis. In addition, we also showed a nonenzymatic function of PGK1.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(23): 26759-26769, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076419

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the deadliest and most invasive brain cancers/gliomas, and there is currently no established way to treat this disease. The treatment of GBM typically involves intracranial surgery followed by chemotherapy. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes the delivery of the chemotherapeutic drug, making the treatment challenging. In this study, we embedded a chemotherapeutic drug and other nanomaterials into a nanobubble (NB), utilized active tracking and other guidance mechanisms to guide the nanocomposite to the tumor site, and then used high-intensity focused ultrasound oscillation to burst the nanobubbles, generating a transient cavitation impact on the BBB and allowing the drug to bypass it and reach the brain. FePt enhances the resolution of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging images and has magnetic properties that help guide the nanocomposite to the tumor location. FePt nanoparticles were loaded into the hydrophobic core of the NBs along with doxorubicin to form a bubble-based drug delivery system (Dox-FePt@NB). The surface of the NBs is modified with a targeting ligand, transferrin (Dox-FePt@NB-Tf), giving the nanocomposite active tracking abilities. The Dox-FePt@NB-Tf developed in the present study represents a potential breakthrough in GBM treatment through improved drug delivery and biological imaging.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ferro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Platina/química , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos , Nanocompostos/química , Medicina de Precisão , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ultrassom/métodos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069116

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the majority of primary liver cancers, which is the second most lethal tumor worldwide. Epigenetic deregulation is a common trait observed in HCC. Recently, increasing evidence suggested that the G9a histone methyltransferase might be a novel regulator of HCC development. However, several HCC cell lines were recently noted to have HeLa cell contamination or to have been derived from non-hepatocellular origin, suggesting that functional validation of G9a in proper HCC models is still required. Herein, we first confirmed that higher G9a messenger RNA and protein expression levels were correlated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates of HCC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and our recruited HCC cohort. In an in vitro functional evaluation of HCC cells, HCC36 (hepatitis B virus-positive (HBV+) and Mahlavu (HBV-)) cells showed that G9a participated in promoting cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration/invasion abilities. Moreover, orthotopic inoculation of G9a-depleted Mahlavu cells in NOD-SCID mice also resulted in a significantly decreased tumor burden compared to the control group. Furthermore, after surveying microRNA (miRNA; miR) prediction databases, we identified the liver-specific miR-122 as a G9a-targeting miRNA. In various HCC cell lines, we observed that miR-122 expression levels tended to be inversely correlated to G9a expression levels. In clinical HCC specimens, a significant inverse correlation of miR-122 and G9a mRNA expression levels was also observed. Functionally, the colony formation and invasive ability were attenuated in miR-122-overexpressing HCC cells. HCC patients with low miR-122 and high G9a expression levels had the worst OS and DFS rates compared to others. Together, our results confirmed the importance of altered G9a expression during HCC progression and discovered that a novel liver-specific miR-122-G9a regulatory axis exists.

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