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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638933

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and its tumorigenesis involves the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic events in the respiratory epithelium. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, RNA modification, and histone modifications, have been widely reported to play an important role in lung cancer development and in other pulmonary diseases. Whereas the functionality of DNA and chromatin modifications referred to as epigenetics is widely characterized, various modifications of RNA nucleotides have recently come into prominence as functionally important. N6-methyladosine (m6A) is the most prevalent internal modification in mRNAs, and its machinery of writers, erasers, and readers is well-characterized. However, several other nucleotide modifications of mRNAs and various noncoding RNAs have also been shown to play an important role in the regulation of biological processes and pathology. Such epitranscriptomic modifications play an important role in regulating various aspects of RNA metabolism, including transcription, translation, splicing, and stability. The dysregulation of epitranscriptomic machinery has been implicated in the pathological processes associated with carcinogenesis including uncontrolled cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In recent years, with the advancement of RNA sequencing technology, high-resolution maps of different modifications in various tissues, organs, or disease models are being constantly reported at a dramatic speed. This facilitates further understanding of the relationship between disease development and epitranscriptomics, shedding light on new therapeutic possibilities. In this review, we summarize the basic information on RNA modifications, including m6A, m1A, m5C, m7G, pseudouridine, and A-to-I editing. We then demonstrate their relation to different kinds of lung diseases, especially lung cancer. By comparing the different roles RNA modifications play in the development processes of different diseases, this review may provide some new insights and offer a better understanding of RNA epigenetics and its involvement in pulmonary diseases.

2.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(7)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371758

RESUMO

The efficient and safe delivery of therapeutic drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids are essential for meaningful therapeutic benefits. The field of nanomedicine shows promising implications in the development of therapeutics by delivering diagnostic and therapeutic compounds. Nanomedicine development has led to significant advances in the design and engineering of nanocarrier systems with supra-molecular structures. Smart mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), with excellent biocompatibility, tunable physicochemical properties, and site-specific functionalization, offer efficient and high loading capacity as well as robust and targeted delivery of a variety of payloads in a controlled fashion. Such unique nanocarriers should have great potential for challenging biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, bioimaging techniques, stem cell research, and cancer therapies. However, in vivo applications of these nanocarriers should be further validated before clinical translation. To this end, this review begins with a brief introduction of MSNs properties, targeted drug delivery, and controlled release with a particular emphasis on their most recent diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

3.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(9): 827-832, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292208

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to the normal operation of the healthcare system. On a worldwide scale, hospitals suspended nonurgent surgeries and outpatient visits to downsize clinical loadings to redistribute manpower to counteract the pandemic's impact. So far, there is no evidence-based guideline defining a clear line between urgent and nonurgent indications of intravitreal injections (IVI). Herein, we aimed to summarize IVI algorithm modifications and discuss the patient prioritization according to medical needs in the hostile environment in the COVID crisis. Assessing current literature, we found that neovascular age-related macular degeneration is considered the utmost priority among conditions that require IVI. Other conditions assigned with a high priority include monocular or quasi-monocular patients (only one eye > 20/40), neovascular glaucoma, and new patients with significant vision loss. Although patients with central retinal vein occlusion and proliferative diabetic retinopathy are not advised to delay treatments, we found no consistent evidence that correlated with a worse outcome. Diabetic macular edema and branch retinal vein occlusion patients undertaking treatment delay should be regularly followed up every 2 to 3 months. Serving as the principle of management behind the algorithm modifications, the reduction of both patient visit and IVI therapy counts should be reckoned together with the risk of permanent visual loss and COVID infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Injeções Intravítreas/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Algoritmos , Humanos , Higiene , Segurança do Paciente
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(22): 2979-2993, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168402

RESUMO

The landscape of gastrointestinal endoscopy continues to evolve as new technologies and techniques become available. The advent of image-enhanced and magnifying endoscopies has highlighted the step toward perfecting endoscopic screening and diagnosis of gastric lesions. Simultaneously, with the development of convolutional neural network, artificial intelligence (AI) has made unprecedented breakthroughs in medical imaging, including the ongoing trials of computer-aided detection of colorectal polyps and gastrointestinal bleeding. In the past demi-decade, applications of AI systems in gastric cancer have also emerged. With AI's efficient computational power and learning capacities, endoscopists can improve their diagnostic accuracies and avoid the missing or mischaracterization of gastric neoplastic changes. So far, several AI systems that incorporated both traditional and novel endoscopy technologies have been developed for various purposes, with most systems achieving an accuracy of more than 80%. However, their feasibility, effectiveness, and safety in clinical practice remain to be seen as there have been no clinical trials yet. Nonetheless, AI-assisted endoscopies shed light on more accurate and sensitive ways for early detection, treatment guidance and prognosis prediction of gastric lesions. This review summarizes the current status of various AI applications in gastric cancer and pinpoints directions for future research and clinical practice implementation from a clinical perspective.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias Gástricas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070492

RESUMO

Inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) are rare but highly heterogeneous genetic disorders that affect individuals and families worldwide. However, given its wide variability, its analysis of the driver genes for over 50% of the cases remains unexplored. The present study aims to identify novel driver genes, disease-causing variants, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP)-associated pathways. Using family-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify putative RP-causing rare variants, we identified a total of five potentially pathogenic variants located in genes OR56A5, OR52L1, CTSD, PRF1, KBTBD13, and ATP2B4. Of the variants present in all affected individuals, genes OR56A5, OR52L1, CTSD, KBTBD13, and ATP2B4 present as missense mutations, while PRF1 and CTSD present as frameshift variants. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of the novel pathogenic variant PRF1 (c.124_128del) that has not been reported previously. More causal-effect or evidence-based studies will be required to elucidate the precise roles of these SNPs in the RP pathogenesis. Taken together, our findings may allow us to explore the risk variants based on the sequencing data and upgrade the existing variant annotation database in Taiwan. It may help detect specific eye diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa in East Asia.


Assuntos
Catepsina D/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Distrofias Retinianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Catepsina D/sangue , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Perforina/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Distrofias Retinianas/congênito , Distrofias Retinianas/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/congênito , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339321

RESUMO

Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) belong to a class of functional impairments that cause dysfunctions of the motor neuron-muscle functional axis components. Inherited monogenic neuromuscular disorders encompass both muscular dystrophies and motor neuron diseases. Understanding of their causative genetic defects and pathological genetic mechanisms has led to the unprecedented clinical translation of genetic therapies. Challenged by a broad range of gene defect types, researchers have developed different approaches to tackle mutations by hijacking the cellular gene expression machinery to minimize the mutational damage and produce the functional target proteins. Such manipulations may be directed to any point of the gene expression axis, such as classical gene augmentation, modulating premature termination codon ribosomal bypass, splicing modification of pre-mRNA, etc. With the soar of the CRISPR-based gene editing systems, researchers now gravitate toward genome surgery in tackling NMDs by directly correcting the mutational defects at the genome level and expanding the scope of targetable NMDs. In this article, we will review the current development of gene therapy and focus on NMDs that are available in published reports, including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy Type 2C (LGMD2C).


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Doenças Neuromusculares/terapia
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