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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493539

RESUMO

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Safe and effective reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) approaches that are associated with low toxicity, utilize alternative donors, and afford good immune reconstitution are needed to advance the field. Twenty PID patients, ranging in age from 4 to 58 years, were treated on a prospective clinical trial of a novel, radiation-free and serotherapy-free RIC, T-cell-replete BMT approach using pentostatin, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and busulfan for conditioning with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a high-risk cohort with median hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index of 3. With median follow-up of survivors of 1.9 years, 1-year overall survival was 90% and grade III-IV acute GVHD-free, graft failure-free survival was 80% at day +180. Graft failure incidence was 10%. Split chimerism was frequently observed at early post-BMT timepoints, with a lower percentage of donor T cells which gradually increased by day +60. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 15% and 5%, respectively. All aGVHD was steroid-responsive. No patients developed chronic GVHD. Few significant organ toxicities were observed. Evidence of phenotype reversal was observed for all engrafted patients, even those with significantly mixed chimerism (n=2) or with unknown underlying genetic defect (n=3). All six patients with pre-BMT malignancies or lymphoproliferative disorders remain in remission. Most patients have discontinued immunoglobulin replacement. All survivors are off immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. This novel RIC BMT approach for patients with PID has yielded promising results, even for high-risk patients.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354696

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1)1 gain of function (GOF) pathogenic variants have been associated with increased levels of phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT1-dependent cellular responses. Delayed dephosphorylation was proposed as the underlying mechanism leading to the characteristically raised pSTAT1 levels. We examined the levels of STAT1 protein and message as well as rates of STAT1 phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and degradation associated with STAT1 GOF pathogenic variants. Fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 STAT1 GOF patients carrying 10 different pathogenic variants in the coiled-coil, DNA binding, and SH2 domains and healthy donors were used to study STAT1 levels and phosphorylation (pSTAT1) following IFNγ and IFNα stimulation. STAT1 protein levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunoblot. STAT1 mRNA levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. STAT1 protein degradation was studied using cycloheximide. Patient IFNγ and IFNα induced peak pSTAT1 was higher than in healthy controls. The velocity of pSTAT1 dephosphorylation after treatment of IFNγ stimulated CD14+ monocytes with the Janus Kinase (JAK)-inhibitor ruxolitinib was significantly faster in patient cells. STAT1 protein levels in patient CD14+ monocytes and CD3+ T cells were higher than in healthy donors. There was a strong and positive correlation between CD14+ STAT1 protein levels and peak pSTAT1 levels. Patient fresh PBMC STAT1 mRNA levels were increased at rest and after 16 h of incubation. STAT1 protein degradation was similar in patient and healthy volunteer cells. Patient IFNγ receptors 1 and 2 and JAK2 levels were normal. One patient in our cohort was treated with the oral JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib. Treatment was associated with normalization of both STAT1 protein and peak pSTAT1 levels. After JAK inhibitor treatment was stopped the patient's CD14+ monocyte STAT1 protein and peak phosphorylation levels increased proportionally. These findings suggest that patients with STAT1 GOF mutations have higher levels of total STAT1 protein, leading to high levels of pSTAT1 after stimulation, despite rapid STAT1 dephosphorylation and normal degradation.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(495)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167928

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.

5.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(3): e560, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044148

RESUMO

Objective: To highlight a novel, treatable syndrome, we report 4 patients with CNS-isolated inflammation associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) gene mutations (CNS-FHL). Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: Patients with CNS-FHL are characterized by chronic inflammation restricted to the CNS that is not attributable to any previously described neuroinflammatory etiology and have germline mutations in known FHL-associated genes with no signs of systemic inflammation. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) can be well tolerated and effective in achieving or maintaining disease remission in patients with CNS-FHL. Conclusions: Early and accurate diagnosis followed by treatment with HCT can reduce morbidity and mortality in CNS-FHL, a novel, treatable syndrome. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that HCT is well tolerated and effective in treating CNS-FHL.

6.
Clin Immunol ; 205: 1-5, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071452

RESUMO

Here we describe a 10-year-old girl with combined immunodeficiency presenting as recurring chest infections, lung disease and herpetic skin infections. The patient experienced two hematopoietic stem cell transplantations and despite full chimerism, she developed bone marrow aplasia due to adenovirus infection and died at post-transplant day 86. Immunologic investigation revealed low numbers of TRECs/KRECs, a severe reduction of memory B cells, absence of isohemagglutinins, and low IgG levels. Whole exome sequencing (WES) identified a novel heterozygous mutation in RAC2(c.275A > C, p.N92 T). Flow cytometric investigation of neutrophil migration demonstrated an absence of chemotaxis to fMLP. Cell lines transfected with RAC2 [N92 T] displayed characteristics of active GTP-bound RAC2 including enhanced NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production both at rest and in response to PMA. Our findings broaden the clinical picture of RAC2 dysfunction, showing that some individuals can present with a combined immunodeficiency later in childhood rather than a congenital neutrophil disease.

7.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(8): 1666-1673, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986499

RESUMO

Patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are potentially cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The spectrum of PIDs has expanded greatly beyond those that present in infancy or are diagnosed on newborn screening and require urgent, preemptive HCT. Many PID diagnoses are now made later in life, and the role of HCT is only considered for severe disease manifestations; in these cases, the kinetics and goals of a donor search may be different than for severe combined immunodeficiency. Across all PIDs, related donor searches have the additional selection factor of the inherited disease, and such searches may yield more limited options than searches for patients with hematologic malignancies; thus, unrelated donor options often become more critical in these patients. We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of donor searches among patents with PIDs referred for HCT at the National Institutes of Health, where the minimum patient age for evaluation is 3 years and where donor options include matched sibling donors or matched related donors, HLA-haploidentical (haplo), or 7-8/8 HLA matched unrelated donors (mMUDs/MUDs). Patient (n = 161) and donor demographics, MUD search results, HLA typing, pedigrees, mutation testing, and donor selection data were collected. The National Marrow Donor Program HapLogic 8/8 HLA match algorithm was used to predict the likelihood of a successful MUD search and categorized as very good, good, fair, poor, very poor, or futile per the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Search Prognosis method. There were significant differences by PID mode of inheritance in patient age, disposition (receipt of HCT or not), donor source, and donor relatedness. A related or unrelated donor option could be identified for 94% of patients. Of living first-degree relatives (median, 3; range, 0 to 12 per patient), a median of 1 donor remained for autosomal dominant and X-linked (XL) diseases after HLA typing, mutation testing, and other exclusions, and a median of 2 donors remained for autosomal recessive (AR) diseases. Among patients with a PID of known mode of inheritance (n = 142), the best related donor was haplo for 99 (70%) patients, with 56 (39%) haplos age 40 years or older and 5 (4%) second-degree haplos; 13 (9%) had no family donor options. The best related donor was a heterozygote/asymptomatic carrier of the PID mutation in 36 (49%) patients with AR or XL disease (n = 73). Among patients with MUD search performed (n = 139), 53 (38%) had very poor/futile 8/8 MUD searches, including 6 (32%) of those with unknown PID mutation and therefore no family donor options. The MSKCC Search Prognosis was less favorable for those of non-European ancestry compared with European ancestry (P = .002). Most patients of Hispanic or African ancestry had very poor/futile MUD searches, 71% and 63%, respectively. No HCT recipients with very poor/futile MUD searches (n = 38) received 8/8 MUD grafts. Alternative donor options, including haplo and unrelated donors, are critical to enable HCT for patients with PIDs. MUD search success remains low for those of non-European ancestry, and this is of particular concern for patients with PIDs caused by an unknown genetic defect. Among patients with PIDs, related donor options are reduced and haplos age 40 years and older and/or mutation carriers are often the best family option.

8.
Blood ; 133(18): 1977-1988, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723080

RESUMO

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), through interactions with reduced NAD phosphate oxidase component p67 phox , activates neutrophil superoxide production, whereas interactions with p21-activated kinase are necessary for fMLF-induced actin remodeling. We identified 3 patients with de novo RAC2[E62K] mutations resulting in severe T- and B-cell lymphopenia, myeloid dysfunction, and recurrent respiratory infections. Neutrophils from RAC2[E62K] patients exhibited excessive superoxide production, impaired fMLF-directed chemotaxis, and abnormal macropinocytosis. Cell lines transfected with RAC2[E62K] displayed characteristics of active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound RAC2 including enhanced superoxide production and increased membrane ruffling. Biochemical studies demonstrated that RAC2[E62K] retains intrinsic GTP hydrolysis; however, GTPase-activating protein failed to accelerate hydrolysis resulting in prolonged active GTP-bound RAC2. Rac2+/E62K mice phenocopy the T- and B-cell lymphopenia, increased neutrophil F-actin, and excessive superoxide production seen in patients. This gain-of-function mutation highlights a specific, nonredundant role for RAC2 in hematopoietic cells that discriminates RAC2 from the related, ubiquitous RAC1.

9.
Blood Adv ; 3(2): 136-147, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651282

RESUMO

Mutations in NCF1 (p47phox) cause autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) with abnormal dihydrorhodamine (DHR) assay and absent p47phox protein. Genetic identification of NCF1 mutations is complicated by adjacent highly conserved (>98%) pseudogenes (NCF1B and NCF1C). NCF1 has GTGT at the start of exon 2, whereas the pseudogenes each delete 1 GT (ΔGT). In p47phox CGD, the most common mutation is ΔGT in NCF1 (c.75_76delGT; p.Tyr26fsX26). Sequence homology between NCF1 and its pseudogenes precludes reliable use of standard Sanger sequencing for NCF1 mutations and for confirming carrier status. We first established by flow cytometry that neutrophils from p47phox CGD patients had negligible p47phox expression, whereas those from p47phox CGD carriers had ∼60% of normal p47phox expression, independent of the specific mutation in NCF1 We developed a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) with 2 distinct probes, recognizing either the wild-type GTGT sequence or the ΔGT sequence. A second ddPCR established copy number by comparison with the single-copy telomerase reverse transcriptase gene, TERT We showed that 84% of p47phox CGD patients were homozygous for ΔGT NCF1 The ddPCR assay also enabled determination of carrier status of relatives. Furthermore, only 79.2% of normal volunteers had 2 copies of GTGT per 6 total (NCF1/NCF1B/NCF1C) copies, designated 2/6; 14.7% had 3/6, and 1.6% had 4/6 GTGT copies. In summary, flow cytometry for p47phox expression quickly identifies patients and carriers of p47phox CGD, and genomic ddPCR identifies patients and carriers of ΔGT NCF1, the most common mutation in p47phox CGD.

10.
Med Mycol ; 57(Supplement_1): S85-S92, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690602

RESUMO

Coccidioidomycosis is a human fungal disease cause by inhalation of aerosol spores produced by Coccidioides posadasii or Coccidioides immitis. This disease is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic areas of the Southwestern United States. It also can present as a life-threatening disease as the fungal cells disseminate to skin, bone, and central nervous system. The outcome of coccidioidomycosis is largely determined by the nature of host immune response to the infection. Escalation of symptomatic infections and increased cost of long-term antifungal treatment warrant a concerted effort to better understand the innate and adaptive immune responses and the genetics associated with coccidioidomycosis susceptibility. This knowledge can be harnessed for development of a human vaccine against Coccidioides and advance clinic management of this disease. This review discusses recently reported studies on innate and adaptive immunity to Coccidioides infection, Mendelian susceptibility to disseminated disease and progress toward a human vaccine against this formidable disease.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Coccidioidomicose/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Coccidioides , Coccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidioidomicose/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/imunologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Vacinas Fúngicas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Camundongos , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Leuk Res ; 76: 70-75, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578959

RESUMO

Germline mutation in GATA2 can lead to GATA2 deficiency characterized by a complex multi-system disorder that can present with many manifestations including variable cytopenias, bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML), and severe immunodeficiency. Penetrance and expressivity within families is often variable. There is a spectrum of bone marrow disease in symptomatic cytopenic patients ranging from hypocellular marrows without overt dysplasia to those with definitive MDS, AML, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Relatives of probands with the same mutations may demonstrate minimal disease manifestations and normal marrows. A comprehensive clinical, hematological and genetic assessment of 25 patients with germline GATA2 mutation was performed. MDS-associated mutations were identified in symptomatic GATA2 patients both with overt MDS and in those with hypocellular/aplastic bone marrows without definitive dysplasia. Healthy relatives of probands harboring the same germline GATA2 mutations had essentially normal marrows that were overall devoid of MDS-associated mutations. The findings suggest that abnormal clonal hematopoiesis is a common event in symptomatic germline mutated GATA2 patients with MDS and also in those with hypocellular marrows without overt morphologic evidence of dysplasia, possibly indicating a pre-MDS stage warranting close monitoring for disease progression.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Medula Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hematopoese , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancitopenia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Blood Adv ; 2(23): 3553-3565, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538114

RESUMO

GATA2 deficiency is an inherited or sporadic genetic disorder characterized by distinct cellular deficiency, bone marrow failure, various infections, lymphedema, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and predisposition to myeloid malignancies resulting from heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the GATA2 gene. How heterozygous GATA2 mutations affect human hematopoietic development or cause characteristic cellular deficiency and eventual hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia is not fully understood. We used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to study hematopoietic development in the setting of GATA2 deficiency. We performed hematopoietic differentiation using iPSC derived from patients with GATA2 deficiency and examined their ability to commit to mesoderm, hemogenic endothelial precursors (HEPs), hematopoietic stem progenitor cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Patient-derived iPSC, either derived from fibroblasts/marrow stromal cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, did not show significant defects in committing to mesoderm, HEP, hematopoietic stem progenitor, or NK cells. However, HEP derived from GATA2-mutant iPSC showed impaired maturation toward hematopoietic lineages. Hematopoietic differentiation was nearly abolished from homozygous GATA2 knockout (KO) iPSC lines and markedly reduced in heterozygous KO lines compared with isogenic controls. On the other hand, correction of the mutated GATA2 allele in patient-specific iPSC did not alter hematopoietic development consistently in our model. GATA2 deficiency usually manifests within the first decade of life. Newborn and infant hematopoiesis appears to be grossly intact; therefore, our iPSC model indeed may resemble the disease phenotype, suggesting that other genetic, epigenetic, or environmental factors may contribute to bone marrow failure in these patients following birth. However, heterogeneity of PSC-based models and limitations of in vitro differentiation protocol may limit the possibility to detect subtle cellular phenotypes.

15.
J Clin Invest ; 128(7): 3071-3087, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889099

RESUMO

Ikaros/IKZF1 is an essential transcription factor expressed throughout hematopoiesis. IKZF1 is implicated in lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation and negative regulation of cell proliferation. In humans, somatic mutations in IKZF1 have been linked to the development of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adults. Recently, heterozygous germline IKZF1 mutations have been identified in patients with a B cell immune deficiency mimicking common variable immunodeficiency. These mutations demonstrated incomplete penetrance and led to haploinsufficiency. Herein, we report 7 unrelated patients with a novel early-onset combined immunodeficiency associated with de novo germline IKZF1 heterozygous mutations affecting amino acid N159 located in the DNA-binding domain of IKZF1. Different bacterial and viral infections were diagnosed, but Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was reported in all patients. One patient developed a T cell ALL. This immunodeficiency was characterized by innate and adaptive immune defects, including low numbers of B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and myeloid dendritic cells, as well as T cell and monocyte dysfunctions. Notably, most T cells exhibited a naive phenotype and were unable to evolve into effector memory cells. Functional studies indicated these mutations act as dominant negative. This defect expands the clinical spectrum of human IKZF1-associated diseases from somatic to germline, from haploinsufficient to dominant negative.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(3): 456-459, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534156

RESUMO

Four patients with adult-onset, disseminated mycobacterial infection had 5' UTR mutations in IKBKG without clear physical stigmata of NEMO deficiency. These mutations caused decreased levels of NEMO protein and Toll-like receptor driven cytokine production. Three patients died from disseminated disease. These mutations may be missed by whole exome sequencing.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(5): 1844-1853.e2, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sumoylation is a posttranslational reversible modification of cellular proteins through the conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and comprises an important regulator of protein function. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the molecular mechanism of a novel mutation at the SUMO motif on signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). METHODS: STAT1 sequencing and functional characterization were performed in transfection experiments by using immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation in STAT1-deficient cell lines. Transcriptional response and target gene activation were also investigated in PBMCs. RESULTS: We identified a novel STAT1 mutation (c.2114A>T, p.E705V) within the SUMO motif (702IKTE705) in a patient with disseminated Rhodococcus species infection, Norwegian scabies, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypothyroidism, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The mutation is located in the tail segment and is predicted to disrupt STAT1 sumoylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments performed in transfected cells confirmed absent STAT1 sumoylation for E705V, whereas it was present in wild-type (WT) STAT1 cells, as well as the loss-of-function mutants L706S and Y701C. Furthermore, stimulation with IFN-γ led to enhanced STAT1 phosphorylation, enhanced transcriptional activity, and target gene expression in the E705V-transfected compared with WT-transfected cells. Computer modeling of WT and mutant STAT1 molecules showed variations in the accessibility of the phosphorylation site Y701, which corresponded to the loss-of-function and gain-of-function variants. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a mutation in the STAT1 sumoylation motif associated with clinical disease. These data reinforce sumoylation as a key posttranslational regulatory modification of STAT1 and identify a novel mechanism for gain-of-function STAT1 disease in human subjects.

20.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 31(2): 337-340, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156497

RESUMO

GATA2 deficiency is a recently described genetic disorder affecting hematopoietic stem cells and is associated with immunodeficiency, hematologic malignancy, and various cutaneous pathologies including cutaneous tumors. To explore the incidence and clinical course of melanoma in patients with germline GATA2 deficiencies, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 71 such patients and identified two with invasive melanoma. One melanoma was diagnosed early because it was associated with pruritus due to a graft-versus-tumor effect following bone marrow transplantation. The other one, a lentigo maligna melanoma, was locally excised but progressed to widespread metastasis and death several years later. Our observations and published studies of melanoma biology suggest an association between decreased GATA2 expression and melanoma progression. These findings suggest that GATA2 deficient patients may have an increased risk of melanoma and should be observed closely for new or changing skin lesions.

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