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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632422

RESUMO

Phytoplasmas are prokaryotic plant pathogens that cause considerable loss in many economically important crops, and an increasing number of phytoplasma diseases are being reported on new hosts. Knowledge of plant defense mechanisms against such pathogens should help to improve strategies for controlling these diseases. Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense may play an important role in defense against phytoplasmas. Here, we report that SA accumulated in Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) infected with periwinkle leaf yellowing (PLY) phytoplasma. CrPR1a expression was induced in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic tissues of plants exhibiting PLY. NPR1 plays a central role in SA signaling, and two NPR1 homologs, CrNPR1 and CrNPR3, were identified from a periwinkle transcriptome database. Similar to CrPR1a, CrNPR1 expression was also induced in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic tissues of plants exhibiting PLY. Silencing of CrNPR1, but not CrNPR3, significantly repressed CrPR1a induction in Tobacco rattle virus-infected periwinkle plants. In addition, symptoms of PLY progressed fastest in CrNPR1-silenced plants and slowest in CrNPR3-silenced plants. Consistently, expression of CrNPR1, but not CrNPR3, was induced by phytoplasma infection as well as SA treatment. This study highlights the importance of NPR1- and SA-mediated defense against phytoplasma in periwinkle and offers insight into plant-phytoplasma interactions to improve disease control strategies.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1008, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158940

RESUMO

With the growing demand for its ornamental uses, the African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) has been popular owing to its variations in color, shape and its rapid responses to artificial selection. Wild type African violet (WT) is characterized by flowers with bilateral symmetry yet reversals showing radially symmetrical flowers such as dorsalized actinomorphic (DA) and ventralized actinomorphic (VA) peloria are common. Genetic crosses among WT, DA, and VA revealed that these floral symmetry transitions are likely to be controlled by three alleles at a single locus in which the levels of dominance are in a hierarchical fashion. To investigate whether the floral symmetry gene was responsible for these reversals, orthologs of CYCLOIDEA (CYC) were isolated and their expressions correlated to floral symmetry transitions. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ results indicated that dorsal-specific CYCs expression in WT S. ionantha (SiCYC and SiCYC1B) shifted in DA with a heterotopically extended expression to all petals, but in VA, SiCYC1s' dorsally specific expressions were greatly reduced. Selection signature analysis revealed that the major high-expressed copy of SiCYC had been constrained under purifying selection, whereas the low-expressed helper SiCYC1B appeared to be relaxed under purifying selection after the duplication into SiCYC and SiCYC1B. Heterologous expression of SiCYC in Arabdiopsis showed petal growth retardation which was attributed to limited cell proliferation. While expression shifts of SiCYC and SiCYC1B correlate perfectly to the resulting symmetry phenotype transitions in F1s of WT and DA, there is no certain allelic combination of inherited SiCYC1s associated with specific symmetry phenotypes. This floral transition indicates that although the expression shifts of SiCYC/1B are responsible for the two contrasting actinomorphic reversals in African violet, they are likely to be controlled by upstream trans-acting factors or epigenetic regulations.

3.
Lab Chip ; 12(18): 3277-80, 2012 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22824954

RESUMO

We have developed an integrated microfluidic material processing chip and demonstrated the rapid production of collagen microspheres encapsulating cells with high uniformity and cell viability. The chip integrated three material processing steps. Monodisperse microdroplets were generated at a microfluidic T junction between aqueous and mineral oil flows. The flow was heated immediately to 37 °C to initiate collagen fiber assembly within a gelation channel. Gelled microspheres were extracted from the mineral oil phase into cell culture media within an extraction chamber. Collagen gelation immediately after microdroplet generation significantly reduced coalescence among microdroplets that led to non-uniform microsphere production. The microfluidic extraction approach led to higher microsphere recovery and cell viability than when a conventional centrifugation extraction approach was employed. These results indicate that chip-based material processing is a promising approach for cell-ECM microenvironment generation for applications such as tissue engineering and stem cell delivery.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Colágeno/metabolismo , Géis/química , Humanos , Microesferas , Óleo Mineral/química
4.
J Biomech ; 45(5): 728-35, 2012 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22206828

RESUMO

Cyclic uniaxial stretching of adherent nonmuscle cells induces the gradual reorientation of their actin stress fibers perpendicular to the stretch direction to an extent dependent on stretch frequency. By subjecting cells to various temporal waveforms of cyclic stretch, we revealed that stress fibers are much more sensitive to strain rate than strain frequency. By applying asymmetric waveforms, stress fibers were clearly much more responsive to the rate of lengthening than the rate of shortening during the stretch cycle. These observations were interpreted using a theoretical model of networks of stress fibers with sarcomeric structure. The model predicts that stretch waveforms with fast lengthening rates generate greater average stress fiber tension than that generated by fast shortening. This integrated approach of experiment and theory provides new insight into the mechanisms by which cells respond to matrix stretching to maintain tensional homeostasis.


Assuntos
Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Sarcômeros/fisiologia , Fibras de Estresse/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Osteossarcoma/patologia
5.
PLoS One ; 5(8): e12470, 2010 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20814573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cells within tissues are subjected to mechanical forces caused by extracellular matrix deformation. Cells sense and dynamically respond to stretching of the matrix by reorienting their actin stress fibers and by activating intracellular signaling proteins, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the mitogen-activated proteins kinases (MAPKs). Theoretical analyses predict that stress fibers can relax perturbations in tension depending on the rate of matrix strain. Thus, we hypothesized stress fiber organization and MAPK activities are altered to an extent dependent on stretch frequency. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bovine aortic endothelial cells and human osteosarcoma cells expressing GFP-actin were cultured on elastic membranes and subjected to various patterns of stretch. Cyclic stretching resulted in strain rate-dependent increases in stress fiber alignment, cell retraction, and the phosphorylation of the MAPKs JNK, ERK and p38. Transient step changes in strain rate caused proportional transient changes in the levels of JNK and ERK phosphorylations without affecting stress fiber organization. Disrupting stress fiber contractile function with cytochalasin D or Y27632 decreased the levels of JNK and ERK phosphorylation. Previous studies indicate that FAK is required for stretch-induced cell alignment and MAPK activations. However, cyclic uniaxial stretching induced stress fiber alignment and the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and p38 to comparable levels in FAK-null and FAK-expressing mouse embryonic fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that cyclic stretch-induced stress fiber alignment, cell retraction, and MAPK activations occur as a consequence of perturbations in fiber strain. These findings thus shed new light into the roles of stress fiber relaxation and reorganization in maintenance of tensional homeostasis in a dynamic mechanical environment.


Assuntos
MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fibras de Estresse/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Forma Celular , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 4(3): e4853, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19319193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Actin stress fibers (SFs) are mechanosensitive structural elements that respond to forces to affect cell morphology, migration, signal transduction and cell function. Cells are internally stressed so that SFs are extended beyond their unloaded lengths, and SFs tend to self-adjust to an equilibrium level of extension. While there is much evidence that cells reorganize their SFs in response to matrix deformations, it is unclear how cells and their SFs determine their specific response to particular spatiotemporal changes in the matrix. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bovine aortic endothelial cells were subjected to cyclic uniaxial stretch over a range of frequencies to quantify the rate and extent of stress fiber alignment. At a frequency of 1 Hz, SFs predominantly oriented perpendicular to stretch, while at 0.1 Hz the extent of SF alignment was markedly reduced and at 0.01 Hz there was no alignment at all. The results were interpreted using a simple kinematic model of SF networks in which the dynamic response depended on the rates of matrix stretching, SF turnover, and SF self-adjustment of extension. For these cells, the model predicted a threshold frequency of 0.01 Hz below which SFs no longer respond to matrix stretch, and a saturation frequency of 1 Hz above which no additional SF alignment would occur. The model also accurately described the dependence of SF alignment on matrix stretch magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic stochastic model was capable of describing SF reorganization in response to diverse temporal and spatial patterns of stretch. The model predicted that at high frequencies, SFs preferentially disassembled in the direction of stretch and achieved a new equilibrium by accumulating in the direction of lowest stretch. At low stretch frequencies, SFs self-adjusted to dissipate the effects of matrix stretch. Thus, SF turnover and self-adjustment are each important mechanisms that cells use to maintain mechanical homeostasis.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Processos Estocásticos , Fibras de Estresse/fisiologia , Animais , Aorta , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Forma Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cinética
7.
J Theor Biol ; 257(2): 320-30, 2009 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19108781

RESUMO

A kinetic model based on constrained mixture theory was developed to describe the reorganization of actin stress fibers in adherent cells in response to diverse patterns of mechanical stretch. The model was based on reports that stress fibers are pre-extended at a "homeostatic" level under normal, non-perturbed conditions, and that perturbations in stress fiber length destabilize stress fibers. In response to a step change in matrix stretch, the model predicts that stress fibers are initially stretched in registry with the matrix, but that these overly stretched fibers are gradually replaced by new fibers assembled with the homeostatic level of stretch in the new configuration of the matrix. In contrast, average fiber stretch is chronically perturbed from the homeostatic level when the cells are subjected to cyclic equibiaxial stretch. The model was able to describe experimentally measured time courses of stress fiber reorientation perpendicular to the direction of cyclic uniaxial stretch, as well as the lack of alignment in response to equibiaxial stretch. The model also accurately described the relationship between stretch magnitude and the extent of stress fiber alignment in endothelial cells subjected to cyclic uniaxial stretch. Further, in the case of cyclic simple elongation with transverse matrix contraction, stress fibers orient in the direction of least perturbation in stretch. In summary, the model predicts that the rate of stretch-induced stress fiber disassembly determines the rate of alignment, and that stress fibers tend to orient toward the direction of minimum matrix stretch where the rate of stress fiber turnover is a minimum.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Células Endoteliais/ultraestrutura , Fibras de Estresse/fisiologia , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Elasticidade , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Estresse Mecânico
8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 7(12): 2468-73, 2005 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15962031

RESUMO

Dispersed fluorescence spectra following the excitation of the CBr2A1B1-X1A1 2 and 2 bands at visible wavelengths were acquired in a discharge supersonic free jet expansion using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector. The dispersed fluorescence spectra show signal-to-noise ratios of up to 60 and extend out to a maximum red shift frequency of 6000 cm(-1). Complete and detailed vibrational structure of the ground singlet state (X1A1) was observed. Vibrational parameters including fundamental frequencies, anharmonicities, and coupling constants were determined for the CBr2 X1A1 state. Additional vibrational structure starting at approximately 3650 cm(-1) was observed and this indicates the singlet-triplet energy gap to be >10 kcal mol(-1).

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