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1.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507097

RESUMO

The aim of the present guideline is to update the 2015 Taiwan Stroke Society (TSS) blood pressure (BP) Control for Treatment and Prevention of Stroke guideline (2015 TSS BP guideline). Since the publication of the 2015 TSS BP guideline, several clinical studies have addressed (1) whether a stricter BP target would be more effective for stroke prevention, (2) whether the older population requires a different BP goal for stroke prevention, or (3) the effect of different stroke etiologies, particularly large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel occlusion. The present guideline aims to update and provide recommendations for BP control for the prevention of ischemic stroke on the basis of new evidence. The following five ischemic stroke topics are discussed: 1 Diagnosis of hypertension 2 BP control and primary prevention of ischemic stroke 3 BP control and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke 4 BP control and secondary prevention of large-artery atherosclerosis ischemic stroke 5 BP control and secondary prevention of small-vessel occlusion ischemic stroke.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7693, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562174

RESUMO

Cambodia has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in the WHO Western Pacific region. Remarkably though, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) remains low. We explored the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) circulating in this unique setting using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). From October 2017 until January 2018, we collected one hundred sputum specimens from consenting adults older than 21 years of age, newly diagnosed with bacteriologically confirmed TB in 3 districts of Phnom Penh and Takeo provinces of Cambodia before they commence on their TB treatment, where eighty MTB isolates were successfully cultured and sequenced. Majority of the isolates belonged to Lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic) (69/80, 86.25%), followed by Lineage 2 (East Asian) (10/80, 12.5%) and Lineage 4 (Euro-American) (1/80, 1.25%). Phenotypic resistance to both streptomycin and isoniazid was found in 3 isolates (3/80, 3.75%), while mono-resistance to streptomycin and isoniazid was identical at 2.5% (N = 2 each). None of the isolates tested was resistant to either rifampicin or ethambutol. The specificities of genotypic prediction for resistance to all drugs tested were 100%, while the sensitivities of genotypic resistance predictions to isoniazid and streptomycin were lower at 40% (2/5) and 80% (4/5) respectively. We identified 8 clusters each comprising of two to five individuals all residing in the Takeo province, making up half (28/56, 50%) of all individuals sampled in the province, indicating the presence of multiple ongoing transmission events. All clustered isolates were of Lineage 1 and none are resistant to any of the drugs tested. This study while demonstrating the relevance and utility of WGS in predicting drug resistance and inference of disease transmission, highlights the need to increase the representation of genotype-phenotype TB data from low and middle income countries in Asia and Africa to improve the accuracies for prediction of drug resistance.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7477, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523935

RESUMO

Studies to examine the impact of end-of-life (EOL) discussions on the utilization of life-sustaining treatments near death are limited and have inconsistent findings. This nationwide population-based cohort study determined the impact of EOL discussions on the utilization of life-sustaining treatments in the last three months of life in Taiwanese cancer patients. From 2012 to 2018, this cohort study included adult cancer patients, which were confirmed by pathohistological reports. Life-sustaining treatments during the last three months of life included cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intubation, and defibrillation. EOL discussions in cancer patients were confirmed by their medical records. Association of EOL discussions with utilization of life-sustaining treatments were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Of 381,207 patients, the mean age was 70.5 years and 19.4% of the subjects received life-sustaining treatments during the last three months of life. After adjusting for other covariates, those who underwent EOL discussions were less likely to receive life-sustaining treatments during the last three months of life compared to those who did not (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.89). Considering the type of treatments, EOL discussions correlated with a lower likelihood of receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (AOR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.43-0.47), endotracheal intubation (AOR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.90-0.95), and defibrillation (AOR = 0.54, 95%CI 0.49-0.59). Since EOL discussions are associated with less aggressive care, our study supports the importance of providing these discussions to cancer patients during the EOL treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Morte , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias/terapia
4.
J Clin Neurosci ; 101: 37-46, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526362

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Solitary type primary intracranial malignant melanoma (PIMM) is extremely rare but fatal. The optimal treatment algorithm according to clinical relevance of symptoms and outcomes is unclear. This series emphasized the prognostic factors of solitary PIMM and established the treatment algorithm for this rare disease. METHODS: Patients with solitary PIMMs were pathologically verified and treated with neurosurgical tumor resection. All solitary PIMMs recruited at our institute received multidisciplinary team care. We analyzed the clinical findings and prognostic factors. RESULTS: The study cohort included 10 patients. PIMMs in solitary type impacted middle-aged populations with male predominance in Taiwan. Most patients (80%) presented a single tumor initially. Six patients had progressed to multiplicity after the initial treatment. Rates of tumor bleeding and leptomeningeal metastasis seeding (LS) are high in solitary PIMMs. Patients who had gross-total resection (GTR) had better survival than those who had incomplete resection, with median overall survival (OS) rates of 170.4 months vs. 5.23 months (p = 0.004). Multiplicity, eloquent area involvement, initial tumor bleeding, LS, hydrocephalus, and Karnofsky Performance Score < 80 at diagnosis were associated with negative outcomes in progression-free survival and OS. Adjuvant radiotherapy for patients who had LS and for those who cannot undergo grossly total tumor removal resulted in a good outcome. CONCLUSIONS: GTR demonstrated better outcomes for solitary PIMM. For recurrent tumors, aggressively repeated surgical resection remained beneficial for selected cases. Adjuvant radiotherapy was a treatment option for LS following operation. We proposed a possible treatment algorithm for solitary PIMM.

6.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 174: 106192, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439544

RESUMO

The analysis of parent drug is usually the design of choice for a bioequivalence (BE) study. However, there is a controversy regarding the choice of analytes between EMA and USFDA for the BE study of ezetimibe (EZE). The EMA recommends measuring the total form alone, that means the sum of the concentration of "parent" EZE and "metabolite" ezetimibe-glucuronide (EZEG), as the BE determination. On the other hand, the USFDA recommends measuring not only total form but also EZE. The aim of this study was to employ a simulation approach to determine which analyte (e.g., EZE alone, EZEG alone, total form alone, or combination of EZE and total form) was more appropriate for use as a BE indicator. The previously published pharmacokinetic model of EZE and EZEG with enterohepatic circulation was used to generate virtual BE studies. Eight different scenarios were performed with changes in the rate of absorption of EZE and EZEG. Five hundred virtual BE studies were generated for each scenario. In addition, the discriminatory ability of selected analytes for detecting differences in the rate of absorption of EZE and EZEG was evaluated based on power curve performance. The results obtained through simulations indicated that none of the single analytes (EZE alone, EZEG alone, and total form alone) could have clear advantages in terms of discriminatory ability. Therefore, it was recommended that a combination of EZE and total form should be used in the BE assessment.

7.
Acta Neurol Taiwan ; 31(3): 84-90, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437741

RESUMO

Time is the major determinant in successful reperfusion therapy of acute ischemic stroke. The evolving diagnostic tools and treatment of acute stroke has made a great progress in the past 2 decades and is remolding current management practices. It demands a timely neurologic evaluation and a neuroimaging study to determine if stroke patients are appropriate candidates for reperfusion demands. Therefore, it is critical for the setting of stroke center accreditation levels and capabilities so that timely and appropriate treatment is initiated for the eligible stroke patients. Optimal acute ischemic stroke treatment requires all levels of stroke center network operating efficiently. In the future, Taiwan should revise the criteria of stroke center accreditation and set up the efficient acute stroke treatment network as soon as possible. Keywords: stroke, reperfusion, intra-arterial thrombectomy, intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taiwan , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
In Vivo ; 36(3): 1136-1143, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Sorafenib has been reported to show anti-osteosarcoma (anti-OS) efficacy by inhibiting metastasis; however, a phase II trial suggested that further combination with other agents could be necessary to achieve permanent remission. Herein, we aimed to identify whether amentoflavone, an abundant natural bioflavonoid found in many medicinal plants, can improve the treatment efficacy of sorafenib in OS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability, metastasis, apoptosis, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB after amentoflavone combined with sorafenib were assayed by MTT, transwell migration/invasion, western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. RESULTS: The sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis of U-2 OS was enhanced by combining treatment with QNZ (NF-κB inhibitor) or amentoflavone. NF-κB nuclear translocation, NF-κB phosphorylation, and metastasis capacity of U-2 OS cells were inhibited by amentoflavone combined with sorafenib. CONCLUSION: Amentoflavone may sensitize OS to sorafenib treatment by inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis and inhibiting ERK/NF-κB signaling transduction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Osteossarcoma , Apoptose , Biflavonoides , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , NF-kappa B , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/farmacologia
9.
Sci Adv ; 8(17): eabm9898, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486721

RESUMO

The default mode network (DMN) of the brain is functionally associated with a wide range of behaviors. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and spectral fiber photometry to investigate the selective neuromodulatory effect of norepinephrine (NE)-releasing noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) on the mouse DMN. Chemogenetic-induced tonic LC activity decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) and glucose uptake and increased synchronous low-frequency fMRI activity within the frontal cortices of the DMN. Fiber photometry results corroborated these findings, showing that LC-NE activation induced NE release, enhanced calcium-weighted neuronal spiking, and reduced CBV in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that LC-NE alters conventional coupling between neuronal activity and CBV in the frontal DMN. We also demonstrated that chemogenetic activation of LC-NE neurons strengthened functional connectivity within the frontal DMN, and this effect was causally mediated by reduced modulatory inputs from retrosplenial and hippocampal regions to the association cortices of the DMN.

11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 152, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T cell receptors (TCRs) play critical roles in adaptive immune responses, and recent advances in genome technology have made it possible to examine the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire at the individual sequence level. The analysis of the TCR repertoire with respect to clinical phenotypes can yield novel insights into the etiology and progression of immune-mediated diseases. However, methods for association analysis of the TCR repertoire have not been well developed. METHODS: We introduce an analysis tool, TCR-L, for evaluating the association between the TCR repertoire and disease outcomes. Our approach is developed under a mixed effect modeling, where the fixed effect represents features that can be explicitly extracted from TCR sequences while the random effect represents features that are hidden in TCR sequences and are difficult to be extracted. Statistical tests are developed to examine the two types of effects independently, and then the p values are combined. RESULTS: Simulation studies demonstrate that (1) the proposed approach can control the type I error well; and (2) the power of the proposed approach is greater than approaches that consider fixed effect only or random effect only. The analysis of real data from a skin cutaneous melanoma study identifies an association between the TCR repertoire and the short/long-term survival of patients. CONCLUSION: The TCR-L can accommodate features that can be extracted as well as features that are hidden in TCR sequences. TCR-L provides a powerful approach for identifying association between TCR repertoire and disease outcomes.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T
12.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383926

RESUMO

Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease and it is not well understood whether diabetes is more strongly associated with some tumor molecular subtypes than others. A better understanding of the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes could provide important insights into the biology of this association. We used data on lifestyle and clinical characteristics from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), including 9756 colorectal cancer cases (with tumor marker data) and 9985 controls, to evaluate associations between reported diabetes and risk of colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes. Tumor markers included BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype. In the multinomial logistic regression model, comparing colorectal cancer cases to cancer-free controls, diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer regardless of subtype. The highest OR estimate was found for BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer, n = 1086 (ORfully adj : 1.67, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.36-2.05), with an attenuated association observed between diabetes and colorectal cancer without BRAF-mutations, n = 7959 (ORfully adj : 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48). In the case only analysis, BRAF-mutation was differentially associated with diabetes (Pdifference  = .03). For the other markers, associations with diabetes were similar across tumor subtypes. In conclusion, our study confirms the established association between diabetes and colorectal cancer risk, and suggests that it particularly increases the risk of BRAF-mutated tumors.

13.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-25, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380921

RESUMO

ObjectiveInjury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. However, the epidemiology and prehospital care for pediatric unintentional injuries in Asia are still unclear.MethodsA total of 9,737 pediatric patients aged <18 years with unintentional injuries cared for at participating centers of the Pan-Asian Trauma Outcome Study (PATOS) from October 2015 to December 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: those <8 and those ≥8 years of age. Variables such as patient demographics, injury epidemiology, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and prehospital care were collected. Injury severity and administered prehospital care stratified by gross national income were also analyzed.ResultsPediatric unintentional injuries accounted for 9.4% of EMS-transported trauma cases in the participating Asian centers, and the mortality rate was 0.88%. The leading cause of injury was traffic injuries in older children aged ≥8 years (56.5%), while falls at home were common among young children aged <8 years (43.9%). Compared with younger children, older children with similar ISS tended to receive more prehospital interventions. Uneven disease severity was found in that older children in lower-middle and upper-middle-income countries had higher ISS compared with those in high-income countries. The performance of prehospital interventions also differed among countries with different gross national incomes. Immobilizations were the most performed prehospital intervention followed by oxygen administration, airway management, and pain control; only one patient received prehospital thoracentesis. Procedures were performed more frequently in high-income countries than in upper-middle-income and lower-middle-income countries.ConclusionsThe major cause of injury was road traffic injuries in older children, while falls at home were common among young children. Prehospital care in pediatric unintentional injuries in Asian countries was not standardized and might be insufficient, and the economic status of countries may affect the implementation of prehospital care.

14.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Multicellular spheroid cultures have attracted increasing attention in the field of periodontal regeneration. However, very few studies have reported the periodontal ligament (PDL) cell spheroid formation via biomaterials-induced processes. This study investigated the biological characteristics of human PDL cell spheroids formed on two hydrophilic polymer-based biomaterials, namely chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. METHODS: The expressions of periostin, paxillin, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed. Cell migration ability was assessed using a scratch assay. Furthermore, PDL cell spheroids were cultured in 3D-printed polylactic acid scaffolds to evaluate mineralizing capability. RESULTS: Western blot analysis revealed increased expressions of periostin, HIF-1α, and VEGF in the 3D spheroids. After the spheroids were reseeded, the cells gradually migrated outward from the spheroids and time-dependent distribution of paxillin was observed. The cells migrating outward from the 3D spheroids demonstrated greater migration ability than that of 2D monolayer cells. Compared to the dissociated cells from a monolayer culture, the cell spheroids formed on the chitosan membrane exhibited elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and an increase in mineralized matrix deposition. CONCLUSION: The biomaterial-induced formation of PDL cell spheroids suggests a novel strategy for cell delivery in research and clinical applications of periodontal regeneration.

15.
Magn Reson Med ; 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal saturation-recovery time (TS) for minimizing the underestimation of arterial input function (AIF) in quantitative cardiac perfusion MRI without multiple gadolinium injections per subject. METHODS: We scanned 18 subjects (mean age = 59 ± 14 years, 9/9 males/females) to acquire resting perfusion data and 1 additional subject (age = 38 years, male) to obtain stress-rest perfusion data using a 5-fold accelerated pulse sequence with radial k-space sampling and applied k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC) filters on the same k-space data to retrospectively reconstruct five AIF images with effective TS ranging from 10 to 21.2 ms (2.8 ms steps). Undersampled images were reconstructed using a compressed sensing framework with temporal-total-variation and temporal-principal-component as 2 orthogonal sparsifying transforms. The image processing steps included, same motion correction across five different AIF images, signal normalization by the proton-density-weighted-image, signal-to-T1 conversion using a Bloch equation, T1 -to-gadolinium-concentration conversion assuming fast water exchange, T2 * correction to the AIF, and gadolinium-concentration to myocardial blood flow (MBF) conversion based on a Fermi model. RESULTS: Among five TS values, the shortest TS (10 ms) produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher peak AIF and lower resting MBF (13.73 mM, 0.73 mL g-1 min-1 ) than 12.8 ms (11.24 mM, 0.89 mL g-1 min-1 ), 15.6 ms (9.56 mM, 1.05 mL g-1 min-1 ), 18.4 ms (8.55 mM, 1.17 mL g-1 min-1 ), and 21.2 ms (7.95 mM, 1.27 mL g-1 min-1 ). Similarly, shorter TS reduced underestimation of AIF (or overestimation of MBF) for both during stress and at rest, but this effect was canceled in myocardial-perfusion-reserve (MPR). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that TS of 10 ms reduces the underestimation of AIF and, hence, the overestimation of MBF compared with longer TS values (12.8-21.2 ms).

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1068-1076, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has a strong epigenetic component that is accompanied by frequent DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations in addition to heritable genetic risk. It is of interest to understand the interrelationship of germline genetics, DNAm, and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide methylation quantitative trait locus (meQTL) analysis in 1,355 people, assessing the pairwise associations between genetic variants and lymphocytes methylation data. In addition, we used penalized regression with cis-genetic variants ± 1 Mb of methylation to identify genome-wide heritable DNAm. We evaluated the association of genetically predicted methylation with colorectal cancer risk based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of over 125,000 cases and controls using the multivariate sMiST as well as univariately via examination of marginal association with colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Of the 142 known colorectal cancer GWAS loci, 47 were identified as meQTLs. We identified four novel colorectal cancer-associated loci (NID2, ATXN10, KLHDC10, and CEP41) that reside over 1 Mb outside of known colorectal cancer loci and 10 secondary signals within 1 Mb of known loci. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging information of DNAm regulation into genetic association of colorectal cancer risk reveals novel pathways in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. Our summary statistics-based framework sMiST provides a powerful approach by combining information from the effect through methylation and residual direct effects of the meQTLs on disease risk. Further validation and functional follow-up of these novel pathways are needed. IMPACT: Using genotype, DNAm, and GWAS, we identified four new colorectal cancer risk loci. We studied the landscape of genetic regulation of DNAm via single-SNP and multi-SNP meQTL analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas , Locos de Características Quantitativas
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4100, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260580

RESUMO

Prehospital fluid resuscitation with crystalloids in patients following trauma remain controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association between prehospital fluid resuscitation and outcomes of trauma patients in Asia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of trauma patients between 2016 and 2018 using data from the Pan-Asia Trauma Outcomes Study (PATOS) database. Prehospital fluid resuscitation was defined as any administration of intravenous crystalloid fluid on the ambulance before arrival to hospitals. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes, defined as Modified Rankin Scale ≥ 4. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to equalize potential prognostic factors in both groups. This study included 31,735 patients from six countries in Asia, and 4318 (13.6%) patients had ever received prehospital fluid resuscitation. The patients receiving prehospital fluid resuscitation had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-3.10, p = 0.001 in PSM analysis. Prehospital fluid resuscitation was also associated with poor functional outcomes, with an OR 1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03, p < 0.001 in PSM analysis. Prehospital fluid resuscitation in patients with major trauma (injury severity score ≥ 16) presented a higher risk of poor functional outcomes (aOR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.89-3.73 in PSM analysis, pinteraction = 0.006) via subgroup analysis. Prehospital fluid resuscitation of trauma patients is associated with higher in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes in the subgroup in countries studied.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Soluções Cristaloides , Humanos , Ressuscitação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e058231, 2022 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hospice care could improve the quality of life among advanced HIV patients during end-of-life (EOL) treatment. However, providing hospice care services for people living with HIV (PLWH) is challenging due to HIV-related stigma. This nationwide cohort study aims to determine the utilisation of hospice care services among PLWH and HIV-negative individuals during EOL treatment. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: From 2000 to 2018, we identified adult PLWH from the Taiwan centres for disease control HIV Surveillance System. Individuals who had positive HIV-1 western blots were regarded as HIV-infected. Age-matched and sex-matched controls without HIV infection were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for comparison. All PLWH and controls were followed until death or 31 December 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 32 647 PLWH and 326 470 HIV-negative controls were analysed. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Utilisation of hospice care services during the last year of life among PLWH and HIV-negative individuals. RESULTS: A total of 20 413 subjects died during the 3 434 699 person-years of follow-up. Of the deceased patients, 2139 (10.5%) utilised hospice care services during their last year of life, including 328 (5.76%) PLWH and 1811 (12.30%) controls. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, PLWH were less likely to receive hospice care services during the last year of life, compared with HIV-negative individuals (adjusted OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: PLWH had significantly lower utilisation of hospice care services during the last year of life. Our results suggest that future hospice care programmes should particularly target PLWH to increase the optimal utilisation of hospice care services during EOL treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 803661, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35308887

RESUMO

Introduction: Movement disorders have been suggested to be a cardinal component of schizophrenia. With increased research interests in this area, instrumental measures are needed. This study was to examine if the motion capture system was reliable in measuring hand and facial bradykinesia and dyskinesia and more sensitive to detecting movement differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy people than traditional rating scales. Methods: Sixteen schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects were recruited. Hand and facial bradykinesia and dyskinesia were measured using the motion capture system and rated using the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Results: The system showed strong test-retest reliability and generated larger effect sizes of group differences than did the rating scales. Conclusions: The results may support researchers and clinical practitioners to apply the system to sensitively measuring the hand and facial movement symptoms in schizophrenia patients, which contributes to gaining a deep understanding of movement issues in schizophrenia.

20.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 18: 645-657, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355504

RESUMO

Background: Atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine often cause metabolic side effects such as obesity and diabetes, leading to an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of olanzapine treatment on hepatic lipid metabolism and its possible relationship with adipose tissue status. Methods: Using a female rat model, we investigated the effects of chronic olanzapine administration on the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism including lipid biosynthesis, oxidation, efflux, and lipolysis in liver and adipose tissue. Results: The body weight, liver mass and visceral adiposity after olanzapine treatment (2 mg/kg) for five weeks were not significantly different compared with vehicle controls. The serum level of triglycerides was higher in the vehicle controls than in olanzapine-treated rats. Unexpectedly, olanzapine treatment did not reduce glucose tolerance in our model. The expression of functional thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was increased in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the olanzapine group. Additionally, olanzapine treatment also reduced adipose inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT). The transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, a key early regulator of lipogenesis, was downregulated following olanzapine treatment. The expression of genes related to the triglycerides synthesis apparatus in the liver was upregulated in the olanzapine group. Olanzapine treatment induced genes involved in PPAR-α signaling and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in response to increased ATGL-mediated lipolysis in the liver. Conclusion: Together, our findings suggest a complicated link between olanzapine therapy and metabolic disturbance and may garner interest in assessing the action of antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbances.

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