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1.
J Exp Med ; 217(2)2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841125

RESUMO

Antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases are a major health burden. However, our understanding of how self-reactive B cells escape self-tolerance checkpoints to secrete pathogenic autoantibodies remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that patients with monogenic immune dysregulation caused by gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), have highly penetrant secretion of autoreactive IgM antibodies. In mice with the corresponding heterozygous Pik3cd activating mutation, self-reactive B cells exhibit a cell-autonomous subversion of their response to self-antigen: instead of becoming tolerized and repressed from secreting autoantibody, Pik3cd gain-of-function B cells are activated by self-antigen to form plasmablasts that secrete high titers of germline-encoded IgM autoantibody and hypermutating germinal center B cells. However, within the germinal center, peripheral tolerance was still enforced, and there was selection against B cells with high affinity for self-antigen. These data show that the strength of PI3K signaling is a key regulator of pregerminal center B cell self-tolerance and thus represents a druggable pathway to treat antibody-mediated autoimmunity.

2.
Mol Cell ; 76(5): 712-723.e4, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733991

RESUMO

The COMPASS (complex of proteins associated with Set1) complex represents the prototype of the SET1/MLL family of methyltransferases that controls gene transcription by H3K4 methylation (H3K4me). Although H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub) is well known as a prerequisite histone mark for COMPASS activity, how H2Bub activates COMPASS remains unclear. Here, we report the cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of an extended COMPASS catalytic module (CM) bound to the H2Bub and free nucleosome. The COMPASS CM clamps onto the nucleosome disk-face via an extensive interface to capture the flexible H3 N-terminal tail. The interface also sandwiches a critical Set1 arginine-rich motif (ARM) that autoinhibits COMPASS. Unexpectedly, without enhancing COMPASS-nucleosome interaction, H2Bub activates the enzymatic assembly by packing against Swd1 and alleviating the inhibitory effect of the Set1 ARM upon fastening it to the acidic patch. By delineating the spatial configuration of the COMPASS-H2Bub-nucleosome assembly, our studies establish the structural framework for understanding the long-studied H2Bub-H3K4me histone modification crosstalk.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14073, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575922

RESUMO

Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are organized as dynamic macromolecular complexes in human cells. Unraveling the structural determinants of unique GPCR complexes may identify unique protein:protein interfaces to be exploited for drug development. We previously reported α1D-adrenergic receptors (α1D-ARs) - key regulators of cardiovascular and central nervous system function - form homodimeric, modular PDZ protein complexes with cell-type specificity. Towards mapping α1D-AR complex architecture, biolayer interferometry (BLI) revealed the α1D-AR C-terminal PDZ ligand selectively binds the PDZ protein scribble (SCRIB) with >8x higher affinity than known interactors syntrophin, CASK and DLG1. Complementary in situ and in vitro assays revealed SCRIB PDZ domains 1 and 4 to be high affinity α1D-AR PDZ ligand interaction sites. SNAP-GST pull-down assays demonstrate SCRIB binds multiple α1D-AR PDZ ligands via a co-operative mechanism. Structure-function analyses pinpoint R1110PDZ4 as a unique, critical residue dictating SCRIB:α1D-AR binding specificity. The crystal structure of SCRIB PDZ4 R1110G predicts spatial shifts in the SCRIB PDZ4 carboxylate binding loop dictate α1D-AR binding specificity. Thus, the findings herein identify SCRIB PDZ domains 1 and 4 as high affinity α1D-AR interaction sites, and potential drug targets to treat diseases associated with aberrant α1D-AR signaling.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3031, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292453

RESUMO

Maternal immune dysregulation seems to affect fetal or postnatal immune development. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-associated disorder with an immune basis and is linked to atopic disorders in offspring. Here we show reduction of fetal thymic size, altered thymic architecture and reduced fetal thymic regulatory T (Treg) cell output in preeclamptic pregnancies, which persists up to 4 years of age in human offspring. In germ-free mice, fetal thymic CD4+ T cell and Treg cell development are compromised, but rescued by maternal supplementation with the intestinal bacterial metabolite short chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, which induces upregulation of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), known to contribute to Treg cell generation. In our human cohorts, low maternal serum acetate is associated with subsequent preeclampsia, and correlates with serum acetate in the fetus. These findings suggest a potential role of acetate in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and immune development in offspring.


Assuntos
Acetatos/sangue , Feto/imunologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/imunologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Feto/citologia , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Vida Livre de Germes/imunologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/imunologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Timo/citologia , Timo/diagnóstico por imagem , Timo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Timo/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
6.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(1): 276-291.e6, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline gain-of function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the catalytic p110δ subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), result in hyperactivation of the PI3K-AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway and underlie a novel inborn error of immunity. Affected subjects exhibit perturbed humoral and cellular immunity, manifesting as recurrent infections, autoimmunity, hepatosplenomegaly, uncontrolled EBV and/or cytomegalovirus infection, and increased incidence of B-cell lymphoproliferation, lymphoma, or both. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning inefficient surveillance of EBV-infected B cells is required to understand disease in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations, identify key molecules required for cell-mediated immunity against EBV, and develop immunotherapeutic interventions for the treatment of this and other EBV-opathies. METHODS: We studied the consequences of PIK3CD GOF mutations on the generation, differentiation, and function of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which are implicated in host defense against infection with herpesviruses, including EBV. RESULTS: PIK3CD GOF total and EBV-specific CD8+ T cells were skewed toward an effector phenotype, with exaggerated expression of markers associated with premature immunosenescence/exhaustion and increased susceptibility to reactivation-induced cell death. These findings were recapitulated in a novel mouse model of PI3K GOF mutations. NK cells in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations also exhibited perturbed expression of differentiation-associated molecules. Both CD8+ T and NK cells had reduced capacity to kill EBV-infected B cells. PIK3CD GOF B cells had increased expression of CD48, programmed death ligand 1/2, and CD70. CONCLUSIONS: PIK3CD GOF mutations aberrantly induce exhaustion, senescence, or both and impair cytotoxicity of CD8+ T and NK cells. These defects might contribute to clinical features of affected subjects, such as impaired immunity to herpesviruses and tumor surveillance.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 268, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320049

RESUMO

Breast feeding has been associated with improved infant outcomes in multiple aspects, including immune outcomes such as infections and potentially atopy and autoimmunity. However associations do not necessarily implicate cause and effect and at this point, exactly how breast feeding and components of breast milk may modulate the infant's immune compartment remains unclear, especially in humans. Some lines of evidence suggest that breastfeeding affects the development of the infant's thymus, a critical organ for T cell development. This may be a direct effect mediated by breast milk components or alternatively, a secondary effect from the impact of breast feeding on the infant's gut microbiome. Here we discuss the potential mechanisms and impact of this association between breast feeding and thymic development.

11.
Cell ; 174(5): 1106-1116.e9, 2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100181

RESUMO

The SET1/MLL family of histone methyltransferases is conserved in eukaryotes and regulates transcription by catalyzing histone H3K4 mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. These enzymes form a common five-subunit catalytic core whose assembly is critical for their basal and regulated enzymatic activities through unknown mechanisms. Here, we present the crystal structure of the intact yeast COMPASS histone methyltransferase catalytic module consisting of Swd1, Swd3, Bre2, Sdc1, and Set1. The complex is organized by Swd1, whose conserved C-terminal tail not only nucleates Swd3 and a Bre2-Sdc1 subcomplex, but also joins Set1 to construct a regulatory pocket next to the catalytic site. This inter-subunit pocket is targeted by a previously unrecognized enzyme-modulating motif in Swd3 and features a doorstop-style mechanism dictating substrate selectivity among SET1/MLL family members. By spatially mapping the functional components of COMPASS, our results provide a structural framework for understanding the multifaceted functions and regulation of the H3K4 methyltransferase family.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Histonas/química , Kluyveromyces/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Humanos , Insetos , Metilação , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Domínios Proteicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato , Fatores de Transcrição/química
12.
J Exp Med ; 215(8): 2073-2095, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018075

RESUMO

Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), cause a primary immunodeficiency. Affected individuals display impaired humoral immune responses following infection or immunization. To establish mechanisms underlying these immune defects, we studied a large cohort of patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations and established a novel mouse model using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing to introduce a common pathogenic mutation in Pik3cd In both species, hyperactive PI3K severely affected B cell development and differentiation in the bone marrow and the periphery. Furthermore, PI3K GOF B cells exhibited intrinsic defects in class-switch recombination (CSR) due to impaired induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and failure to acquire a plasmablast gene signature and phenotype. Importantly, defects in CSR, AID expression, and Ig secretion were restored by leniolisib, a specific p110δ inhibitor. Our findings reveal key roles for balanced PI3K signaling in B cell development and long-lived humoral immunity and memory and establish the validity of treating affected individuals with p110δ inhibitors.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Animais , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Fenótipo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
13.
J Immunol ; 200(12): 3970-3980, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720424

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant ß7 integrin+ Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA+) Treg cells later in life. ß7 integrin+ Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced ß7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Receptores de Retorno de Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adolescente , Antígenos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/imunologia , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Masculino , Pele/imunologia , Tropismo/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(2): 493-503, 2018 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186539

RESUMO

Cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) is a highly conserved protein complex composed of three subunits that recognizes G/U-rich sequences downstream of the polyadenylation signal of eukaryotic mRNAs. While CstF has been identified over 25 years ago, the architecture and contribution of each subunit to RNA recognition have not been fully understood. In this study, we provide a structural basis for the recruitment of CstF-50 to CstF via interaction with CstF-77 and establish that the hexameric assembly of CstF creates a high affinity platform to target various G/U-rich sequences. We further demonstrate that CstF-77 boosts the affinity of the CstF-64 RRM to the RNA targets and CstF-50 fine tunes the ability of the complex to recognize G/U sequences of certain lengths and content.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Clivagem/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Composição de Bases/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Fator Estimulador de Clivagem/química , Fator Estimulador de Clivagem/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Mutação , Poliadenilação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
16.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1877, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719006

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by genetic defects of the immune system, which manifests clinically as recurrent infections, autoimmune diseases, or malignancies. Early detection of other PID remains a challenge, particularly in older children due to milder and less specific symptoms, a low level of clinician PID awareness and poor provision of hospital laboratories with appropriate devices. T-cell recombination excision circles (TREC) and kappa-deleting element recombination circle (KREC) in a dried blood spot and in peripheral blood using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are used as a tool for severe combined immune deficiency but not in PID. They represent an attractive and cheap target for a more extensive use in clinical practice. This study aimed to assess TREC/KREC correspondence with lymphocyte subpopulations, measured by flow cytometry and evaluate correlations between TREC/KREC, lymphocyte subpopulations and immunoglobulins. We carried out analysis of data from children assessed by clinical immunologists at Speransky Children's Hospital, Moscow, Russia with suspected immunodeficiencies between May 2013 and August 2016. Peripheral blood samples were sent for TREC/KREC, flow cytometry (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD19), IgA, IgM, and IgG analysis. A total of 839 samples were analyzed for using TREC assay and flow cytometry and 931 KREC/flow cytometry. TREC demonstrated an AUC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.70-0.76) for CD3, 0.74 (95% CI 0.71-0.77) for CD4 and 0.67 (95% CI 0.63-0.70) for CD8, respectively, while KREC demonstrated an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI 0.69-0.76) for CD19. Moderate correlation was found between the levels of TREC and CD4 (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) and KREC with CD19 (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). In this study, promising prediction models were tested. We found that TREC and KREC are able to moderately detect abnormal levels of individual lymphocyte subpopulations. Future research should assess associations between TREC/KREC and other lymphocyte subpopulations and approach TREC/KREC use in PID diagnosis.

17.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 175(4): 516-523, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159871

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency can occur in CHARGE syndrome, with immunophenotypes including reduction in T-cell counts, combined T-B cell defects rarely requiring antibiotic prophylaxis or immunoglobulin replacement, and severe combined immunodeficiency, which is fatal without immune reconstitution. However, the prevalence of immunodeficiency in CHARGE syndrome remains unclear with few prospective studies. In this review, we examine the existing literature covering immunodeficiency associated with CHARGE syndrome, compare these with immunodeficiencies reported in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (a condition that shares many phenotypic characteristics with CHARGE syndrome) and suggest future research priorities.


Assuntos
Síndrome CHARGE/genética , Síndrome CHARGE/imunologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Fenótipo , Animais , Síndrome CHARGE/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 9(8)2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817095

RESUMO

There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano/química , Aleitamento Materno , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Microbiota , Micronutrientes/análise , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
RNA ; 23(1): 98-107, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27780845

RESUMO

3'-End processing of pre-mRNAs prior to packaging and export to the cytoplasm of the mature transcript is a highly regulated process executed by several tens of protein factors that recognize poorly conserved RNA signals. Among them is Pcf11, a highly conserved, multidomain protein that links transcriptional elongation, 3'-end processing, and transcription termination. Here we report the structure and biochemical function of Pcf11's C-terminal domain, which is conserved from yeast to humans. We identify a novel zinc-finger fold, resembling a trillium flower. Structural, biochemical, and genetic analyses reveal a highly conserved surface that plays a critical role in both cleavage and polyadenylation. These findings provide further insight into this important protein and its multiple functional roles during cotranscriptional RNA processing.


Assuntos
RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Poliadenilação e Clivagem de mRNA/química , Fatores de Poliadenilação e Clivagem de mRNA/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência Conservada , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Poliadenilação , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Clivagem do RNA , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Transcrição Genética , Dedos de Zinco , Fatores de Poliadenilação e Clivagem de mRNA/genética
20.
J Exp Med ; 213(8): 1589-608, 2016 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401342

RESUMO

Naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into specific effector subsets-Th1, Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper (Tfh)-that provide immunity against pathogen infection. The signaling pathways involved in generating these effector cells are partially known. However, the effects of mutations underlying human primary immunodeficiencies on these processes, and how they compromise specific immune responses, remain unresolved. By studying individuals with mutations in key signaling pathways, we identified nonredundant pathways regulating human CD4(+) T cell differentiation in vitro. IL12Rß1/TYK2 and IFN-γR/STAT1 function in a feed-forward loop to induce Th1 cells, whereas IL-21/IL-21R/STAT3 signaling is required for Th17, Tfh, and IL-10-secreting cells. IL12Rß1/TYK2 and NEMO are also required for Th17 induction. Strikingly, gain-of-function STAT1 mutations recapitulated the impact of dominant-negative STAT3 mutations on Tfh and Th17 cells, revealing a putative inhibitory effect of hypermorphic STAT1 over STAT3. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the requirements for human T cell effector function, and explain clinical manifestations of these immunodeficient conditions. Furthermore, they identify molecules that could be targeted to modulate CD4(+) T cell effector function in the settings of infection, vaccination, or immune dysregulation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
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