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1.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Scarce data are available on in-hospital hepatitis C virus (HCV) micro-elimination strategies. This pilot study was prospectively conducted to assess the outcomes of HCV in-hospital micro-elimination program (HCV-HELP) in a single center in Taiwan. METHODS: The study included the HCV reflex test for plans A (hospital personnel), B (outpatient surveillance), C (a call-back system for anti-HCV+ patients), and D (surveillance of cancer patients prior to chemotherapy). The primary outcome measurement was that > 80% of eligible patients were enrolled in linkage-to-treat; the secondary outcome measurement was the surveillance efficacy. RESULTS: We recruited 930, 6072, 2376 and 233 participants into plans A, B, C, and D, respectively, from Oct 2020 to May 2021. The anti-HCV-seropositivity prevalences were 0.22% for plan A, 4.3% for B, and 3.9% for D. Two staff members were identified as HCV-viremic in plan A; these staff members successfully achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). We identified 39, 95 and 2 HCV-viremic patients in plans B, C, and D, respectively. Of these 138 HCV-viremic patients, 135 (97.8%) received direct-acting antiviral therapy, and 134 achieved SVR. Two 4-month phases were stratified to compare efficacies in the liver clinic. In the late phase, the adjusted number of HCV-viremic patients was 4.36/10,000 outpatient visits (90/200,689), which was 3.18-fold higher than that of the early phase (1.37/10,000 outpatient visits [30/212,658], odds ratio 3.18; 95% confidence interval 2.10-4.81, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: HCV micro-elimination is achievable at the hospital level as per the structured HCV-HELP study.

2.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Regorafenib has demonstrated its survival benefit for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC) patients in a phase III clinical trial. We aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of regorafenib and the predictors of treatment outcomes in Taiwanese patients. METHODS: We analyzed the survival, best overall response, predictors of treatment outcomes, and safety for uHCC patients who had tumor progression on sorafenib therapy and received regorafenib as salvage therapy between March 2018 and November 2020. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients with uHCC were enrolled (median age, 66.5 years; 76.7% male). The median regorafenib treatment duration was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-4.6). The most frequently reported adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction (44.2%), diarrhea (36.0%), and fatigue (29.1%). No unpredictable toxicity was observed during treatment. The median overall survival (OS) with regorafenib was 12.4 months (95% CI, 7.8-17.0) and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.2 months (95% CI, 3.7-4.7). Of 82 patients with regorafenib responses assessable, 4 patients (4.9%) achieved a partial response, and 33 (40.2%) had stable disease, leading to a disease control rate (DCR) of 45.1% (n = 37). Patients possessing baseline AFP < 400 ng/ml exhibited a markedly longer median OS, median PFS, and higher DCR compared with their counterparts (15.7 vs. 8.1 months, 4.6 vs. 3.7 months, 60.9% vs. 27.5%, respectively). Despite possessing high baseline AFP levels, patients with early AFP response (>10% reduction at 4 weeks or >20% reduction at 8 weeks after regorafenib administration) exhibited comparable treatment outcomes to those with baseline AFP < 400 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this real-world study verified the tolerability and efficacy of regorafenib treatment for uHCC patients who failed prior sorafenib therapy, especially for those with lower baseline AFP levels or with early AFP response.

3.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(11): 3239-3246, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) seroreversion usually occurs during immunosuppressive therapy. The risk and factors of HBsAg seroreversion from resolved HBV infection in the general population remained unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled subjects with resolved HBV infection and who had received at least two times of screening in a longitudinal community screening program. HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) were tested every time in all subjects. The primary endpoint was HBsAg seroreversion. RESULTS: Of the 7630 subjects enrolled, 5158 (67.6%) subjects had positive anti-HBs at baseline. HBsAg seroreversion occurred in 84 subjects during 42 815-person-year follow-up with an annual incidence of 0.2% and a 10-year cumulative risk of 1.9%. Anti-HBV treatment-experienced subjects had a significantly higher risk of HBsAg seroreversion than anti-HBV treatment-naive subjects (83/310 [26.8%] vs 1/7320 [0.01%], P < 0.001). Lower rates of positive anti-HBs and anti-HCV were observed in anti-HBV treatment-experienced subjects who developed HBsAg seroreversion. Both positive anti-HBs (hazard ratio/95% confidence interval: 0.56/0.348-0.903, P = 0.017) and positive anti-HCV (hazard ratio/95% confidence interval: 0.08/0.030-0.234, P < 0.001) were independent factors of HBsAg seroreversion in anti-HBV treatment-experienced subjects. Less than 5% of the HBsAg seroreverters had clinical hepatitis flare at HBsAg seroreversion. The HBsAg titer was low, and only transient reappeared in most of the HBsAg seroreverters. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with resolved HBV infection were at a minimal risk of HBsAg seroreversion, unless with prior anti-HBV treatment experience. Fortunately, even with a reappearance of HBsAg, it was transient and clinically non-relevant.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8554, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879825

RESUMO

The spreading of viral hepatitis among injecting drug users (IDU) is an emerging public health concern. This study explored the prevalence and the risks of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) among IDU-dominant prisoners in Taiwan. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) and HDV (anti-HDV), viral load and HCV genotypes were measured in 1137(67.0%) of 1697 prisoners. 89.2% of participants were IDUs and none had HIV infection. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, dual HBsAg/anti-HCV, HBsAg/anti-HDV, and triple HBsAg/anti-HCV/anti-HDV was 13.6%, 34.8%, 4.9%, 3.4%, and 2.8%, respectively. HBV viremia rate was significantly lower in HBV/HCV-coinfected than HBV mono-infected subjects (66.1% versus 89.9%, adjusted odds ratio/95% confidence intervals [aOR/CI] = 0.27/0.10-0.73). 47.5% anti-HCV-seropositive subjects (n = 396) were non-viremic, including 23.2% subjects were antivirals-induced. The predominant HCV genotypes were genotype 6(40.9%), 1a(24.0%) and 3(11.1%). HBsAg seropositivity was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among the treatment naïve HCV subjects (44.7% versus 72.4%, aOR/CI = 0.27/0.13-0.58). Anti-HCV seropositivity significantly increased the risk of anti-HDV-seropositivity among HBsAg carriers (57.1% versus 7.1%, aOR/CI = 15.73/6.04-40.96). In conclusion, IUDs remain as reservoirs for multiple hepatitis viruses infection among HIV-uninfected prisoners in Taiwan. HCV infection increased the risk of HDV infection but suppressed HBV replication in HBsAg carriers. An effective strategy is mandatory to control the epidemic in this high-risk group.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8184, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854160

RESUMO

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Its role in patients treated with nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (NAs) is unclear. We aimed to study the role of hepatitis D in the development of HCC in CHB patients treated with NAs. Altogether, 1349 CHB patients treated with NAs were tested for anti-HDV antibody and RNA. The incidence and risk factors of HCC development were analyzed. Rates of anti-HDV and HDV RNA positivity were 2.3% and 1.0%, respectively. The annual incidence of HCC was 1.4 per 100 person-years after a follow-up period of over 5409.5 person-years. The strongest factor association with HCC development was liver cirrhosis (hazard ratio [HR]/95% confidence interval [CI] 9.98/5.11-19.46, P < 0.001), followed by HDV RNA positivity (HR/ CI 5.73/1.35-24.29, P = 0.02), age > 50 years old (HR/CI 3.64/2.03-6.54, P < 0.001), male gender (HR/CI 2.69/1.29-5.60, P: 0.01), and body mass index (BMI, HR/CI 1.11/1.03-1.18, P = 0.004). The 5-year cumulative incidence of HCC was 7.3% for patients with HDV RNA negativity compared to that of 22.2% for patients with HDV RNA positivity (P = 0.01). In the subgroup of cirrhotic patients, the factors associated with HCC development were HDV RNA positivity (HR/CI 4.45/1.04-19.09, P = 0.04) and BMI (HR/CI 1.11/1.03-1.19, P = 0.01). HDV viremia played a crucial role in HCC development in CHB patients who underwent NA therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite D Crônica/complicações , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Coinfecção , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Phys Ther ; 101(8)2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effects of sling exercise on pain intensity, disability, and health-related quality of life in adults with neck pain. METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and 6 other databases were searched from inception to July 2020. The reference lists of relevant articles to identify additional trials were also screened. Randomized controlled trials were included if they investigated the effects of sling suspension therapy in patients with neck pain, including mechanical neck disorders, cervicogenic headache, and neck disorders with radicular findings. Studies were required to be published in English or Chinese. The methodological quality and levels of evidence of studies were assessed using the PEDro scale and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach, respectively. The random-effects model was used to perform meta-analyses. RESULTS: Eleven randomized controlled trials were included (n = 595). The mean total PEDro score was 4.64 (SD = 1.21) of 10, which indicated a fair methodological quality. The intervention groups showed significant improvements in pain intensity (SMD = -1.23; 95% CI = -1.88 to -0.58) immediately postintervention compared with the control groups. No significant effects were found for disability, cervical range of motion, and health-related quality of life. However, sensitivity analyses revealed significant short-term improvements in pain intensity, disability, and cervical range of motion and sustained effects on disability at intermediate-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: Sling exercise appears to be beneficial for improvements in pain intensity (moderate- to low-level evidence) among patients with neck pain. However, no definitive conclusion could be made regarding the effect of sling exercise for neck pain due to methodological limitations and high heterogeneity in the included studies. IMPACT: This review provides overall moderate- to very low-level evidence for health care professionals who may consider including sling exercise in the intervention program for patients with neck pain.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/instrumentação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Cervicalgia/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(8): 2261-2269, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hemodialysis patients are at increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both HBV and HCV infections lead to risks of end-stage liver diseases and extrahepatic manifestations. This study aimed to investigate hepatic and extrahepatic comorbidities in hemodialysis patients with HBV or HCV infections compared with those without viral hepatitis. METHODS: A total of 1910 hemodialysis patients, including 159 HCV viremic patients (HCV group), 217 seropositive for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg, HBV group) and 1534 seronegative for both anti-HCV and HBsAg (non-B and non-C [NBNC] group), from 23 hemodialysis centers were enrolled. Comorbidities were classified into 10 categories by the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. RESULTS: Among the 1910 patients, the mean age was 64.6 years, and 52.7% were male patients. A total of 1834 (96%) patients had at least one comorbidity, and the mean number of comorbidities was 2.9 ± 1.5 per person. The three most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart diseases. The mean number of comorbidities per person was significantly higher in the HCV group (3.3 ± 1.7) than in the HBV (2.7 ± 1.5, P < 0.001) and NBNC groups (2.9 ± 1.5, P = 0.004), mainly due to the higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease, respiratory disorders, and mental/behavioral disorders. The HBV and NBNC groups exhibited comparable burdens of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis patients had a high prevalence of multiple comorbidities. Hemodialysis patients with HCV exhibited a higher burden of comorbidities, especially ischemic heart diseases, respiratory disorders, and mental/behavioral disorders, than HBV and NBNC patients did.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e042861, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Tzukuan, located in the southwestern area of Taiwan, is an HCV hyperendemic area (>30%). This study aimed to assess the changing epidemiological characteristics of HCV infection and to evaluate the long-term outcomes after the implementation of public health strategies for two decades. DESIGN: A population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A comprehensive care programme was implemented, namely COMPACT Study, in Tzukuan since 1997. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 714 residents participated the screening. OUTCOME MEASURES: The HCV status, demographic and clinical profiles of the participants were recorded and validated annually from 2000 through 2019. RESULTS: The HCV infection prevalence rates were 21.1% (1076/5099) in 2000-2004, 18.8% (239/1269) in 2005-2009, 14.1% (292/2071) in 2010-2014 and 10.3% (234/2275) in 2015-2019 (p for trend test <0.0001). Among them, 1614 underwent repeated tests during the follow-up period. The annual incidence rates were 0.54% in 2005-2009, 0.4% in 2010-2014 and 0.22% in 2015-2019, respectively (p=0.01). In addition to old age, lower education level was a major risk factor for HCV infection across different periods. HCV infection prevalence rate among those illiterates reached 40.9%, followed by 28.5% in those with elementary school level, and <10% in those with high school or higher levels. The major risk factor has shifted from iatrogenic exposure in 2000-2009 to household transmission after 2010. CONCLUSIONS: HCV infection has been decreasing and the epidemiological features are changing in the hyperendemic area by continuing education, prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245479, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) has been the valid efficacy endpoint in the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Its concordance with SVR4 and SVR24 and long-term durability is unknown in Taiwanese chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: A total of 1080 CHC patients who received all-oral DAAs and an achieved end-of-treatment virological response (EOTVR), defined as undetectable HCV RNA at the end of therapy, were consecutively enrolled. HCV RNA was monitored 4, 12, and 24 weeks after EOT. Patients who achieved SVR24, defined as undetectable HCV RNA 24 weeks after EOT, were followed annually for assessing SVR durability. RESULTS: Eleven (1.02%) patients experienced HCV RNA reappearance after EOT. The most frequent timing of RNA reappearance was observed at SVR4 (n = 7), followed by SVR12 (n = 3) and SVR 24 (n = 1). The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of SVR4 in predicting SVR12 were 99.7% and 100%, respectively, whereas the PPV and NPV of SVR12 in predicting SVR24 were 99.9% and 100%, respectively. Pyrosequencing confirmed delayed relapse rather than reinfection for the patient who had detectable HCV RNA at SVR24. Among 978 patients who achieved SVR24, after a median follow-up period of 17.3±8.2 months, the SVR durability is 100% up to a 4-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Achievement of SVR12 provides excellent durability of HCV seroclearance after DAA therapy. On-demand HCV RNA beyond SVR12 should be recommended for patients with unexplainable abnormal liver function or high-risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Carga Viral
10.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(5): 719-727, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533547

RESUMO

Uraemic patients undergoing haemodialysis are at high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We aimed to evaluate the evolutionary seroprevalence of viral hepatitis and the gap in HCV care cascades in this special population by a large-scale surveillance study in Taiwan. Uraemic patients on maintenance haemodialysis from 22 sites (FORMOSA-LIKE group) in 2012 (n = 1,680) and 2019 (n = 2,326) were recruited for this study. The distributions and sequential changes of viral hepatitis markers were analysed. The prevalence of anti-HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity was 13.6% (316/2326) and 11.5% (267/2326), respectively, in 2019 compared with 17.3% (290/1680, P = .002) and 13.6% (229/1680, P = .046), respectively, in 2012. The HCV-viremic rate among anti-HCV-seropositive patients was significantly lower in 2019 than in 2012 (56.3% [178/316] vs. 73.8% [214/290], P < .001). The HCV treatment rate increased from 2.3% (5/217) in 2012 to 21.7% (49/226) in 2019 (P < .001). In the sequential analysis of the 490 patients who participated in both screens, 17 of the 55 HCV-viremic patients became HCV RNA seronegative, including 13 by antivirals and four spontaneously. By contrast, one anti-HCV-seropositive but nonviremic patient became viremic, and six anti-HCV-seronegative patients became anti-HCV-seropositive in 2019. The annual incidence of new HCV was 0.2%/year. Seven HBsAg-seropositive patients experienced HBsAg loss (1.25%/year). Two patients had new anti-HBc seropositivity (new HBV exposure: 0.57%/year). The seroprevalence of viral hepatitis decreased in an 8-year follow-up but remained prevalent, and the treatment of HCV infection was underutilized in uraemic patients. Additional efforts are needed to enhance the HCV treatment uptake of uraemic patients. Clinical Trial IDs: NCT03803410, NCT01766895.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Hepatite Viral Humana , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Humanos , Diálise Renal , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(3): 255-260, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) set out to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by 2030, a goal Taiwan might achieve before 2025. Using effective direct antiviral agents (DAAs) against chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Taiwan, the treatment of CHC has been initiated in rural areas. Here, we aimed to elucidate the clinical and virological characteristics of HCV infection, and the treatment efficacy of DAAs in patients from Pingtung county in southern Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 152 chronic hepatitis patients treated with DAAs were consecutively enrolled. Baseline characteristics and therapeutic efficacy were evaluated. RESULTS: HCV genotype 2 was the most common viral genotype (39.5%), followed by 1b (36.8%), 6 (10.5%), and 1a (9.2%). The sustained virological response (SVR) rate was 98.7%. Hakka patients accounted for 22.4% of the study cohort, of which 14.7% had HCV genotype 6. There were no differences in clinical characteristics between Hakka and non-Hakka patients. Patients with HCV genotype 6 were younger in age (OR/CI: 0.95/0.91-1.00, p = 0.04) and composed of more people who inject drugs (PWID) (OR/CI: 17.6/3.6-85.5, p <0.001), when compared with other patients. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that DAA therapy can achieve a 98.7% SVR rate among CHC patients in Pingtung county of southern Taiwan, with a relative higher prevalence of genotype 6. The most important factor attributed to genotype 6 infection was PWID.

12.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 2): 303-310, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biochemical response is a crucial indicator of prognosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (NAs). The impact of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection on alanine aminotransferase normalization is elusive. METHODS: The longitudinal study recruited 1185 CHB patients who received NAs. These patients were tested for anti-HDV antibody and HDV RNA at the initiation of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy and annually for patients who were HDV-seropositive. ALT levels were examined at the first and second year of anti-HBV therapy. ALT abnormality was defined as ALT levels above 40 IU/mL in both male and female, and the risk factors associated with ALT abnormality were analysed. RESULTS: Rates of seropositivity for anti-HDV and HDV RNA were 2.0% and 0.8% among 1185 NA-treated CHB patients, respectively. The strongest factor associated with ALT abnormality (>40 IU/mL) after first year treatment with NAs was HDV RNA seropositivity at year 1 (odds ratio [OR]/95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.44/3.49-283.56, P = 0.002), followed by liver cirrhosis (2.18/1.51-3.15, P < 0.001), detectable HBV DNA at year 1 (OR/CI: 1.99/1.36-2.92, P < 0.001), diabetes (OR/CI: 1.75/1.10-2.78, P = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) (OR/CI: 1.13/1.09-1.18, P < 0.001) and age (OR/CI: 0.97/0.96-0.98, P < 0.001). Among patients who were seronegative for HBV DNA at year 1, the strongest factor associated with ALT abnormality was HDV RNA seropositivity at year 1 (OR/CI: 30.00/3.28-274.05, P = 0.003), followed by liver cirrhosis (OR/CI: 1.83/1.21-2.75, P = 0.004), BMI (OR/CI: 1.16/1.11-1.21, P < 0.001) and age (OR/CI: 0.97/0.96-0.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, the impact of HDV RNA seropositivity on ALT abnormality was noted in patients without detectable HBV DNA but not in those with hepatitis B viremia at treatment year 2 (OR/CI: 10.16/1.33-77.74, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: HDV infection played an important role in ALT abnormality in CHB patients receiving 1-year and 2-year NAs. The impact was particularly noted in patients who had successfully suppressed HBV DNA.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Vírus Delta da Hepatite , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase , DNA Viral , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite D , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(10_suppl): 1029S-1030S, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551963
14.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 27(1): 186-196, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been approved for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. Nevertheless, the complicated comedications and their potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with DAAs might limit clinical practice in this special population. METHODS: The number, class, and characteristics of comedications and their potential DDIs with five DAA regimens were analyzed among HCV-viremic patients from 23 hemodialysis centers in Taiwan. RESULTS: Of 2,015 hemodialysis patients screened in 2019, 169 patients seropositive for HCV RNA were enrolled (mean age, 65.6 years; median duration of hemodialysis, 5.8 years). All patients received at least one comedication (median number, 6; mean class number, 3.4). The most common comedication classes were ESRD-associated medications (94.1%), cardiovascular drugs (69.8%) and antidiabetic drugs (43.2%). ESRD-associated medications were excluded from DDI analysis. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir had the highest frequency of potential contraindicated DDIs (red, 5.6%), followed by glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (4.0%), sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (1.3%), sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (1.3%), and elbasvir/grazoprevir (0.3%). For potentially significant DDIs (orange, requiring close monitoring or dose adjustments), sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir had the highest frequency (19.9%), followed by sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (18.2%), glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (12.6%), sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (12.6%), and elbasvir/grazoprevir (7.3%). Overall, lipid-lowering agents were the most common comedication class with red-category DDIs to all DAA regimens (n=62), followed by cardiovascular agents (n=15), and central nervous system agents (n=10). CONCLUSION: HCV-viremic patients on hemodialysis had a very high prevalence of comedications with a broad spectrum, which had varied DDIs with currently available DAA regimens. Elbasvir/grazoprevir had the fewest potential DDIs, and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir had the most potential DDIs.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico
15.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 27(1): 136-143, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obstacles exist in facilitating hepatitis C virus (HCV) care cascade. To increase timely and accurate diagnosis, disease awareness and accessibility, in-hospital HCV reflex testing followed by automatic appointments and a late call-back strategy (R.N.A. model) was applied. We aimed to compare the HCV treatment rate of patients treated with this strategy compared to those without. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five anti-HCV seropositive patients who adopted the R.N.A. model in 2020 and another 1,396 controls treated in 2019 were enrolled to compare the gaps in accurate HCV RNA diagnosis to final treatment allocation. RESULTS: The HCV RNA testing rate was significantly higher in patients who received reflex testing than in those without reflex testing (100% vs. 84.8%, P<0.001). When patients were stratified according to the referring outpatient department, a significant improvement in the HCV RNA testing rate was particularly noted in patients from non-hepatology departments (100% vs. 23.3%, P<0.001). The treatment rate in HCV RNA seropositive patients was 83% (83/100) after the adoption of the R.N.A. model, among whom 96.1% and 73.9% of patients were from the hepatology and non-hepatology departments, respectively. Compared to subjects without R.N.A. model application, a significant improvement in the treatment rate was observed for patients from non-hepatology departments (73.9% vs. 27.8%, P=0.001). The application of the R.N.A. model significantly increased the in-hospital HCV treatment uptake from 6.4% to 73.9% for patients from non-hepatology departments (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The care cascade increased the treatment uptake and set up a model for enhancing in-hospital HCV elimination.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan
16.
Gut ; 70(12): 2349-2358, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HCV prevails in uremic haemodialysis patients. The current study aimed to achieve HCV microelimination in haemodialysis centres through a comprehensive outreach programme. DESIGN: The ERASE-C Campaign is an outreach programme for the screening, diagnosis and group treatment of HCV encompassing 2323 uremic patients and 353 medical staff members from 18 haemodialysis centres. HCV-viremic subjects were linked to care for directly acting antiviral therapy or received on-site sofosbuvir/velpatasvir therapy. The objectives were HCV microelimination (>80% reduction of the HCV-viremic rate 24 weeks after the end of the campaign in centres with ≥90% of the HCV-viremic patients treated) and 'No-C HD' (no HCV-viremic subjects at the end of follow-up). RESULTS: At the preinterventional screening, 178 (7.7%) uremic patients and 2 (0.6%) staff members were HCV-viremic. Among them, 146 (83.9%) uremic patients received anti-HCV therapy (41 link-to-care; 105 on-site sofosbuvir/velpatasvir). The rates of sustained virological response (SVR12, undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after the end of treatment) in the full analysis set and per-protocol population were 89.5% (94/105) and 100% (86/86), respectively, in the on-site treatment group, which were comparable with the rates of 92.7% (38/41) and 100% (38/38), respectively, in the link-to-care group. Eventually, the HCV-viremic rate decreased to 0.9% (18/1,953), yielding an 88.3% reduction from baseline. HCV microelimination and 'No-C HD' were achieved in 92.3% (12/13) and 38.9% (7/18) of the haemodialysis centres, respectively. CONCLUSION: Outreach strategies with mass screenings and on-site group treatment greatly facilitated HCV microelimination in the haemodialysis population. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03803410 and NCT03891550.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accurate assessment of liver fibrosis among hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is important for both treatment and for follow up strategies. Applying the non-invasive methods in general population with viral hepatitis have been successful but the applicability of the aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI) or the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) in hemodialysis patients need further evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multi-center, uremic cohort to verify the applicability of APRI and FIB-4 in identifying liver fibrosis by reference with the standard transient elastography (TE) measures. RESULTS: There were 116 CHC cases with valid TE were enrolled in our analysis. 46 cases (39.6%) were classified as F1, 35 cases (30.2%) as F2, 11 cases (9.5%) as F3, and 24 cases (20.7%) as F4, respectively. The traditional APRI and FIB-4 criteria did not correctly identify liver fibrosis. The optimal cut-off value of APRI was 0.28 and of FIB-4 was 1.91 to best excluding liver cirrhosis with AUC of 76% and 77%, respectively. The subgroup analysis showed that female CHC hemodialysis patients had better diagnostic accuracy with 74.1% by APRI. And CHC hemodialysis patients without hypertension had better diagnostic accuracy with 78.6% by FIB-4. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the traditional category level of APRI and FIB-4 were unable to identify liver fibrosis of CHC hemodialysis patients. With the adjusted cut-off value, APRI and FIB-4 still showed suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Our results suggest the necessary of TE measures for liver fibrosis in the CHC uremic population.


Assuntos
Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal
18.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(11): 1886-1892, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The serial serologic changes of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection among chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients who received oral nucleotide/nucleoside analogues are elusive. METHODS: Serum anti-HDV and HDV RNA among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were tested at the time of initiating anti-HBV therapy and subsequently during the follow-up period. RESULTS: The seropositive rate of anti-HDV and HDV RNA among 2850 CHB patients, was 2.7% and 0.9%, respectively. Factors associated with anti-HDV seropositivity were platelet counts (odds ratio [OR]/95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.995/0.992-0.999; P = 0.006), HBV DNA levels (OR/CI: 0.81/0.70-0.94; P = 0.005), and hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) seropositivity (OR/CI: 0.22/0.05-0.95; P = 0.04). The only factor associated with HDV RNA positivity among anti-HDV seropositive patients was age (OR/CI: 0.95/0.90-1.00; P = 0.03). The spontaneous clearance rate of serum anti-HDV antibody was 3.0 per 100 person-years with a median follow-up period of 3.5 years (range 2-12 years), whereas the seroclearance rate of HDV RNA was 4.3 per 100 person-years among anti-HDV seropositive patients after a median follow-up period of 6.0 years (range 2-11 years). A baseline anti-HDV titer < 0.5 cut-off index was the only factor predictive of anti-HDV seroclearance (hazard ratio [HR]/CI: 30.11/3.73-242.85; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HDV infection was not common among patients treated for HBV in Taiwan. Seroclearance of anti-HDV and HDV RNA did occur over time, albeit the chance is rare.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/virologia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatite D/diagnóstico , Hepatite D/virologia , Nucleosídeos/análogos & derivados , Nucleosídeos/administração & dosagem , RNA Viral/sangue , Testes Sorológicos , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019256

RESUMO

Stannous oxide (SnO) nanowires were synthesized by a template and catalyst-free thermal oxidation process. After annealing a Sn nanowires-embedded anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template in air, we obtained a large amount of SnO nanowires. SnO nanowires were first prepared by electrochemical deposition and an oxidization method based on an AAO template. The preparation of SnO nanowires used aluminum sheet (purity 99.999%) and then a two-step anodization procedure to obtain a raw alumina mold. Finally, transparent alumina molds (AAO template) were obtained by reaming, soaking with phosphoric acid for 20 min, and a stripping process. We got a pore size of < 20 nm on the transparent alumina mold. In order to meet electroplating needs, we produced a platinum film on the bottom surface of the AAO template by using a sputtering method as the electrode of electroplating deposition. The structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe the morphology. The EDS spectrum showed that components of the materials were Sn and O. FE-SEM results showed the synthesized SnO nanowires have an approximate length of ~10-20 µm with a highly aspect ratio of > 500. SnO nanowires with a Sn/O atomic ratio of ~1:1 were observed from EDS. The crystal structure of SnO nanowires showed that all the peaks within the spectrum lead to SnO with a tetragonal structure. This study may lead to the use of the 1D structure nanowires into electronic nanodevices and/or sensors, thus leading to nano-based functional structures.

20.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(7): 2120-2129, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The features of non-viral, nonalcohol hepatocellular carcinoma (NBNC-HCC) remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate this clinical characteristics and overall survival of NBNC-HCC compared to hepatitis B- (HBV-HCC) and hepatitis C-related (HCV-HCC) HCC. METHODS: We analyzed the etiologies, fibrosis stages, clinical data, and outcomes of newly diagnosed patients with HCC. RESULTS: A total of 1777 HCC patients were recruited, including 332 patients with NBNC-HCC, 682 patients with HBV-HCC, 680 patients with HCV-HCC, and 83 patients with HBV/HCV HCC. Patients with NBNC-HCC were older (69.9 ± 11.9 years). Patients with NBNC-HCC exhibited a higher prevalence of diabetes (43.9%) compared to the HBV-HCC (27.1%, p < 0.05) and HCV-HCC (30.2%, p < 0.05) groups. Compared to patients from the viral-related HCC groups, patients with NBNC-HCC exhibited a significantly lower fibrosis stage. NBNC-HCC patients exhibited a higher proportion of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification stage C and stage D compared to patients from the HBV-HCC and HCV-HCC groups. With a mean of 2.33 ± 2.31 years of follow-up, the median survival of patients with NBNC-HCC was 1.75 (95% CI 1.33-2.17) years, which was significantly lower than that of patients with HBV-HCC (p = 0.041) and HCV-HCC (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with NBNC-HCC have a higher risk of diabetes than patients with HCC of viral etiologies. Although patients with NBNC-HCC exhibited a milder fibrosis stage, their more advanced HCC stages and worse overall survival should be taken into consideration in clinical care.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ablação por Cateter , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida
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