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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Functional cure, defined by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss, is rare during nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy and guidelines on finite NA therapy have not been well established. We aim to analyze off-therapy outcomes following NA cessation in a large, international, multi-center, multi-ethnic cohort of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: This cohort study included virally suppressed CHB patients who were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative and stopped NA therapy. Primary outcome was HBsAg loss after NA cessation, and secondary outcomes included virological, biochemical, and clinical relapse, ALT flare, retreatment, and liver-related events after NA cessation. RESULTS: Among 1,552 CHB patients, cumulative probability of HBsAg loss was 3.2% at 12 months and 13.0% at 48 months of follow-up. HBsAg loss was higher among Caucasians (vs. Asians: SHR 6.8; 95% CI 2.7-16.8; P < .001), and among patients with HBsAg levels <100 IU/mL at end of therapy (vs. ≥100 IU/mL: SHR 22.5; 95% CI 13.1-38.7; P < .001). At 48 months of follow-up, Caucasians with HBsAg levels <1000 IU/mL and Asians with HBsAg levels <100 IU/mL at end of therapy had a high predicted probability of HBsAg loss (>30%). Incidence rate of hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was 0.48 per 1000 person-years and 0.29 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Death occurred in 7/19 decompensated patients and 2/14 patients with HCC. CONCLUSION: The best candidates for NA withdrawal are virally suppressed, HBeAg negative, non-cirrhotic CHB patients with low HBsAg levels, particularly Caucasians with <1000 IU/mL and Asians with <100 IU/mL. However, strict surveillance is recommended to prevent deterioration.

2.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between sarcopenia and prognosis in patients with cirrhosis remains to be determined. In this study, we aimed to quantify the association between sarcopenia and the risk of mortality in patients with cirrhosis, by sex, underlying liver disease etiology, and severity of hepatic dysfunction. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and major scientific conference sessions were searched without language restriction through 13 January 2021 with additional manual search of bibliographies of relevant articles. Cohort studies of ≥100 patients with cirrhosis and ≥12 months of follow-up that evaluated the association between sarcopenia, muscle mass and the risk of mortality were included. RESULTS: 22 studies with 6965 patients with cirrhosis were included. The pooled prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis was 37.5% overall (95% CI 32.4%-42.8%), higher in male patients, patients with alcohol associated liver disease (ALD), patients with CTP grade C, and when sarcopenia was defined in patients by lumbar 3- skeletal muscle index (L3-SMI). Sarcopenia was associated with the increased risk of mortality in patients with cirrhosis (adjusted-hazard ratio [aHR] 2.30, 95% CI 2.01-2.63), with similar findings in sensitivity analysis of cirrhosis patients without HCC (aHR 2.35, 95% CI 1.95-2.83) and in subgroup analysis by sex, liver disease etiology, and severity of hepatic dysfunction. The association between quantitative muscle mass index and mortality further supports the poor prognosis for patients with sarcopenia (aHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). There was no significant heterogeneity in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was highly and independently associated with higher risk of mortality in patients with cirrhosis. LAY SUMMARY: The prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with death in patients with cirrhosis remain unclear. This meta-analysis indicated that sarcopenia affected about one-third of patients with cirrhosis and up to 50% in patients with ALD or Child's class C cirrhosis. Sarcopenia was independently associated with about 2-fold higher risk of mortality in patients with cirrhosis. The mortality rate increased with greater severity or longer period of having sarcopenia. Increasing awareness about the importance of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis among stakeholders must be prioritized.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678514
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587550
6.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines recommend hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance in patients with chronic HBV infection. Several HCC risk prediction models are available to guide surveillance decisions, but their comparative performance remains unclear. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort of patients with HBV treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues at 130 Veterans Administration facilities between 9/1/2008 and 12/31/2018, we calculated risk scores from 10 HCC risk prediction models (REACH-B, PAGE-B, m-PAGE-B, CU-HCC, HCC-RESCUE, CAMD, APA-B, REAL-B, AASL-HCC, RWS-HCC). We estimated the models' discrimination and calibration. We calculated HCC incidence in risk categories defined by the reported cut-offs for all models. RESULTS: Of 3,101 patients with HBV (32.2% with cirrhosis), 47.0% were treated with entecavir, 40.6% tenofovir, and 12.4% received both. During a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 113 patients developed HCC at an incidence of 0.75/100 person-years. AUC values for 3-year HCC risk were the highest for RWS-HCC, APA-B, REAL-B, and AASL-HCC (all >0.80). Of these, 3 (APA-B, RWS-HCC, REAL-B) incorporated alpha-fetoprotein. AUC values for the other models ranged from 0.73 for PAGE-B to 0.79 for CAMD and HCC-RESCUE. Of the 7 models with AUC >0.75, only APA-B was poorly calibrated. In total, 10-20% of the cohort was deemed low-risk based on the published cut-offs. None of the patients in the low-risk groups defined by PAGE-B, m-PAGE-B, AASL-HCC, and REAL-B developed HCC during the study timeframe. CONCLUSION: In this national cohort of US-based patients with HBV on antiviral treatment, most models performed well in predicting HCC risk. A low-risk group, in which no cases of HCC occurred within a 3-year timeframe, was identified by several models (PAGE-B, m-PAGE-B, CAMD, AASL-HCC, REAL-B). Further studies are warranted to examine whether these patients could be excluded from HCC surveillance. LAY SUMMARY: Risk prediction models for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) could guide HCC surveillance decisions. In this large cohort of US-based patients receiving treatment for HBV, most published models discriminated between those who did or did not develop HCC, although the RWS-HCC, REAL-B, and AASL-HCC performed the best. If confirmed in future studies, these models could help identify a low-risk subset of patients on antiviral treatment who could be excluded from HCC surveillance.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464721

RESUMO

There is an ongoing debate as to whether patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may discontinue nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy before seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).1 Whereas treatment discontinuation may facilitate HBsAg seroclearance and avoid indefinite drug exposure,2 reactivation of viral replication almost always follows treatment cessation and frequently leads to clinical flares.3 In patients who encounter withdrawal flares, severe acute exacerbation (SAE) could occur with fatal consequences.4 Quantitative knowledge about the risk of SAE is imperative to inform the debate and also the practice.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298669

RESUMO

The clinical presentation and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication as compared to HCC in viremic patients are not well characterized. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and survival between HCV patients with and without viremia at HCC diagnosis.: We retrospectively analyzed overall survival outcomes in 1389 HCV-related HCC patients, including 301 with HCC developed after HCV eradication (post-SVR HCC) and 1088 with HCV viremia at HCC diagnosis (viremic HCC). We also evaluated overall survival in the two groups using propensity score-matching methods.: At HCC diagnosis, post-SVR HCC patients were older, less obese, less likely cirrhotic, with better liver function, lower alfa-fetoprotein levels, earlier BCLC stages, and higher rate of treatment with surgery. Overall, post-SVR HCC patients had higher median survival than viremic patients (153.3 vs. 55.6 months, p < 0.01), but post-SVR HCC was not independently associated with survival on multivariate analysis (adjusted HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.76-1.47). However, on sub-analysis, viremic HCC patients who subsequently received anti-viral treatment and achieved SVR had higher median survival than post-SVR HCC patients (p < 0.01). Viremic HCC with subsequent SVR was also significantly associated with lower mortality as compared to post-SVR HCC (adjusted HR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11-0.29). In addition, we observed similar findings in our analysis of the propensity score-matched cohorts.: The advantages in clinical and tumor characters at HCC diagnosis determined the better overall survival of post-SVR HCC patients; however, HCV eradication after HCC development was also associated with improved survival.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 828, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autophagy-related proteins may predict postresection overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC). METHODS: We prospectively investigated how these proteins affect clinical prognosis in 40 patients who underwent hepatectomy for cHCC-CC from 2011 to 2019 at a Taiwanese hospital. Levels of autophagy-related proteins, namely LC3, Beclin-1, and p62, were immunohistochemically assessed in patient tumor and non-tumor tissues. RESULTS: We noted that LC3 expression was significantly correlated with mild clinicopathological characteristics, including macrovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, American Joint Committee on Cancer and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages, recurrence, and mortality. Ten patient showed tumor recurrence, and 15 patients died. Postresection 5-year OS and DFS rates were 43.7 and 57.4%, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that high intratumoral LC3 expression was significantly associated with improved OS [hazard ratio (HR; 95% confidence interval (CI)): (1.68-26.9), p = 0.007], but multiple tumors and microvascular invasion was significantly correlated with poor OS [HR (95% CI): 0.03 (0.01-0.34), p = 0.004, and 0.07 (0.01-0.46), p = 0.006, respectively]. Furthermore, high LC3 expression and cirrhosis had improved DFS [HR (95% CI): 51.3 (2.85-922), p = 0.008, and 17.9 (1.05-306), p = 0.046, respectively]. The 5-year OS and DFS rates were respectively 61.2 and 74.6% in high LC3 expression patients and 0 and 0% in those with low LC3 expression. CONCLUSION: High LC3 expression in tumors is significantly associated with mild clinicopathological characteristics and favorable clinical prognosis in patients with cHCC-CC after resection.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Colangiocarcinoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Semin Liver Dis ; 41(3): 285-297, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161993

RESUMO

Accurate risk prediction for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may guide treatment strategies including initiation of antiviral therapy and also inform implementation of HCC surveillance. There have been 26 risk scores developed to predict HCC in CHB patients with (n = 14) or without (n = 12) receiving antiviral treatment; all of them invariably include age in the scoring formula. Virological biomarkers of replicative activities (i.e., hepatitis B virus DNA level or hepatitis B envelope antigen status) are frequently included in the scores derived from patients with untreated CHB, whereas measurements that gauge severity of liver fibrosis and/or reserve of hepatic function (i.e., cirrhosis diagnosis, liver stiffness measurement, platelet count, or albumin) are essential components in the scores developed from treated patients. External validation is a prerequisite for clinical application but not yet performed for all scores. For the future, higher predictive accuracy may be achieved with machine learning based on more comprehensive data.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiviral treatment criteria are based on disease progression risk, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance recommendations for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) without cirrhosis is based on an annual incidence threshold of 0.2%. However, accurate and precise disease progression estimate data are limited. Thus, we aimed to determine rates of cirrhosis and HCC development stratified by age, sex, treatment status, and disease activity based on the 2018 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed 18,338 patients (8914 treated, 9424 untreated) from 6 centers from the United States and 27 centers from Asia-Pacific countries. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate annual progression rates to cirrhosis or HCC in person-years. RESULTS: The cohort was 63% male, with a mean age of 46.19 years, with baseline cirrhosis of 14.3% and median follow up of 9.60 years. By American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases criteria, depending on age, sex, and disease activity, annual incidence rates ranged from 0.07% to 3.94% for cirrhosis, from 0.04% to 2.19% for HCC in patients without cirrhosis, and from 0.40% to 8.83% for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. Several subgroups of patients without cirrhosis including males younger than 40 years of age and females younger than 50 years of age had annual HCC risk near or exceeding 0.2%. Similar results were found using European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria. CONCLUSION: There is great variability in CHB disease progression rates even among "lower-risk" populations. Future CHB modeling studies, public health planning, and HCC surveillance recommendation should be based on more precise disease progression rates based on sex, age, and disease activity, plus treatment status.

13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(6): 1264-1273, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074829

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) are both first-line hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapies, but ETV-to-TAF switch outcome data are limited. We aimed to assess outcomes up to 96 weeks after ETV-to-TAF switch. METHODS: ETV-treated (≥12 months) chronic hepatitis B patients switched to TAF in routine practice at 15 centers (United States, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan) were included. Primary outcome was complete viral suppression (CVS) rate (HBV DNA <20 IU/mL). RESULTS: We analyzed 425 eligible patients (mean age 60.7 ± 13.2 years, 60% men, 90.8% Asian, 20.7% with diabetes, 27% with hypertension, 14.8% with cirrhosis, 8.3% with hepatocellular carcinoma, and mean ETV duration before switch 6.16 ± 3.17 years). The mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 89 ± 19 (chronic kidney disease [CKD] stages: 55.6% stage 1, 35.7% stage 2, and 8.8% stages 3-5). CVS rate increased from 91.90% at switch (from 90.46% 24 weeks before switch) to 95.57% and 97.21% at 48 and 96 weeks after (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Over the 96 weeks after switch, mean HBV DNA (P < 0.001) but not alanine aminotransferase or CKD stage decreased. Between switch and 96-week follow-up, 11% (26/235) of CKD stage 1 patients migrated to stage 2 and 8% (12/151) of stage 2 patients to stages 3-5, whereas 18% (27/151) from stage 2 to 1, and 19% (7/37) from stages 3-5 to 2. On multivariable generalized estimated equation analysis adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and cirrhosis, baseline eGFR, age (P < 0.001), and CKD stages 2 and 3-5 (vs 1) (both P < 0.001) were associated with lower follow-up eGFR. DISCUSSION: After an average of 6 years on ETV, CVS increased from 91.9% at TAF switch to 97.2% at 96 weeks later.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term incidences and baseline determinants of functional cure (HBsAg seroclearance) during entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment are incompletely understood. METHODS: This is an international multicenter cohort study of treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who initiated on ETV or TDF without baseline malignancy. Patients were observed for HBsAg seroclearance until death or loss to follow-up. We calculated the incidences and explored the baseline determinants of HBsAg seroclearance using competing risk regression. RESULTS: The analysis included 4,769 patients (median age, 50 years; 69.05% male), with a median follow-up of 5.16 years (26,614.47 person-years). HBsAg clearance occurred in 58 patients, yielding a 10-year cumulative incidence of 2.11% (95% CI, 1.54 -- 2.88%) and an annual rate of 0.22% (95% CI, 0.17--0.28%). Baseline predictors included low-level viremia with HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL (adjusted sub-distribution HR [aSHR], 3.14; 95% CI, 1.80--5.49), elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >200 U/L (aSHR, 3.68; 95% CI, 2.07--6.53), serum bilirubin (aSHR, 1.11 per mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.06--1.17), and fatty liver (aSHR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.03--3.29). CONCLUSION: HBsAg seroclearance rarely occurs in CHB patients treated with ETV or TDF and is associated with low-level viremia, ALT flare, bilirubin level, and fatty liver.

15.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 220, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of surgical resection (SR) for various Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. We investigated the risk factors of overall survival (OS) and survival benefits of SR over nonsurgical treatments in patients with HCC of various BCLC stages. METHODS: Overall, 2316 HCC patients were included, and their clinicopathological data and OS were recorded. OS was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. RESULTS: In total, 66 (2.8%), 865 (37.4%), 575 (24.8%) and 870 (35.0%) patients had BCLC stage 0, A, B, and C disease, respectively. Furthermore, 1302 (56.2%) of all patients, and 37 (56.9%), 472 (54.6%), 313 (54.4%) and 480 (59.3%) of patients with BCLC stage 0, A, B, and C disease, respectively, died. The median follow-up duration time was 20 (range 0-96) months for the total cohort and was subdivided into 52 (8-96), 32 (1-96), 19 (0-84), and 12 (0-79) months for BCLC stages 0, A, B, and C cohorts, respectively. The risk factors for OS were (1) SR and cirrhosis; (2) SR, cirrhosis, and Child-Pugh (C-P) class; (3) SR, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and C-P class; and (4) SR, HBV infection, and C-P class for the BCLC stage 0, A, B, and C cohorts, respectively. Compared to non-SR treatment, SR resulted in significantly higher survival rates in all cohorts. The 5-year OS rates for SR vs. non-SR were 44.0% versus 28.7%, 72.2% versus 42.6%, 42.6% versus 36.2, 44.6% versus 23.5%, and 41.4% versus 15.3% (all P values < 0.05) in the total and BCLC stage 0, A, B, and C cohorts, respectively. After PSM, SR resulted in significantly higher survival rates compared to non-SR treatment in various BCLC stages. CONCLUSIONS: SR conferred significant survival benefits to patients with HCC of various BCLC stages and should be considered a recommended treatment for select HCC patients, especially patients with BCLC stage B and C disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 269, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sacral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is rarer than osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture that occurs at other levels of the thoracolumbar spine. Percutaneous sacroplasty can effectively relieve pain and improve mobility. Several sacroplasty-based techniques have been reported to date. Sacroplasty is often performed with computed tomography-guided cannula placement, which is time intensive and results in greater radiation exposure than that resulting from fluoroscopy. Herein, we report our preliminary experience with a combination of long- and short-axis alar sacroplasty techniques under fluoroscopic guidance for osteoporotic SIFs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 44 consecutive patients with symptomatic osteoporotic SIFs who underwent alar sacroplasty between January 2013 and February 2020. The study group comprised 19 patients who underwent a combination of long- and short-axis alar sacroplasty techniques under fluoroscopic guidance. The control group comprised the remaining 25 patients who underwent short-axis alar sacroplasty under fluoroscopic guidance. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores, operation times, injected cement volumes, and postoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS: The VAS score for pain decreased in both groups; however, no significant difference was noted between the study and control groups in injected cement volume (3.55 ± 0.96 vs 2.94 ± 0.89 mL). The operation time was longer in the study group than in the control group (32 ± 7.1 vs 28.04 ± 4.99 min; P = 0.046). No major complications were noted. CONCLUSION: A combination of long- and short-axis alar sacroplasty techniques can be effectively performed under fluoroscopic guidance for osteoporotic SIFs.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia/métodos , Osteoporose/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Sacro/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Vertebroplastia/métodos , Idoso , Cimentos Ósseos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(6): 823-833, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiviral therapy for patients with non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B and minimally raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is controversial. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in reducing the risk of disease progression in this patient population. METHODS: TORCH-B is a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, randomised trial done at six teaching hospitals in Taiwan that enrolled patients with chronic hepatitis B. Eligible patients were aged 25-70 years and had substantial viraemia (viral DNA >2000 IU/mL) and minimally raised serum ALT concentrations more than one-fold but less than two-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN). Exclusion criteria included liver cirrhosis and previous antiviral treatment. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1), stratified by site with a fixed block size of ten, to receive either 300 mg of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or placebo once daily for 3 years. The participants, investigators, research coordinators, pathologists, laboratory personnel, and staff involved in patient care or assessment were masked to treatment assignment. 0·5 mg/day of oral entecavir was added to rescue acute hepatitis flare. The coprimary outcomes were change in necroinflammation severity on the Knodell scale and change in fibrosis stage on the Ishak scale and were evaluated in the modified intention-to-treat population, which comprised all patients with paired liver biopsies. Safety was evaluated in all patients who were randomly assigned. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01522625, and is completed. FINDINGS: From Jan 30, 2012, to Nov 10, 2015, 875 patients were screened and 160 were randomly assigned to receive either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (n=79) or placebo (n=81). The coprimary outcomes were assessed in 146 patients (73 in each group). Liver fibrosis progressed (an increase of ≥1 stage) in 19 (26%, 95% CI 17-38) of 73 patients in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group and in 34 (47%, 35-59) of 73 patients in the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 0·56, 95% CI 0·35-0·88; p=0·013), whereas necroinflammation progressed (an increase of ≥2 points) in five (7%, 95% CI 2-15) patients in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group and in 12 (16%, 9-27) patients in the placebo group (RR 0·42, 95% CI 0·15-1·12; p=0·084). Two (3%) of 79 patients in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group and 13 (16%) of 81 patients in the placebo group had acute hepatitis flare requiring add-on entecavir (RR 0·16, 95% CI 0·04-0·68; p=0·013). The two groups were otherwise similar in occurrences of adverse events. No patients died. INTERPRETATION: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate reduces the risk of progression in liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and minimally raised ALT, but its effect on necroinflammation is non-significant. FUNDING: The Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology, E-Da Hospital, the Taipei Institute of Pathology, Gilead Sciences.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Taiwan , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(1): 122-132, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437906

RESUMO

Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a major cause of liver-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While MAFLD-related HCC is known to occur in the absence of cirrhosis, our understanding of MAFLD-related HCC in this setting is limited. Here, we characterize MAFLD-related HCC and the impact of cirrhosis and screening on survival. This was a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study of MAFLD-related HCC. MAFLD was defined based on the presence of race-adjusted overweight, diabetes, or both hypertension and dyslipidemia in the absence of excess alcohol use or other underlying cause of liver disease. The primary outcome of interest was overall survival, and the primary dependent variables were cirrhosis status and prior HCC screening. We used Kaplan-Meier methods to estimate overall survival and Cox proportional hazards models and random forest machine learning to determine factors associated with prognosis. This study included 1,382 patients from 11 centers in the United States and East/Southeast Asia. Cirrhosis was present in 62% of patients, but under half of these patients had undergone imaging within 12 months of HCC diagnosis. Patients with cirrhosis were more likely to have early stage disease but less often received curative therapy. After adjustment, cirrhosis was not associated with prognosis, but the presence of cancer-related symptoms at diagnosis was associated with poorer prognosis. Conclusion: Cirrhosis was not associated with overall survival in this cohort of MAFLD-related HCC, while diagnosis in the presence of symptoms was associated with poorer prognosis. The HCC surveillance rate in patients with MAFLD-related HCC was disappointingly low in a multicenter cohort.

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