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Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16558, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409993


Effective conservation planning needs to consider the threats of cropland expansion to biodiversity. We used Myanmar as a case study to devise a modeling framework to identify which Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are most vulnerable to cropland expansion in a context of increasingly resolved armed conflict. We studied 13 major crops with the potential to expand into KBAs. We used mixed-effects models and an agricultural versus forest rent framework to model current land use and conversion of forests to cropland for each crop. We found that the current cropland distribution is explained by higher agricultural value, lower transportation costs and lower elevation. We also found that protected areas and socio-political instability are effective in slowing down deforestation with conflicts in Myanmar damaging farmland and displacing farmers elsewhere. Under plausible economic development and socio-political stability scenarios, the models forecast 48.5% of land to be converted. We identified export crops such as maize, and pigeon pea as key deforestation drivers. This cropland expansion would pose a major threat to Myanmar's freshwater KBAs. We highlight the importance of considering rapid land-use transitions in the tropics to devise robust conservation plans.

Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Florestas , Modelos Teóricos , Mianmar
Conserv Biol ; 31(6): 1257-1270, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030915


Political and economic transitions have had substantial impacts on forest conservation. Where transitions are underway or anticipated, historical precedent and methods for systematically assessing future trends should be used to anticipate likely threats to forest conservation and design appropriate and prescient policy measures to counteract them. Myanmar is transitioning from an authoritarian, centralized state with a highly regulated economy to a more decentralized and economically liberal democracy and is working to end a long-running civil war. With these transitions in mind, we used a horizon-scanning approach to assess the 40 emerging issues most affecting Myanmar's forests, including internal conflict, land-tenure insecurity, large-scale agricultural development, demise of state timber enterprises, shortfalls in government revenue and capacity, and opening of new deforestation frontiers with new roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams. Averting these threats will require, for example, overhauling governance models, building capacity, improving infrastructure- and energy-project planning, and reforming land-tenure and environmental-protection laws. Although challenges to conservation in Myanmar are daunting, the political transition offers an opportunity for conservationists and researchers to help shape a future that enhances Myanmar's social, economic, and environmental potential while learning and applying lessons from other countries. Our approach and results are relevant to other countries undergoing similar transitions.

Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Florestas , Política , Biodiversidade , Mianmar
Environ Manage ; 48(1): 158-67, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21442294


Hunting is a threat to wildlife within the Hkakaborazi National Park in north Myanmar. We used questionnaire surveys to obtain data on variables such as commonly targeted species, prices of traded wildlife, reasons for hunting and the relative importance of livelihood sources. We examine (a) the significance of hunting and trade for livelihoods and explore (b) the impacts of hunting on targeted species. Ninety per cent of trade records (n = 803) was constituted by seven species commonly targeted by hunters (serow, red goral, muntjac, bear, Assamese macaque, black musk deer and takin). Commercially valuable species previously targeted by hunters (tiger, otter, pangolin) appear to be completely absent from current harvest records and potentially in decline. Although farming is the predominant occupation, hunting (driven by trade) represents a significantly higher source of income than other livelihood activities. Management recommendations include increased investment in enforcement, education and outreach, small livestock development, improved crop productivity, demarcation of no-take areas for wildlife and biological monitoring of targeted species.

Animais Selvagens , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mianmar
Environ Manage ; 46(2): 143-53, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20593177


The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents (n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting (n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the opportunity costs of poaching, establishing no-take zones and research to determine the economic significance of hunting for livelihoods.

Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Carne/economia , Mianmar