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1.
Gene ; 806: 145928, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455027

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 Family 19 (CYP19) is a crucial enzyme to catalyze the conversion of androgens to estrogens. However, the regulatory mechanism of goose CYP19 gene remains poorly understood. The present study attempted to obtain the full-length coding sequence (CDS) and 5'-flanking sequence of CYP19 gene, to investigate its expression and distribution profiles in different sized follicles, and to analyze the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CYP19 gene in goose. Results showed that its CDS consisted of 1512 nucleotides and the encoded amino acid sequence contained a classical P450 structural domain. Homology analysis showed that there were high homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequences between goose and other avian species. Its promoter sequence spanned from -1925 bp to the transcription start site (ATG) and several transcriptional factors were predicted in this region. Further analysis from luciferase assay showed that the luciferase activity was the highest spanning from -118 to -1 bp by constructing deletion promoter reporter vector. In addition, result from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the mRNA level of CYP19 gene were highly expressed in theca layer of the fifth largest follicle, and the cellular location was in the theca externa cells by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, it could be concluded that the transcription activity of CYP19 gene was activated by transcriptional factors in its proximal region of promoter to promote the synthesis of estrogens, regulating the selection of pre-hierarchical into hierarchical follicle in goose.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/genética , Gansos/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Feminino , Gansos/classificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150687, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597551

RESUMO

The emergence of novel plasmid-mediated high-level tigecycline resistance genes tet(X) in the Enterobacteriaceae has increased public health risk for treating severe bacterial infections. Despite growing reports of tet(X)-positive isolates detected in animal sources, the epidemiological association of animal- and environment-derived isolates with human-derived isolates remains unclear. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of tet(X4)-positive Escherichia coli isolates collected in a hospital in Guangdong province, China. A total of 48 tet(X4)-positive E. coli isolates were obtained from 1001 fecal samples. The tet(X4)-positive E. coli isolates were genetically diverse but certain strains that belonged to ST48, ST10, and ST877 etc. also have clonally transmitted. Most of the tet(X4) genes from these patient isolates were located on conjugative plasmids that were successfully transferred (64.6%) and generally coexisted with other antibiotic resistance genes including aadA, floR, blaTEM and qnrS. More importantly, we found the IncX1 type plasmid was a common vector for tet(X4) and was prevalent in these patient-derived strains (31.3%). This plasmid type has been detected in animal-derived strains from different species in different regions demonstrating its strong transmission ability and wide host range. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that certain strains of patient and animal origin were closely related indicating that the tet(X4)-positive E. coli isolates were likely to have cross-sectorial clonal transmission between humans, animals, and farm environments. Our research greatly expands the limited epidemiological knowledge of tet(X4)-positive strains in clinical settings and provides definitive evidence for the epidemiological link between human-derived tet(X4)-positive isolates and animal-derived isolates.

3.
mBio ; : e0246521, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634937

RESUMO

Bacterial conjugation systems are members of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) superfamily. T4SSs can be classified as "minimized" or "expanded" based on whether they are composed of a core set of signature subunits or additional system-specific components. Prototypical minimized systems mediating Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfer DNA (T-DNA) and pKM101 and R388 plasmid transfer are built from subunits generically named VirB1 to VirB11 and VirD4. We visualized the pKM101-encoded T4SS in its native cellular context by in situ cryo-electron tomography (CryoET). The T4SSpKM101 is composed of an outer membrane core complex (OMCC) connected by a thin stalk to an inner membrane complex (IMC). The OMCC exhibits 14-fold symmetry and resembles that of the T4SSR388 analyzed previously by single-particle electron microscopy. The IMC is highly symmetrical and exhibits 6-fold symmetry. It is dominated by a hexameric collar in the periplasm and a cytoplasmic complex composed of a hexamer of dimers of the VirB4-like TraB ATPase. The IMC closely resembles equivalent regions of three expanded T4SSs previously visualized by in situ CryoET but differs strikingly from the IMC of the purified T4SSR388, whose cytoplasmic complex instead presents as two side-by-side VirB4 hexamers. Analyses of mutant machines lacking each of the three ATPases required for T4SSpKM101 function supplied evidence that TraBB4 as well as VirB11-like TraG contribute to distinct stages of machine assembly. We propose that the VirB4-like ATPases, configured as hexamers of dimers at the T4SS entrance, orchestrate IMC assembly and recruitment of the spatially dynamic VirB11 and VirD4 ATPases to activate the T4SS for substrate transfer. IMPORTANCE Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) play central roles in antibiotic resistance spread and virulence. By cryo-electron tomography (CryoET), we solved the structure of the plasmid pKM101-encoded T4SS in the native context of the bacterial cell envelope. The inner membrane complex (IMC) of the in situ T4SS differs remarkably from that of a closely related T4SS analyzed in vitro by single-particle electron microscopy. Our findings underscore the importance of comparative in vitro and in vivo analyses of the T4SS nanomachines and support a unified model in which the signature VirB4 ATPases of the T4SS superfamily function as a central hexamer of dimers to regulate early-stage machine biogenesis and substrate entry passage through the T4SS. The VirB4 ATPases are therefore excellent targets for the development of intervention strategies aimed at suppressing the action of T4SS nanomachines.

4.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636390

RESUMO

Tumor-targeting gold nanorods (AuNRs) assembled through Au-S bonds have been widely used for photothermal therapy (PTT) via intravenous injection. However, with extended in vivo circulation times, biothiols can replace some S-modified targeting ligands on the surface of the AuNRs, which lowers their targeting efficacy towards cancer cells, resulting in a non-ideal PTT effect. To address this problem, herein, we utilized Se-modified AuNRs to establish a dual functional nanoprobe (Casp-RGD-Se-AuNRs) for improving the therapeutic effect and real-time monitoring of Caspase-9 levels to indicate the degree of cell apoptosis. The experiments demonstrated that the Casp-RGD-Se-AuNRs are better at avoiding interference from biothiols than the S-modified nanoprobe (Casp-RGD-S-AuNRs) for extended blood-circulation times after intravenous injection, significantly improving the PTT efficacy via more effectively targeting cancer cells. Simultaneously, the change of Caspase-9 levels visually shows the degree of apoptosis. Moreover, an in vivo study showed that, compared with the S-modified nanoprobe, the Se-modified nanoprobe exhibits a higher delivery efficiency to the tumor region after intravenous injection (accumulation in the tumor increased by 87%) and a better anticancer efficacy under NIR light irradiation (the tumor inhibition rate increased 6-fold). This work provides a valuable strategy to overcome the off-target problem, and new ideas for avoiding interference by biomolecules during blood circulation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is one of the few non-pharmacological interventions for people living with dementia shown to be effective and cost-effective. What are the current and future cost and health-related quality of life implications of scaling-up CST to eligible new cases of dementia in England? METHODS/DESIGN: Data from trials were combined with microsimulation and macrosimulation modelling to project future prevalence, needs and costs. Health and social costs, unpaid care costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were compared with and without scaling-up of CST and follow-on maintenance CST (MCST). RESULTS: Scaling-up group CST requires year-on-year increases in expenditure (mainly on staff), but these would be partially offset by reductions in health and care costs. Unpaid care costs would increase. Scaling-up MCST would also require additional expenditure, but without generating savings elsewhere. There would be improvements in general cognitive functioning and health-related quality of life, summarised in terms of QALY gains. Cost per QALY for CST alone would increase from £12,596 in 2015 to £19,573 by 2040, which is below the threshold for cost-effectiveness used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Cost per QALY for CST and MCST combined would grow from £19,883 in 2015 to £30,906 by 2040, making it less likely to be recommended by NICE on cost-effectiveness grounds. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling-up CST England for people with incident dementia can improve lives in an affordable, cost-effective manner. Adding MCST also improves health-related quality of life, but the economic evidence is less compelling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Dev Biol ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599906

RESUMO

Cell migration is important during early animal embryogenesis. Cell migration and cell shape are controlled by actin assembly and dynamics, which depend on capping proteins, including the barbed-end heterodimeric actin capping protein (CP). CP activity can be regulated by capping-protein-interacting (CPI) motif proteins, including CARMIL (capping protein Arp2/3 myosin-I linker) family proteins. Previous studies of CARMIL3, one of the three highly conserved CARMIL genes in vertebrates, have largely been limited to cells in culture. Towards understanding CARMIL function during embryogenesis in vivo, we analyzed zebrafish lines carrying mutations of carmil3. Maternal-zygotic mutants showed impaired endodermal migration during gastrulation, along with defects in dorsal forerunner cell (DFC) cluster formation, which affected the morphogenesis of Kupffer's vesicle (KV). Mutant KVs were smaller, contained fewer cells and displayed decreased numbers of cilia, leading to defects in left/right (L/R) patterning with variable penetrance and expressivity. The penetrance and expressivity of the KV phenotype in carmil3 mutants correlated well with the L/R heart positioning defect at the end of embryogenesis. This in vivo animal study of CARMIL3 reveals its new role during morphogenesis of the vertebrate embryo. This role involves migration of endodermal cells and DFCs, along with subsequent morphogenesis of the KV and L/R asymmetry.

7.
J Cell Biol ; 220(12)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591076

RESUMO

Glypicans influence signaling pathways by regulating morphogen trafficking and reception. However, the underlying mechanisms in vertebrates are poorly understood. In zebrafish, Glypican 4 (Gpc4) is required for convergence and extension (C&E) of both the mesoderm and endoderm. Here, we show that transgenic expression of GFP-Gpc4 in the endoderm of gpc4 mutants rescued C&E defects in all germ layers. The rescue of mesoderm was likely mediated by Wnt5b and Wnt11f2 and depended on signaling filopodia rather than on cleavage of the Gpc4 GPI anchor. Gpc4 bound both Wnt5b and Wnt11f2 and regulated formation of the filopodia that transport Wnt5b and Wnt11f2 to neighboring cells. Moreover, this rescue was suppressed by blocking signaling filopodia that extend from endodermal cells. Thus, GFP-Gpc4-labeled protrusions that emanated from endodermal cells transported Wnt5b and Wnt11f2 to other germ layers, rescuing the C&E defects caused by a gpc4 deficiency. Our study reveals a new mechanism that could explain in vivo morphogen distribution involving Gpc4.

8.
J Neurosci Res ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520571

RESUMO

The cochlea, the sensory organ for hearing, has a protected immune environment, segregated from the systemic immune system by the blood-labyrinth barrier. Previous studies have revealed that acute acoustic injury causes the infiltration of circulating leukocytes into the cochlea. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling immune cell trafficking are poorly understood. Here, we report the role of CX3CR1 in regulating the entry of neutrophils into the cochlea after acoustic trauma. We employed B6.129P-Cx3cr1tm1Litt /J mice, a transgenic strain that lacks the gene, Cx3cr1, for coding the fractalkine receptor. Our results demonstrate that lack of Cx3cr1 results in the augmentation of neutrophil infiltration into cochlear tissues after exposure to an intense noise of 120 dB SPL for 1 hr. Neutrophil distribution in the cochlea is site specific, and the infiltration level is positively associated with noise intensity. Moreover, neutrophils are short lived and macrophage phagocytosis plays a role in neutrophil clearance, consistent with typical neutrophil dynamics in inflamed non-cochlear tissues. Importantly, our study reveals the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss and sensory cell loss in Cx3cr1-/- mice. In wild-type control mice (Cx3cr1+/+ ) exposed to the same noise, we also found neutrophils. However, neutrophils were present primarily inside the microvessels of the cochlea, with only a few in the cochlear tissues. Collectively, our data implicate CX3CR1-mediated signaling in controlling neutrophil migration from the circulation into cochlear tissues and provide a better understanding of the impacts of neutrophils on cochlear responses to acoustic injury.

9.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521107

RESUMO

Single antigen-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy may be insufficient to induce a durable response in pediatric aggressive B-cell lymphomas. The clinical trial (ChiCTR1800014457) examined the feasibility of sequential different B cell antigen-targeted CAR T-cell therapy for pediatric refractory/relapsed Burkitt lymphoma. Twenty-three patients received the first CD19 CAR T-cell infusion. The patients who did not achieve an ongoing complete response sequentially underwent one or more additional infusions of CAR T-cell targeting CD22 followed by CD20 according to their disease status and CAR T-cell persistence after each infusion. The median time from the last infusion to cutoff date was 17 months (range, 15 to 23). The estimated 18-month complete response rate was 78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54 to 91). The estimated 18-month progression-free survival rate was 78% (95% CI, 55 to 90), with 78% (95% CI, 37 to 94) in patients with bulky diseases and 60% (95% CI, 25 to 83) in patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. During the first CD19 CAR T-cell infusion, grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity occurred in 34.8% and 21.7% of all patients, respectively. During subsequent infusions, few incidences of higher than grade 2 CRS and neurotoxicity were observed. All adverse events were reversible. The severity of neurotoxicity was not significantly different between patients with CNS and non-CNS involvement. Sequential CAR T-cell therapy may result in a durable response and is safe in pediatric refractory/relapsed Burkitt lymphoma. Patients with CNS involvement may benefit from sequential CAR T-cell therapy. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx as ChiCTR1800014457.

10.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125910, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523549

RESUMO

The one-stage partial nitritation and anammox (PN-A) process frequently experiences deterioration from ammonium accumulation and nitrate build-up. In this study, hydroxylamine was dosed to restore the process from deterioration in a continuously aerated PN-A sequencing biofilm batch reactor, and the impact of hydroxylamine on the metabolism of PN-A process was studied. PN-A process was totally restored in 5 days via 10 mg N·L-1 hydroxylamine dosing, reducing nitrate-produced/ammonium-removed ratio from 28.5% to less than 11.0%. hydroxylamine dosing promoted biological production of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide and reduced the production of nitrate in the PN-A process. This study advanced the understanding of the metabolism versatility of hydroxylamine and nitric oxide as well as their function in interaction between aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria, and proposed the potential application of hydroxylamine dosing in ammonium-contained wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Reatores Biológicos , Biofilmes , Hidroxilamina , Hidroxilaminas , Interações Microbianas , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias
11.
Elife ; 102021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468315

RESUMO

The central nervous system regulates activity of peripheral organs through interoception. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that PGE2/EP4 skeleton interception regulate bone homeostasis. Here, we show that ascending skeleton interoceptive signaling downregulates expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and induce lipolysis of adipose tissue for osteoblastic bone formation. Specifically, the ascending skeleton interoceptive signaling induces expression of small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) in the hypothalamus. SMILE binds to pCREB as a transcriptional heterodimer on Npy promoters to inhibit NPY expression. Knockout of EP4 in sensory nerve increases expression of NPY causing bone catabolism and fat anabolism. Importantly, inhibition of NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) accelerated oxidation of free fatty acids in osteoblasts and rescued bone loss in AvilCre:Ptger4fl/fl mice. Thus, downregulation of hypothalamic NPY expression lipolyzes free fatty acids for anabolic bone formation through a neuroendocrine descending interoceptive regulation.

12.
Shock ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529397

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to assess the effect of HAT therapy on patients with sepsis and septic shock. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library for studies on HAT therapy published up to November 11, 2020. The primary outcome was the duration of vasopressor use. Secondary outcomes were change of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score within 72 hours; death within intensive care unit (ICU), hospital, and 28 or 30 days; length of stay (LOS) in ICU and hospital; rate of procalcitonin (PCT) clearance and incidence of adverse events. We also used trial sequential analysis (TSA) to assess the reliability of the available evidence. Results: Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven observational studies enrolling 1,559 patients were included (762 were treated with HAT, and 797 were treated with hydrocortisone alone, standard care or placebo). HAT therapy was associated with significant reductions in duration of vasopressor use (mean differences [MD], -14.68, [95% CI, -24.28 to -5.08], P = 0.003) in RCTs, but not in observational studies (MD, 11.21, [95% CI, -44.93 to 67.35], P = 0.70). HAT therapy was associated with less organ dysfunction at 72 hours both in RCTs (MD, -0.86, [95% CI, -1.32 to -0.40], P < 0.001) and observational studies (MD, -2.65, [95% CI, -5.29 to -0.01], P = 0.05). HAT therapy was associated with lower hospital mortality and higher PCT clearance in observational studies. Similar results for the primary outcome were found in the sensitivity analysis. TSA results suggested more trials to reach the required information size. Conclusion: Among patients with sepsis and septic shock, a combination therapy of hydrocortisone, ascorbic acid and thiamine, compared with placebo, could reduce the duration of vasopressor use and SOFA scores during the first 72 hours. Trial registration: PROSPERO registration ID for this study is CRD42020170648 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=170648).

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the changes of unmet need in dementia may enable effective targeting of help and allow people to stay in their homes longer. OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in unmet need and functioning over a 4-year period and the role of socio-demographic factors in these changes among people with dementia. METHODS: 234 community-dwelling people with dementia at baseline were studied in three consecutive waves (four years) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Unmet needs (self/informant-reported limitations for which no help was received) and functional limitations (self/informant-reported difficulties in activities/instrumental activities of daily living and mobility) were modelled with latent growth curves. Sex, age, partnership, and socioeconomic status at baseline were used as predictors. Admission to a care home was an additional outcome. RESULTS: Unmet needs increased over time, especially among those who initially had more functional limitations. Unmet needs contributed to faster decline in functional capability, except among those with many limitations initially. The major driver of increased unmet needs was not having a partner (direct effect). Age, sex, and wealth contributed indirectly via the initial level of functional limitations and/or unmet need. Those with several functional limitations but few unmet needs were most likely to move to a care home. CONCLUSION: Unmet need increases over time in those with dementia with mitigating effects of having a partner and initial levels of functioning. Meeting needs at early stages of dementia, especially for those living alone and when functional limitations are low may help slow functional decline.

14.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559953

RESUMO

AIMS: Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides (MOOs), a traditional Chinese medicine, have been used to treat mild and moderate depressive episodes. In this study, we investigated whether MOOs can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors in post-stroke depression (PSD) rats and further explored its mechanism by suppressing microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation to inhibit hippocampal inflammation. METHODS: Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate the effect of MOOs on depressive-like behaviors in PSD rats. The effects of MOOs on the expression of IL-18, IL-1ß, and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were measured in both PSD rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulated primary rat microglia by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) was injected into the hippocampus to regulate NLRP3 inflammasome expression. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying the effects of MOOs was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: MOOs can alleviate depressive-like behaviors in PSD rats. PSD rats showed increased expression of IL-18, IL-1ß, and NLRP3 inflammasome in the ischemic hippocampus, while MOOs reversed the elevation. NLRP3 downregulation ameliorated depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal inflammation response in PSD rats, while NLRP3 upregulation inhibited the effect of MOOs on depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal inflammation response in PSD rats. Moreover, we found that NLRP3 was mainly expressed on microglia. In vitro, MOOs effectively inhibited the expression of IL-18, IL-1ß, and NLRP3 inflammasome in LPS + ATP treated primary rat microglia. We also showed that modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by MOOs was associated with the IκB/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: Overall, our study reveals the antidepressive effect of MOOs on PSD rats through modulation of microglial NLRP3 inflammasome. We also provide a novel insight into hippocampal inflammation response in PSD pathology and put forward NLRP3 inflammasome as a potential therapeutic target for PSD.

15.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Polypharmacy, or use of multiple medications, is associated with patient factors. Less is known regarding variation in polypharmacy by individual physicians. The objective of this study was to assess patient and physician factors associated with polypharmacy among older patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of patients aged ≥65 years with a primary care visit at Cleveland Clinic Health System in 2015 and their physicians. We collected patient demographics, comorbidities and current medications from the electronic health record, including potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). We used mixed effects linear regression to estimate adjusted differences in the number of medications by patient factors. We generated adjusted prescribing rates for individual physicians and assessed differences in physician performance on quality measures by their prescribing rate. RESULTS: Our study included 44,570 patients who were prescribed an average of 6.8 medications (standard deviation: 4.0) by 701 physicians. Female sex, higher BMI, having Medicaid insurance, current or former smoking status, comorbidities and seeing a specialist were associated with number of medications. Age was not. Among 267 physicians who saw ≥20 study-eligible patients, the adjusted mean number of medications per patient ranged from 5.2 to 9.6. Compared to physicians who prescribed above the mean, lower prescribing physicians performed significantly better on medication reconciliation (p = .007) and hypertension control (p < .001) and prescribed fewer PIMs (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Individual physicians varied in their prescribing practices, even after adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Interventions to reduce polypharmacy in older adults should target high prescribing physicians, as physician behavior is more actionable than patient factors.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 579: 47-53, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583195

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious and major renal complications of diabetes. Previously, Six-transmembrane Protein of Prostate 2 (STAMP2) was reported to contribute to nutritional stress. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether overexpression of STAMP2 attenuates diabetic renal injuries in DN rats. We induced the DN rat model by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin and evaluated the metabolite and urine albumin/creatinine. Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors were injected for overexpression of STAMP2. Pathophysiologic and ultrastructure features of DN by histochemical stain and transmission electron microscope, autophagy-related proteins and signaling pathway by western blotting were assessed. We found the expression of STAMP2 was decreased and autophagy was blunted in DN rat kidneys. Overexpressing STAMP2 significantly ameliorated metabolic disturbance, insulin resistance, and specifically restoring diabetic renal injury. Furthermore, overexpressing STAMP2 improved the autophagy deficiency in DN rats, as revealed by changes in the expressions of Beclin1, p62, and LC3. Furthermore, STAMP2 overexpressing promoted autophagy by inhibiting the mTOR and activating the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway. Our results suggested that STAMP2 overexpression attenuated renal injuries via upregulating autophagy in DN rats. STAMP2 overexpressing promoted autophagy may been involved with inhibition of the mTOR/ULK1 and activation of the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway.

17.
Bone ; 154: 116185, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537436

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) participate in the progression of many diseases, but knowledge on the role of circRNAs in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is limited. In this study, we discovered the characteristics of a new circRNA (circ_0022382) in human endplate chondrocytes. Currently, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed that the relative expression level of circ_0022382 was significantly lower under intermittent cyclic tension stimulation than in the control group. circ_0022382, miR-4726-5p and Transforming growth factor 3 (TGF-ß3) were evaluated by RT-qPCR, Western Blot and immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, the role and mechanism of circ_0022382 in vivo were also consistent in the rat model. Furthermore, Intermittent cyclic mechanical tension can cause degeneration of endplate chondrocytes. The tension-sensitive circRNA_0022382 was decreased, and we found that circRNA_0022382 promoted morphology of endplate chondrocytes by sponge-binding miR-4726-5p down-regulation of target gene the TGF-ß3 expression, thereby alleviating IDD. In a rat model of acupuncture, intervertebral disc injection of circ_0022382 relieved the progression of IDD in vivo. In conclusion, the circ_0022382/miR-4726-5p/TGF-ß3 axis plays a key role in the anabolism and catabolism of the endplate chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM). It is suggested that circ_0022382 may provide a new approach for the prevention and treatment of IDD.

18.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Asymmetric conjoined twining (ACT) is a form of conjoined twining which is a rare malformation of monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy. Most publications were single case reports. We reported a cohort of five cases with ACT from a single tertiary medical center and reviewed the case reports of ACT over the last decade to enrich the clinical research of this disease and summarized the clinical features of the disease. METHODS: We reviewed five cases of ACT admitted in Tianjin Children's Hospital from 17 March, 2008, through 7 March 2017. The cohort was analysed from general information, imaging manifestations, separation surgery, histopathological findings, outcome and follow-up. We searched the English literatures on case reports of ACT over the past decade from the PubMed database and presented details about the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of all cases. RESULTS: There were four males and one female in our cohort. Among the five cases, two parasites were located in epigastrium, two in rachis, and one in retroperitoneum (fetus in fetu, FIF). All of the parasites were separated successfully by operation in five cases and were confirmed to be ACT by histopathology reports. Four patients made an uneventful recovery except for one case of wound infection. All of them were doing well in follow-up. In the literature review, we found 41 cases of exoparasitic heteropagus twining (EHT) and 63 cases of FIF. CONCLUSIONS: ACT is very rare and usually diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography (US). Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations are essential imaging examinations before separation surgery to delineate the anatomical relationship between the autosite and the parasite. In general, the separation surgery of ACT is less complicated and the prognosis is better compared with the symmetric conjoined twining (SCT).

19.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(17-18): 6251-6264, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398251

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is one of the most serious diseases today, and only a minority of patients are provided with effective clinical treatment. Importantly, leukocytes have gradually been discovered to play vital roles in stroke thrombosis, including promoting the activation of thrombin and the adhesion and aggregation of platelets. However, they have not received enough attention in the field of acute ischemic stroke. It is possible that we could not only prevent stroke-related thrombosis by inhibiting leukocyte activation, but also target leukocyte components to dissolve thrombi in the cerebral artery. In this review, we expound the mechanisms by which leukocytes are activated and participate in the formation of stroke thrombus, then describe the histopathology of leukocytes in thrombi of stroke patients and the influence of leukocyte composition on vascular recanalization effects and patient prognosis. Finally, we discuss the relevant antithrombotic strategies targeting leukocytes.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Trombose/patologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fibrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Ativação Plaquetária , Prognóstico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/farmacologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112077, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426252

RESUMO

Allicin has been reported to play a biological role in human pathophysiological processes via interaction with numerous signaling pathways and gene expression alteration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of allicin against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (RIRI) in rats. In the present study, the RIRI model with 45-min ischemia and 22-h reperfusion in rats was generated and allicin was used as the intervention. Changes in renal tissue pathomorphology, renal function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis were evaluated in the RIRI model in rats. Compared with those in the RIRI group, renal function, renal pathological injury, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties were markedly improved in the RIRI+allicin group. Thus, our research suggested that allicin exerted its protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury by regulating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats.

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