Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 160
Filtrar
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981158

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate treatment outcomes of de novo metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC) patients receiving taxane/gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy followed by locoregional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and analyze potential prognostic factors. METHODS: A total of 118 patients between March 2008 and November 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were treated with taxane/gemcitabine-containing systemic chemotherapy followed by definitive locoregional IMRT. Potential prognostic factors including baseline absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and the subdivision of metastasis were analyzed. RESULTS: The median follow-up time for the whole group was 31.5 months (range 5-138 months). Of the 118 patients, 9 (7.6%) patients experienced local regional failure and 60 (50.8%) patients had progression of distant metastasis. At the time of the last follow-up, 61 (51.7%) patients were dead. The 5-year actuarial progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS),distant metastasis relapse free survival (DMFS) and local regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) were 34.2%, 44%, 41.1% and 82.6%, respectively. Baseline lymphocyte count ≥ 1600/µl prior to the treatment conferred better locoregional control (5y-LRFS 96% vs. 64.7%, p < 0.001) and distant metastasis control (5y-MFS 50.4% vs. 32.4%, p = 0.023). The multivariate analysis showed that high lymphocyte count was the most relevant predictor of superior PFS (HR = 0.236, p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.518, p = 0.04). M subdivision was found as another independent prognostic factor for OS but not for PFS. CONCLUSION: Taxane/gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy combined with IMRT represents an effective treatment modality for mNPC. Baseline ALC is an independent significant prognostic factor for PFS and OS.

3.
Transl Oncol ; 16: 101324, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The delineation of target volume after induction chemotherapy(IC) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) is currently controversial. In this study, we aimed to analyze the long-term local control(LC) and failure patterns of T4 NPC treated with reduced target volume radiotherapy after IC. METHODS: From September 2007 to January 2013, 145 patients with T4 NPC were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received at least 1 cycle of IC followed by intensity modulated radiotherapy(IMRT). The gross tumor volume(GTV) was delineated according to the post-IC images for intracavity tumors and lymph nodes. The LC and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The location and extent of local failures were transferred to the pretreatment planning computed tomography (CT) for dosimetric analysis. RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 95 months (range, 16-142 months), 23 local failures were found. The estimated 10-year LC and OS rates were 81.1%and 54.8% respectively. Among the 20 local failures with available diagnostic images, 18(90%) occurred within the 95% isodose lines and were considered in-field failures and 2(10%) were marginal. There was no outside-field failure. CONCLUSIONS: In-field failure was the major pattern of local failure for T4 NPC. IMRT with reduced target volume after IC seems to be feasible. Further researches exploring optimal volume and radiation dose for local advanced NPC in the era of IC are warranted.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796104

RESUMO

Background: Squamous cell cancers in the hypopharynx (HP) and cervical esophagus (CE) are different diseases with different staging systems and treatment approaches. Pharyngoesophageal junction (PEJ) tumor involves both the hypopharynx and the cervical esophagus simultaneously, but few reports focused on PEJ tumors. This study aimed to clarify clinical characteristics and the treatment approaches of PEJ tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 222 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the HP, PEJ, and CE were collected between January 2008 and June 2018 in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. We compared different lymph node metastatic patterns of three diseases above and the survival of different tumor locations, different lymph node metastasis, and different radiotherapy approaches. Results: For HP, PEJ, and CE cancer, the upper and middle cervical lymph node metastatic rates were 85.7%, 47.1%, and 5.8%, respectively; the lower cervical lymph node metastatic rates were 36.7%, 42.9%, and 35.0%, respectively; and the mediastinal lymph node metastatic rates were 2.0%, 72.9%, and 80.6%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival rates were 69.5% in the HP group, 52.0% in the PEJ group, and 69.6% in the CE group (p = 0.024). No survival differences were found between the involved-field-irradiation and elective-node-irradiation subgroups among PEJ tumors (p = 0.717 for OS and p = 0.454 for PFS, respectively). Conclusion: HP cancers had a high prevalence in all cervical lymph node metastases, while CE cancers had a lower prevalence in the cervical and mediastinal lymph node metastases. PEJ cancer had the combined metastatic patterns of both HP and CE cancers. Involved field irradiation was feasible in chemoradiotherapy for PEJ cancers.

5.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 41(11): 1195-1227, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699681

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor originating in the nasopharynx and has a high incidence in Southeast Asia and North Africa. To develop these comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and management of NPC, the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) arranged a multi-disciplinary team comprising of experts from all sub-specialties of NPC to write, discuss, and revise the guidelines. Based on the findings of evidence-based medicine in China and abroad, domestic experts have iteratively developed these guidelines to provide proper management of NPC. Overall, the guidelines describe the screening, clinical and pathological diagnosis, staging and risk assessment, therapies, and follow-up of NPC, which aim to improve the management of NPC.

6.
Transl Oncol ; 14(12): 101216, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term outcomes of induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with N3 disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2005 to August 2016, 143 patients confirmed NPC with the 8th AJCC/UICC staging criteria N3 were reviewed. All patients received IC followed by IMRT and AC. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 67 months, the 5-year and 10-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and regional progression-free survival (RPFS) were 75.7% and 61.6%, 61.2% and 53.4%, 73.1% and 72.1%, 92.4% and 87%, 88.9% and 81.8%, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that T stage (P = 0.001) appeared to be prognostic factors for OS. T stage (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002) and neck lymph node necrosis (P = 0.015 and P = 0.045) were independent predictors of PFS and DMFS. The acute toxicities were mainly grade 1/2 hematologic toxicities in patients treated with IC+IMRT+AC, and severe toxicities were uncommon. CONCLUSIONS: IC followed by IMRT and AC achieved satisfactory long-term survival outcomes in NPC patients with N3 disease. Neck lymph node necrosis and late T stage served as predictors of poor prognosis for patients.

7.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105506, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530214

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the prognostic impact of waiting time for radiotherapy (RT) after induction chemotherapy (IC) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 648 NPC patients receiving IC between 2009 and 2011 were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance the variables. Survival outcomes were compared in subgroups based on time to RT (TTR) after IC. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff point for TTR was 28 days. A total of 330 patients were selected by 1:2 PSM. Stratified and dichotomized TTRs were both strongly correlated with prognosis. Patients with TTR > 28 days had significantly worse 5-year LRFS, DMFS, DFS and OS than those with TTR ≤ 28 days (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, TTR > 28 days was an independent predictor of worse LRFS [HR=2.08; 95% CI, 1.18-3.66; P = 0.011), DMFS (HR=1.65; 95% CI, 1.04-2.62; P = 0.033), DFS (HR=1.86; 95% CI, 1.35-2.62; P < 0.001) and OS (HR=1.90; 95% CI, 1.26-2.85; P < 0.001). High-risk patients with T4 or N2-3 disease were highly susceptible to RT delay with impaired DFS and OS. In high-risk patients with TTR > 28 days, concurrent chemotherapy yielded better DMFS (70.9% vs. 52.0%, P  =  0.041), DFS (52.5% vs. 34.3%, P = 0.039) and OS (70.3% vs. 53.2%, P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged waiting is detrimental to survival in NPC, and it is strongly recommended to start RT within 28 days after IC. T4/N2-3 NPC has a higher risk of treatment failure with delayed RT. With potential protection against RT delay, concurrent chemotherapy should be performed in high-risk patients as salvage therapy.

8.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1536-1543, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341578

RESUMO

Gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy is the standard first-line systemic treatment for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC). In this international, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03581786), 289 patients with RM-NPC and no previous chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic disease were randomized (1/1) to receive either toripalimab, a monoclonal antibody against human programmed death-1 (PD-1), or placebo in combination with GP every 3 weeks for up to six cycles, followed by monotherapy with toripalimab or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by a blinded independent review committee according to RECIST v.1.1. At the prespecified interim PFS analysis, a significant improvement in PFS was detected in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm: median PFS of 11.7 versus 8.0 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.74), P = 0.0003. An improvement in PFS was observed across key subgroups, including PD-L1 expression. As of 18 February 2021, a 40% reduction in risk of death was observed in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm (HR = 0.603 (95% CI: 0.364-0.997)). The incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (89.0 versus 89.5%), AEs leading to discontinuation of toripalimab/placebo (7.5 versus 4.9%) and fatal AEs (2.7 versus 2.8%) was similar between the two arms; however, immune-related AEs (39.7 versus 18.9%) and grade ≥3 infusion reactions (7.5 versus 0.7%) were more frequent in the toripalimab arm. In conclusion, the addition of toripalimab to GP chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for patients with RM-NPC provided superior PFS compared to GP alone, and with a manageable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
9.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(18)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450599

RESUMO

To investigate the impact of training sample size on the performance of deep learning-based organ auto-segmentation for head-and-neck cancer patients, a total of 1160 patients with head-and-neck cancer who received radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. Patient planning CT images and regions of interest (ROIs) delineation, including the brainstem, spinal cord, eyes, lenses, optic nerves, temporal lobes, parotids, larynx and body, were collected. An evaluation dataset with 200 patients were randomly selected and combined with Dice similarity index to evaluate the model performances. Eleven training datasets with different sample sizes were randomly selected from the remaining 960 patients to form auto-segmentation models. All models used the same data augmentation methods, network structures and training hyperparameters. A performance estimation model of the training sample size based on the inverse power law function was established. Different performance change patterns were found for different organs. Six organs had the best performance with 800 training samples and others achieved their best performance with 600 training samples or 400 samples. The benefit of increasing the size of the training dataset gradually decreased. Compared to the best performance, optic nerves and lenses reached 95% of their best effect at 200, and the other organs reached 95% of their best effect at 40. For the fitting effect of the inverse power law function, the fitted root mean square errors of all ROIs were less than 0.03 (left eye: 0.024, others: <0.01), and theRsquare of all ROIs except for the body was greater than 0.5. The sample size has a significant impact on the performance of deep learning-based auto-segmentation. The relationship between sample size and performance depends on the inherent characteristics of the organ. In some cases, relatively small samples can achieve satisfactory performance.

10.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(14): 1180, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430621

RESUMO

Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) treatment in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) can lead to considerable toxicity. Loss of skeletal muscle mass showed relevance with increased chemotherapy-related toxicity and poor survival in various cancer types, but its significance in NPC remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body composition parameters and the incidence of NACT toxicity in LA-NPC patients. Methods: Ninety-six LA-NPC patients were retrospectively enrolled. All patients had pre-treatment abdominal computed tomography (CT) images to exclude distant metastasis. Lean body mass (LBM, kg) was estimated based on cross-sectional muscle area at the third lumbar vertebra (L3) level on CT, and skeletal muscle index (SMI, cm2/m2) was calculated. Doses of chemotherapeutics were normalized as dose/LBM (mg/kg). Grade 3-4 toxicity was defined as severe. The associations between body composition parameters and severe toxicities were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Optimal cutoff points were obtained with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Of the 96 patients, 81.2% received the docetaxel + cisplatin (TP) regimen, and the rest received the gemcitabine + cisplatin (GP) regimen. Males had more LBM and a higher SMI at baseline, and females received a markedly higher dose of docetaxel and gemcitabine per kg LBM (P<0.001). With a cutoff value of 52.7 cm2/m2, patients with higher SMI showed lower risk of severe toxicity. For TP regimen group, those presented with grade 3-4 neutropenia had a higher dose per kg LBM. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the LBM-adjusted dose was significantly associated with severe neutropenia in the TP regimen group (P<0.001). The LBM-normalized docetaxel cutoff value of 2.64 mg/kg was a prominent predictor of ≥ grade 3 neutropenia (P=0.003), but a higher dose of docetaxel per kg LBM did not provide a better objective response rate. Conclusions: LA-NPC patients with lower SMI and higher dose of docetaxel per kg LBM are more likely to suffer from severe treatment-related toxicity. Higher docetaxel dose per kg LBM is a prominent predictor for severe neutropenia, but not for NACT response. LBM showed good potential in toxicity risk prediction and dose determination.

11.
J Pers Med ; 11(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model is the most commonly used statistical method for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) prognostication. Recently, machine learning (ML) models are increasingly adopted for this purpose. However, only a few studies have compared the performances between CPH and ML models. This study aimed at comparing CPH with two state-of-the-art ML algorithms, namely, conditional survival forest (CSF) and DeepSurv for disease progression prediction in NPC. METHODS: From January 2010 to March 2013, 412 eligible NPC patients were reviewed. The entire dataset was split into training cohort and testing cohort in a ratio of 90%:10%. Ten features from patient-related, disease-related, and treatment-related data were used to train the models for progression-free survival (PFS) prediction. The model performance was compared using the concordance index (c-index), Brier score, and log-rank test based on the risk stratification results. RESULTS: DeepSurv (c-index = 0.68, Brier score = 0.13, log-rank test p = 0.02) achieved the best performance compared to CSF (c-index = 0.63, Brier score = 0.14, log-rank test p = 0.38) and CPH (c-index = 0.57, Brier score = 0.15, log-rank test p = 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: Both CSF and DeepSurv outperformed CPH in our relatively small dataset. ML-based survival prediction may guide physicians in choosing the most suitable treatment strategy for NPC patients.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 654871, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34094946

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the therapeutic effect and prognostic factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with distant metastases at initial diagnosis receiving induction chemotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: A total of 129 patients who underwent platinum-based induction chemotherapy followed by definitive IMRT with or without concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed distant metastatic NPC in our center between March 2008 and November 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. 41 patients underwent local therapy for metastatic sites. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival rates, Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used to figure out independent prognostic factors of overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 66 patients had been dead (median follow-up time, 51.5 months). The median overall survival (OS) time was 54.2 months (range, 7-136 months), and the 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 5-year overall survival rates were 88.0%,71.0%,58.0%, and 47.0%. Multivariate analysis found that the factors correlated with poor overall survival were pre-treatment serum lactate dehydrogenase (SLDH) >180U/L, chemotherapy cycles<4, and M1 stage subdivision (M1b, single hepatic metastasis and/or multiple metastases excluding the liver; and M1c, multiple hepatic metastases). The 5-year OS rates for M1a, M1b and M1c were 62.6%,40.4% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: Platinum-containing induction chemotherapy combined with IMRT seemed to be advantageous to prolong survival for some NPC patients with synchronous metastases at initial diagnosis. The independent factors to prognosticate OS were pre-treatment SLDH, number of chemotherapy cycles, and M1 subcategories. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm the result.

13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(8): 1162-1174, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The addition of camrelizumab to gemcitabine and cisplatin showed promising activity as first-line therapy in patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a phase 1 trial. We therefore compared camrelizumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin with placebo plus gemcitabine and cisplatin in a randomised phase 3 trial. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial done at 28 hospitals in China, patients were eligible if they were aged 18-75 years, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, and had previously untreated recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1; using an interactive web-response system with a block size of four) to receive either camrelizumab (200 mg on day 1) or matching placebo intravenously, plus gemcitabine and cisplatin (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8; cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on day 1) intravenously every 3 weeks for four to six cycles, followed by maintenance therapy with camrelizumab or placebo, until radiographic progression, unacceptable toxicity, start of new anticancer treatment, investigator decision, or withdrawal of consent. Stratification factors used in randomisation were liver metastases, previous radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and ECOG performance status. The allocation sequence was generated by an independent randomisation group. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival per independent review committee. The significance threshold for independent review committee-assessed progression-free survival was p=0·0086 (one-sided) at the interim analysis. Efficacy and safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03707509, and is closed for enrolment but is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Nov 13, 2018, and Nov 29, 2019, 343 patients were screened and 263 were eligible and were randomly assigned to the camrelizumab group (n=134) or placebo group (n=129). At the prespecified interim analysis (June 15, 2020), independent review committee-assessed progression-free survival was significantly longer in the camrelizumab group (median 9·7 months [95% CI 8·3-11·4]) than in the placebo group (median 6·9 months [5·9-7·3]; hazard ratio 0·54 [95% CI 0·39-0·76]; one-sided p=0·0002). As of Dec 31, 2020, the most common grade 3 or worse adverse events of any cause were decreased white blood cell count (89 [66%] of 134 patients in the camrelizumab group vs 90 [70%] of 129 patients in the placebo group), decreased neutrophil count (86 [64%] vs 85 [66%]), anaemia (53 [40%] vs 57 [44%]), and decreased platelet count (53 [40%] vs 52 [40%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 59 (44%) of 134 patients in the camrelizumab group and 48 (37%) of 129 patients in the placebo group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in five (4%) patients in the camrelizumab group (two unknown cause of death, one multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, one pharyngeal haemorrhage, and one arrhythmia) and one (<1%) patient in the placebo group (unknown cause of death). INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that camrelizumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin could be a new standard of care for patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the first-line setting. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm this conclusion. FUNDING: Jiangsu Hengrui Pharmaceuticals (formerly Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine). TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Cancer Invest ; 39(8): 645-652, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182848

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to report long-term results of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). From September 2007 to January 2013, 155 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The estimated 10-year local recurrent-free survival (LRFS), regional recurrent-free survival (RRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 79.4%, 93.2%, 69.0%, and 54.2%, respectively. Cycle number of chemotherapy was a significant predictor of LRFS, OS, and progression-free survival. There was no significant difference in survival rates between patients treated with induction chemotherapy (IC) plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and patients with IC plus IMRT and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC).


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Radiother Oncol ; 160: 140-147, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Head and neck reconstructive surgery using a flap is increasingly common. Best practices and outcomes for postoperative radiotherapy (poRT) with flaps have not been specified. We aimed to provide consensus recommendations to assist clinical decision-making highlighting areas of uncertainty in the presence of flaps. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radiation, medical, and surgical oncologists were assembled from GORTEC and internationally with the Head and Neck Cancer International Group (HNCIG). The consensus-building approach covered 59 topics across four domains: (1) identification of postoperative tissue changes on imaging for flap delineation, (2) understanding of tumor relapse risks and target volume definitions, (3) functional radiation-induced deterioration, (4) feasibility of flap avoidance. RESULTS: Across the 4 domains, international consensus (median score ≥ 7/9) was achieved only for functional deterioration (73.3%); other consensus rates were 55.6% for poRT avoidance of flap structures, 41.2% for flap definition and 11.1% for tumor spread patterns. Radiation-induced flap fibrosis or atrophy and their functional impact was well recognized while flap necrosis was not, suggesting dose-volume adaptation for the former. Flap avoidance was recommended to minimize bone flap osteoradionecrosis but not soft-tissue toxicity. The need for identification (CT planning, fiducials, accurate operative report) and targeting of the junction area at risk between native tissues and flap was well recognized. Experts variably considered flaps as prone to tumor dissemination or not. Discrepancies in rating of 11 items among international reviewing participants are shown. CONCLUSION: International GORTEC and HNCIG-endorsed recommendations were generated for the management of flaps in head and neck radiotherapy. Considerable knowledge gaps hinder further consensus, in particular with respect to tumor spread patterns.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Consenso , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14352, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to evaluate the early mortality rate and associated factors for early death in oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC) patients. METHODS: Patients with OTSCC were extracted from the SEER database between 2004 and 2014. The early death (survival time≤3 months) rate was calculated, and associated risk factors were evaluated by the logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 7756 patients were analysed and 282 (3.6%) patients died within 3 months after cancer diagnosis, among whom 214 (2.8%) patients died from cancer-specific cause. In univariate analyses, advanced age, divorced/single/widowed (DSW), higher histological grades, black, advanced T stage, advanced N stage, distant metastasis and no surgery were significantly associated with all-causes and cancer-specific early death. Multivariate analyses showed that advanced age, DSW, advanced T stage, advanced N stage, distant metastasis, and no surgery were significantly associated with all-cause and cancer-specific early death. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that a total of 3.6% patients with OTSCC suffered early death. Predictors of early death are primarily related to age older than 60 years, advanced T stage, advanced N stage, distant metastasis and no surgery but also include unmarried status, but better prognostic and predictive tools in larger sample to select early death patients are needed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias da Língua , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias da Língua/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Língua/patologia
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(4): 450-462, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for unresected locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. We aimed to assess if addition of avelumab (anti-PD-L1) to chemoradiotherapy could improve treatment outcomes for this patient population. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, patients were recruited from 196 hospitals and cancer treatment centres in 22 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older, with histologically confirmed, previously untreated, locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, or oral cavity (unselected for PD-L1 status), an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1, and who could receive chemoradiotherapy were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by means of stratified block randomisation with block size four (stratified by human papillomavirus status, tumour stage, and nodal stage, and done by an interactive response technology system) to receive 10 mg/kg avelumab intravenously every 2 weeks plus chemoradiotherapy (100 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy with standard fractionation of 70 Gy [35 fractions during 7 weeks]; avelumab group) or placebo plus chemoradiotherapy (placebo group). This was preceded by a single 10 mg/kg avelumab or placebo lead-in dose given 7 days previously and followed by 10 mg/kg avelumab or placebo every 2 weeks maintenance therapy for up to 12 months. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival by investigator assessment per modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, in all randomly assigned patients. Adverse events were assessed in patients who received at least one dose of avelumab or placebo. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02952586. Enrolment is no longer ongoing, and the trial has been discontinued. FINDINGS: Between Dec 12, 2016, and Jan 29, 2019, from 907 patients screened, 697 patients were randomly assigned to the avelumab group (n=350) or the placebo group (n=347). Median follow-up for progression-free survival was 14·6 months (IQR 8·5-19·6) in the avelumab group and 14·8 months (11·6-18·8) in the placebo group. Median progression-free survival was not reached (95% CI 16·9 months-not estimable) in the avelumab group and not reached (23·0 months-not estimable) in the placebo group (stratified hazard ratio 1·21 [95% CI 0·93-1·57] favouring the placebo group; one-sided p=0·92). The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (57 [16%] of 348 patients in the avelumab group vs 52 [15%] of 344 patients in the placebo group), mucosal inflammation (50 [14%] vs 45 [13%]), dysphagia (49 [14%] vs 47 [14%]), and anaemia (41 [12%] vs 44 [13%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 124 (36%) patients in the avelumab group and in 109 (32%) patients in the placebo group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in two (1%) patients in the avelumab group (due to general disorders and site conditions, and vascular rupture) and one (<1%) in the placebo group (due to acute respiratory failure). INTERPRETATION: The primary objective of prolonging progression-free survival with avelumab plus chemoradiotherapy followed by avelumab maintenance in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was not met. These findings may help inform the design of future trials investigating the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors plus CRT. FUNDING: Pfizer and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Quimiorradioterapia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Padrão de Cuidado
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6003, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727684

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to assess prognostic value of surgery for elderly oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC) patients. Patients with OTSCC were extracted from the SEER database between 2010 and 2014. The distributions of categorical demographic and clinicopathological characteristics were determined for different age groups: the 75-79, 80-84, and 85-102 years old groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effects of each variable on survival. A total of 1064 patients were analyzed. 75-79 years old patients tended to be male and rate of surgery declined with advancing age (P < 0.001). 75-79 years old patients more frequently presented with advanced stage compared to their older peers (P = 0.002). Compared to surgery groups, the hazard ratios for no surgery groups were 2.856 (95% CI 2.267-3.599; (P < 0.001)) for OS and 3.687 (95% CI 2.561-5.308; (P < 0.001)) for CSS in multivariable analysis. In subgroup analysis, the effect of no surgery was significantly associated with a higher risk of poor CSS in patients aged 75-79 years, 80-84 years and 85-102 years (P < 0.001, respectively). Our results showed that there were a series of factors contributing to poor outcomes in the elderly OTSCC patients, including clinicopathological characteristics and surgical management. Surgical resection is significantly associated with an improved OS and CSS, but further exploration in larger prospective clinical trials and better prognostic and predictive tools for select old patients for surgery are needed.


Assuntos
Intervalo Livre de Doença , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Língua/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Língua/cirurgia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(5): e14059, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to assess the clinical manifestations and prognostic value of age on overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) for hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. METHODS: Patients with hypopharynx SCC were extracted from the SEER database between 2004 and 2014. We examined the clinicopathological variables using Chi-squared tests and we evaluated the association between survival and different variables, including age, race, grade, tumour location, T category, N category and surgery therapies to the primary tumour, using the methods of Kaplan-Meier. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effects of each variable on survival. RESULTS: A total of 3702 patients were analysed. The patients aged 25-49 tended to be black and present withN3 and stage IV (P <.01). In multivariate analyses, the patients aged 25-39 had better survival rates, and the risk of death became higher with increasing age. Compared with patients aged 25 to 39 years, the hazard ratios for patients aged 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80-95 years were 1.190 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.584-2.423), 1.156 (95% CI 0.575-2.324), 1.315 (95% CI 0.654-2.642), 1.780 (95% CI 0.884-3.584) and 2.614 (95% CI 1.292-5.288) respectively. Subgroups analysis shows that the effect of advancing age was significantly associated with a higher risk of poor survival in patients who harboured moderately/poorly differentiated (all P <.05), T1-T4a, N0-N2b or stage I-IVa disease (all P <.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Younger patients tended to present with advanced N classification. Increasing age at diagnosis was associated with a significantly higher risk of poorer OS. However, when considering patients affected by more aggressive disease, age was not significantly associated with higher risk of dying from hypopharynx SCC. In high-risk patients, tumour characteristics rather than age should be considered when making treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Humanos , Hipofaringe/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 47(7): 1710-1717, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the optimal threshold of examined lymph node (ELN) number from cervical lymph node dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Further to compare the prognostic value of multiple lymph node classification systems and to determine the most suitable scheme to predict survival. METHODS: A total of 20991 HNSCC patients were included. Odds ratios (ORs) for negative-to-positive node stage migration and hazard ratios (HRs) for survival were fitted using the LOWESS smoother. Structural breakpoints were determined by the Chow test. The R square, C-index, likelihood ratio, and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to compare the prognostic abilities among AJCC N stage, number of positive lymph nodes (pN), positive lymph node ratio (LNR) and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) stages. RESULTS: A minimal threshold ELN number of fifteen had the discriminatory capacities for both stage migration and survival. LODDS stages had the highest R square value (0.208), C-index (0.736) and likelihood ratio (2467) and the smallest AIC value (65874). LODDS stages also showed prognostic value in estimating patients with AJCC N0 stage. A novel staging system was proposed and showed good prognostic performance when stratified by different primary sites. CONCLUSION: Fifteen lymph nodes should be examined for HNSCC patients. LODDS stage allows better prognostic stratification, especially in N0 stage. The proposed staging system may serve as precise evaluation tools to estimate postoperative prognoses.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...