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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 853: 158626, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087680

RESUMO

Fungi in drinking water have been long neglected due to the lack of convenient analysis methods, widely accepted regulations and efficient control strategies. However, in the last few decades, fungi in drinking water have been widely recognized as opportunity pathogens that cause serious damage to the health of immune-compromised individuals. In drinking water treatment plants, fungal spores are more resistant to chlorine disinfection than bacteria and viruses, which can regrow in drinking water distribution systems and subsequently pose health threats to water consumers. In addition, fungi in drinking water may represent an ignored source of taste and odor (T&O). This review identified 74 genera of fungi isolated from drinking water and presented their detailed taxonomy, sources and biomass levels in drinking water systems. The typical pathways of exposure of water-borne fungi and the main effects on human health are clarified. The fungi producing T&O compounds and their products are summarized. Data on free chlorine or monochloramine inactivation of fungal spores and other pathogens are compared. At the first time, we suggested four chlorine-resistant mechanisms including aggregation to tolerate chlorine, strong cell walls, cellular responses to oxidative stress and antioxidation of melanin, which are instructive for the future fungi control attempts. Finally, the inactivation performance of fungal spores by various technologies are comprehensively analyzed. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of fungi distribution and risks in drinking water, provide insight into the chlorine resistance mechanisms of fungal spores and propose approaches for the control of fungi in drinking water.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129195, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739725

RESUMO

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has emerged as a broad-spectrum, safe, and effective disinfectant due to its high oxidation efficiency and reduced formation of organochlorinated by-products during application. This article provides an updated overview of ClO2-based oxidation processes used in water treatment. A systematic review of scientific information and experimental data on ClO2-based water purification procedures is presented. Concerning ClO2-based oxidation derivative problems, the pros and cons of ClO2-based combined processes are assessed and disinfection by-product (DBP) control approaches are proposed. The kinetic and mechanistic data on ClO2 reactivity towards micropollutants are discussed. ClO2 selectively reacts with electron-rich moieties (anilines, phenols, olefins, and amines) and eliminates certain inorganic ions and microorganisms with high efficiency. The formation of chlorite and chlorate during the oxidation process is a crucial concern when utilizing ClO2. Future applications include the combination of ClO2 with ferrous ions, activated carbon, ozone, UV, visible light, or persulfate processes. The combined process can reduce by-product generation while still ensuring ClO2 sterilization and disinfection. Overall, this research could provide useful information and new insights into the application of ClO2-based technologies.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados , Desinfetantes , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfecção/métodos , Óxidos , Purificação da Água/métodos
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 141-150, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725066

RESUMO

UV/peroxymonosulfate (UV/PMS) advanced oxidation process has attracted significant attention for removal of micropollutants in water. However, during practical water treatment applications, the PMS treatment must be performed before the UV treatment to achieve full contact. In this study, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was selected as the target micropollutant. Four different operational approaches, including UV alone, PMS alone, simultaneous UV/PMS and sequential PMS-UV, were compared for their differences in SMX removal and disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potentials during chlorine-driven disinfection. Among the four approaches, UV/PMS and PMS-UV achieved over 90% removal efficiencies for SMX without substantial differences. For raw water, the trichloronitromethane (TCNM) formation potential after treatment with PMS-UV was lower than that after UV/PMS treatment. The time interval over which the PMS-UV process was conducted had little effect on the final removal efficiency for SMX. However, a brief (5 min) pre-PMS treatment significantly reduced the TCNM formation potential and the genotoxicity from DBPs. The formation risk for TCNM during chlorination increased markedly with increasing PMS dosages, and the appropriate dosage under these experimental conditions was suggested to be 0.5-1.0 mmol/L. Under alkaline conditions, PMS-UV treatment can enhance SMX degradation as well as dramatically reduced the formation potentials for haloketones, haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes. This study suggests that proper optimization of UV/PMS processes can remove SMX and reduce its DBP formation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Peróxidos , Sulfametoxazol , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 285-294, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725081

RESUMO

In this study, the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) was systematically evaluated and compared for three treatment processes - (i) chlorination, (ii) monochloramine, and (iii) dichloramination - under different pH conditions. The results demonstrated that I-THM formation decreased in the order of monochloramination > dichloramination > chlorination in acidic and neutral pH. However, the generation of I-THMs increased in the dichloramination < chlorination < monochloramination order in alkaline condition. Specifically, the formation of I-THMs increased as pH increased from 5 to 9 during chlorination and monochloramination processes, while the maximum I-THM formation occurred at pH 7 during dichloramination. The discrepancy could be mainly related to the stability of the three chlor (am) ine disinfectants at different pH conditions. Moreover, in order to gain a thorough insight into the mechanisms of I-THM formation during dichloramination, further investigation was conducted on the influencing factors of DOC concentration and Br-/I- molar ratio. I-THM formation exhibited an increasing and then decreasing trend as the concentration of DOC increased from 1 to 7 mg-C/L, while the yield of I-THMs increased with increasing Br-/I- molar ratio from 5:0 to 5:10. During the three processes mentioned above, similar I-THM formation results were also obtained in real water, which indicates that the excessive generation of I-THMs should be paid special attention during the disinfection of iodide-containing water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Iodetos , Trialometanos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
5.
Water Res ; 219: 118528, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569275

RESUMO

Permanganate (Mn(VII)) is widely used as a mild oxidant in water treatment. However, the reaction rates of some emerging contaminants with Mn(VII) are extremely low. In this study, benzoquinone (BQ), a redox mediator with the important component in dissolved organic matter (DOM), enhanced the oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA) by Mn(VII) in a wide pH range of 4.0-10.0. The redox cycle of BQ would produce semiquinone radicals, which could act as ligands to stabilize the formed Mn(III) in the system to promote the oxidation of BPA. Notably, the presence of BQ might promote the formation of MnO2. A novel mechanism was proposed that singlet oxygen (1O2), Mn(III)-ligands (Mn(III)-L) and in-situ formed MnO2 were the main contributors to accelerate BPA degradation in the Mn(VII)/BQ system. Under acidic conditions, the in-situ formed MnO2 involved in the redox reaction and part of the Mn(IV) was reduced to Mn(III), indicating that the electron transfer of BQ promoted the formation of active Mn species and enhanced the Mn(VII) oxidation performance. Semiquinone radicals generated by BQ transformation would couple with the hydrogen substitution products of BPA to inhibit BPA self-coupling and promote the ring-opening reactions of BPA. Mn(VII)/BQ had better effect in raw water than in pure water, indicating that the Mn(VII)/BQ system has high potential for practical application. This study provided insights into the role of DOM in enhancing the Mn(VII) oxidation in water treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos , 2,5-Dimetoxi-4-Metilanfetamina , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Benzoquinonas , Ligantes , Oxirredução , Fenóis , Quinonas
6.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 2): 135025, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598788

RESUMO

Organic chloramines (OCs) have become one of the research focuses in the field of drinking water treatment due to its limited oxidation and sterilization ability as well as potential cytotoxicity and genetic toxicity to the public. Among widespread OCs, produced by chlorinating cytosine are a typical one exists during chlorine disinfection. OCs degradation during UV, chlorination and UV/chlorine processes were systematically investigated. UV irradiation at 254 nm could effectively degrade OCs by 96.6% after 60 min, mainly because N-Cl bond had significant UV absorption at 250-280 nm leading to the generation of Cl• and HO•. Direct chlorination had poor removal of OCs with the OCs concentration increased first and then decreased as time went by. On the other hand, the removal of OCs during UV/chlorination was much higher than that during chlorination, but was worse than that during UV alone. pH had a minor effect on OCs decomposition via UV irradiation, whereas the effect was pronounced in the chlorination and UV chlorine processes. UV wavelength can affect the degradation of OCs with efficiency decreased in the order of UV 254 > UV 265 > UV 275. The total yields of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the degradation of OCs followed UV/chlorine > UV > chlorination. CH and DCAA were the two dominant types of DBPs among detected 7 DBPs. DBPs yield followed the order of UV254 > UV265 > UV275 at pH 6.0 and 7.0. After UV 265 irradiation, DBPs yield slightly decreased by 2.4%, 3.0% and 6.6% with the pH increased from 6.0 to 9.0. The results can provide theoretical basis for effective control of OCs in drinking water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas/química , Cloro/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 429: 128370, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121291

RESUMO

Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) have drawn increasing concerns due to their higher toxicity than those of their chlorinated and brominated analogues. In this study, I-THM formation was firstly evaluated for three treatment scenarios - (i) chlorine alone, (ii) chloramine alone, and (iii) mixed chlorine/chloramine - in the presence and absence of UV irradiation for the iodide-containing humic acid solution or natural water. The results indicated that I-THM formation decreased in the order of mixed chlorination/chloramination > chloramination > > chlorination, which fitted the trend of toxicity evaluation results using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Conversely, total organic halide concentration decreased in the order of chlorination > > chloramination ≈ mixed chlorination/chloramination. Besides, I-THM formation can be efficiently controlled in a UV-activated mixed chlorine/chloramine system. Influencing factors including pH values and Br-/I- molar ratios were also systematically investigated in a mixed chlorine/chloramine system. Enhanced I-THM formation was observed with increasing pH values (6.0-8.0) and Br-/I- molar ratios (1: 1-10: 1). The results obtained in this study can provide new insights into the increasing risk of I-THM formation in a mixed chlorine/chloramine system and the effective control of I-THMs in the iodide-containing water using UV irradiation.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Animais , Células CHO , Cloraminas , Cloro , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos
8.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131747, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358893

RESUMO

Pyrimidine and purine bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine) are important precursors of organic chloramines (OC) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlor(am)ination. In this study, OC and DBP formation derived from pyrimidine and purine bases during chlor(am)ination, post-chlor(am)ination after pretreated by UV alone and UV/chlorination were systematically investigated with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs, 265 and 275 nm) and low pressure mercury lamp (LPUV, 254 nm). The results revealed that higher OC formation was observed during chlorination than that during chloramination of pyrimidine and purine bases. The degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Both solution pH and UV wavelength played vital influence on the degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases. In terms of fluence-based rate constants (kobs), the degradation rates of pyrimidine and purine bases decreased in the order of 275 nm > 265 nm > 254 nm in alkaline conditions. The synergistic effects of kobs, chlorine,kobs, •OH and kobs, RCS contributed to the differences of pyrimidine and purine bases degradation at different pH values and UV wavelengths. A vital suppression of OC formation was observed during post-chlorination after pretreated by 275 nm UV-LED/chlorination. In addition, compared with LPUV (254 nm), less DBP formation was observed at UV-LED (275 nm), especially during the UV/chlorine process. The phenomena obtained in this study indicated that 275 nm UV-LED combined with chlorine could be a preferred method to promote pyrimidine and purine bases degradation and control OC and DBP formation in practical water treatment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Purinas , Pirimidinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Water Res ; 203: 117549, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419919

RESUMO

Odors and tastes have become universal problems related to drinking water quality. In addition to the typical odor problems caused by algae or microorganisms, the occurrence of odors derived from drinking water disinfection have attracted attention. The chlor(am)ination-derived odor substances have certain toxicity and odor-causing characteristics, and would enter the tap water through water distribution systems, directly affecting drinking water safety and customer experience. This study provided a comprehensive overview of the occurrence, detection, and control of odor substances derived from drinking water chlor(am)ination disinfection. The occurrence and formation mechanisms of several typical types of disinfection derived odor substances were summarized, including haloanisoles, N-chloroaldimines, iodotrihalomethanes, and halophenoles. They are mainly derived from specific precursors such as halophenols, anisoles, and amino acids species during the disinfection or distribution networks. In addition, the change of disinfectant during chlor(am)ination was also one of the causes of disinfection odors. Due to the extremely low odor threshold concentrations (OTCs) of these odor substances, the effective sample pre-enrichment for instrument identification and quantification are essential. The control strategies of odor problems mainly include adsorption, chemical oxidation, and combined processes such as ozonation and biological activated carbon processes (O3/BAC) and ultraviolet-based advanced oxidation processes (UV-AOPs). Finally, the challenges and possible future research directions in this research field were discussed and proposed.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Odorantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130089, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743417

RESUMO

Prometryn is a herbicide that is widely used and frequently detected in aqueous environment and soil. Prometryn is chemically stable, biologically toxic, and easily to accumulate in living bodies, which can cause accumulate in the environment and acute and chronic toxicity to living creatures. In this study, factors affecting the degradation kinetics of prometryn chlorination were studied, including solution pH, bromide and ammonium concentrations, and temperature. Prometryn reacted quickly with aqueous chlorine following the pseudo-first-order kinetics. The maximum pseudo-first-order rate constant (kapp) appeared at pH 5 with the observed rate constant (kobs) as 190. 08 h-1; the minimum value of kapp reached at pH 9 with kobs as 5.26 h-1. The presence of Br- and increase of temperature both accelerated the degradation rate of prometryn during chlorination. The activation energy was calculated as 31.80 kJ/mol. Meanwhile 6 disinfection by-products (DBPs) were detected, namely: chloroform (CF), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), dichloroacetone, trichloronitromethane (TCNM), and trichloroacetone. Solution pH significantly affected the formation and distribution of DBPs. CF was the most formed carbonated DBP (C-DBP) with the maximum of 217.9 µg/L at pH 8, and its formation was significantly higher in alkaline conditions. For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the yields of DCAN and TCAN were significantly higher in acidic conditions, while the maximum of TCNM achieved in neutral conditions. Because the toxicity of N-DBPs is higher than that of C-DBPs, the pH should be controlled in neutral or slight alkaline conditions during prometryn chlorination to effectively control DBP formation and reduce the related toxicity.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Cinética , Prometrina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146340, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744578

RESUMO

A novel light source UV-C laser was applied in persulfate (PS) activation to effectively remove iodinated X-ray contrast medias (ICMs) including iohexol (IOX), iopamidol (IPM) and diatrizoate (DTZ) in this study. Significant ICMs degradation was observed in UV-C laser/PS systems with pseudo first-order rate constants of 0.022-0.067 s-1. Sulfate radicals (SO4•-) were the main active species in the three ICMs degradation, and the steady-state concentrations ([SO4•-]ss) were 3.629 × 10-11 M (IOX), 1.702 × 10-11 M (IPM) and 1.148 × 10-11 M (DTZ), respectively. Under the high intensity of UV-C laser, the optimal reaction efficiency was achieved at pH = 7.0 with PS concentration of 1.0 mM, and the degradation efficiency for IOX reached 93.8% within only 40 s. Both bicarbonate and chloride ions could inhibit the three ICMs degradation and the inhibition rate increased with the increase of ions concentration. The kinetic models were established and the steady-state concentrations of radicals were calculated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with experiments were used to derive the reaction pathways for three ICMs. Cyclic voltammetry measurements detected a lower redox potential peak in IOX degradation, revealing the existence of electron shuttles under the UV-C laser irradiation to promote the redox reaction. This study is the first report of UV-C laser activation of persulfate. It is a new advanced oxidation process mediated by very effective photolysis and active species formation.

12.
Water Res ; 193: 116851, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540343

RESUMO

This study investigated the mechanisms of mixed IO3-/I- system under UV irradiation in drinking water and compared the iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) formation of a mixed IO3-/I- system to that of single I- and IO3- systems during subsequent chloramination. The effects of initial I-/IO3- molar ratio, pH, and UV intensity on a mixed IO3-/I- system were studied. The introduction of I- enhanced the conversion rate of IO3- to reactive iodine species (RIS). Besides, IO3- degradation rate increased with the increase of initial I- concentration and UV intensity and the decrease of pH value. In a mixed IO3-/I- system, IO3- could undergo direct photolysis and photoreduction by hydrated electron (eaq-). Moreover, the enhancement of I-THM formation in a mixed IO3-/I- system during subsequent chloramination was observed. The I-THM yields in a mixed IO3-/I- system were higher than the sum of I-THMs produced in a single IO3- and I- systems at all the evaluated initial I- concentrations and pH values. The difference between I-THM formation in a mixed IO3-/I- system and the sum of I-THMs in a single IO3- and I- systems increased with the increase of initial I- concentration. As the initial pH decreased from 9 to 5, the difference of I-THM yields enhanced, while the total I-THM yield of a mixed IO3-/I- system and single I- and IO3- systems decreased slightly. Besides, IO3--I--containing water with DOC concentration of 2.5-4.5 mg-C/L, which mainly contained humic-acid substances, had a higher risk in I-THMs formation than individual I--containing and IO3--containing water.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Iodatos , Iodetos , Fotólise , Trialometanos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129568, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476791

RESUMO

Iopamidol is a commonly used iodinated X-ray contrast media in medical field, and its residue in water can react with disinfectants to form highly toxic iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs). This study investigated the degradation of iopamidol and formation of DBPs, especially iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs), during ferrate (Fe(VI)) pre-oxidation and subsequent chlor(am)ination under raw water background. It was found that iopamidol degradation efficiency in raw water by Fe(VI) at pH 9 could reach about 80%, which was much higher than that at pH 5 and pH 7 (both about 25%). With Fe(VI) dose increasing, iopamidol removal efficiency increased obviously. During the iopamidol degradation by Fe(VI), IO3- was the dominant product among all the iodine species. After pre-treated by Fe(VI), yields of THM4 and I-THMs can be reduced in subsequent chlor(am)ination. Besides, pH was a crucial factor for Fe(VI) pre-oxidition controlling DBPs. With the pH increasing from 5 to 9, the yield of THM4 kept increasing in subsequent chlorination but showed the highest amount at pH 6 in subsequent chloramination. The yield of I-THMs increased first and then decreased with the increase of pH in both subsequent chlorination and chloramination. I-THM concentrations in chlorinated samples were lower than chloraminated ones under acidic conditions but became higher under neutral and alkaline conditions. The total CTI of THMs during Fe(VI)-chloramination was higher than that during Fe(VI)-chlorination under neutral condition, but sharply decreased under alkaline conditions. In summary, Fe(VI)-chloramination subsequent treatment under alkaline conditions should be an effective method for iopamidol removal and DBP control.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Iopamidol , Ferro , Trialometanos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124373, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153788

RESUMO

In recent years, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation coupled with chlor(am)ination process is ubiquitous in secondary water supply systems in many cities of China. However, the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation in a UV-activated mixed chlorine/chloramine system (MCCS) still remains unclear. In this study, the DBPs formation in a UV-activated MCCS was systematically investigated, considering influencing factors including the mass ratios of free chlorine to NH2Cl, UV irradiation, pH values, NOM types, Br- concentration and toxicity of the DBPs. Results indicated that DBPs formation decreased remarkably as mass ratio of free chlorine to NH2Cl changed from 5:0 to 0:5. The DBPs formation in humic acid (HA)-containing water was the highest, followed by those in fulvic acid (FA) and algal organic matter (AOM). Besides, better control of the DBP-related calculated toxicity can be achieved in acidic conditions regardless of the UV irradiation. Furthermore, in the presence of Br-, a significant reduction of DBPs formation could be achieved in a UV-activated MCCS. The findings also demonstrated that DBPs formation in real water can be effectively reduced at high UV fluence in a MCCS.

15.
Water Res ; 184: 116116, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750585

RESUMO

The conversion mechanisms of chlorine species (including free chlorine, monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine, and total chlorine), nitrogen species (including ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), and nitrite (NO2-)) as well as the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in a UV-activated mixed chlorine/chloramines system in water were investigated in this work. The consumption rates of free chlorine and NH2Cl were significantly promoted in a HOCl/NH2Cl coexisting system, especially in the presence of UV irradiation. Moreover, the transformation forms of nitrogen in both ultrapure and HA-containing waters were considerably affected by UV irradiation and the mass ratio of free chlorine to NH2Cl. NO3- and NO2- can be easily produced under UV irradiation, and the removal efficiency of total nitrogen with UV was obvious higher than that without UV when the initial ratio of HOCl/NH2Cl was less than 1. The roles of different radicals in the degradation of free chlorine, NH2Cl and NH4+ were also considered in such a UV-activated mixed chlorine/chloramines system. The results indicated that OH• was important to the consumption of free chlorine and NH2Cl, and showed negligible influence on the consumption of NH4+. Besides, the changes of DOC and UV254 in HA-containing water in UV-activated mixed chlorine/chloramines system indicated that the removal efficiency of DOC (24%) was much lower than that of UV254 (94%). The formation of DBPs in a mixed chlorine/chloramines system was also evaluated. The yields of DBPs decreased significantly as the mass ratio of HOCl/NH2Cl varied from 1 : 0 to 0 : 1. Moreover, compared to the conditions without UV irradiation, higher DBPs yields and DBP-associated calculated toxicity were observed during the UV-activated mixed chlorine/chloramine process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Nitrogênio
16.
Water Res ; 182: 116035, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574822

RESUMO

The effect of bromide and iodide on the transformation of humic acid (HA) and algal organic matter (AOM), and the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during UV/chlorination were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the halides effectively inhibited mineralization, with multiple changes in organic molecule transformation due to differences in formation and speciation of reactive halogen species and free halogen. As a consequence, bromide and iodide also played important roles in DBP formation. The DBP yields in HA-containing water during UV/chlorination decreased in the order of iodide loaded > freshwater â‰« bromide loaded, whereas DBP formation in AOM-containing water decreased remarkably with halides added (freshwater > bromide loaded â‰« iodide loaded) at high UV fluence. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis exhibited weaker correlation between DBPs and water parameters in AOM-containing water, while DBPs in HA-containing water exhibited better correlation with water parameters. For both simulated waters, the theoretical toxicity was calculated and peaked in bromide-containing water, whereas the calculated toxicity in iodide-containing water was comparable or slightly higher than that in freshwater. Therefore, UV/chlorine treatment may achieve good quality water with reduced DBP-associated toxicity in freshwater or iodide-containing water (iodide only), but careful consideration is needed when purifying source waters containing bromide (bromide only), especially for AOM/bromide-containing water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Brometos , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Iodetos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134942, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710848

RESUMO

This study compared the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by UV/chlorine advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with emerging ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED, 275 nm) and traditional low pressure UV (LPUV, 254 nm) as UV sources. Excitation emission matrix-parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis and two-dimensional (2D) correlation gel permeation chromatograph were applied to explore the evolutions of DOM during oxidation processes. The degradation behaviors of DOM indicated by UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and fluorophores fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics well. The removal efficiency of DOM was similar under UV-LED and LPUV irradiation alone. However, UV-LED exhibited much higher degradation rates (increased by 29-160%) than LPUV regardless of the tracking variables during UV/chlorine processes. For three PARAFAC components, humic-like fluorescences were preferentially degraded by UV/chlorine oxidation compared with protein-like fluorescence potentially due to the differences of electronic moieties and molecular weight (MW). The decline in UV254, DOC, and fluorophores increased with increasing chlorine dosage; linear correlations between those indicators were observed during the two AOPs. Moreover, UV-LED/chlorine could achieve greater extents of MW change. Our study demonstrated that UV-LED could be a superior alternative for the future selection of UV source in the UV/chlorine process.

18.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124761, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546190

RESUMO

The formation and control of haloacetamides (HAcAms) in drinking water have raised high attention due to their high genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, especially the most cytotoxic one, diiodoacetamide (DIAcAm). In this study, the degradation of DIAcAm by UV/chlorination was investigated in terms of degradation kinetics, efficiency, influencing factors, oxidation products and toxicity evaluation. Results revealed that the degradation of DIAcAm by UV/chlorine process followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the rate constant between DIAcAm and OH radicals was determined as 2.8 × 109 M-1 s-1. The contribution of Cl to DIAcAm degradation by UV/chlorine oxidation was negligible. Increasing chlorine dosage and decreasing pH significantly promoted the DIAcAm degradation during UV/chlorine oxidation, but the presence of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and natural organic matter (NOM) inhibited it. The mass balance analysis of iodine species was also evaluated during UV/chlorine oxidation of DIAcAm. In this process, with DIAcAm decreasing from 16.0 to 0.8 µM-I in 20 min, IO3-, I- and HOI/I2 increased from 0 to 6.3, 6.1 and 0.5 µM-I, respectively. The increase of CHO cell viability during DIAcAm degradation indicated that the toxicity of DIAcAm could be decreased by chlorination, UV irradiation and UV/chlorine oxidation treatments, in which UV/chlorine oxidation was more effective on toxicity reduction than chlorination and UV irradiation alone.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cloro/análise , Halogenação , Cinética , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 385: 121618, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791866

RESUMO

With increasing shortage of clean water, rainwater has been considered as a precious alternative drinking water source. The processes applied to rainwater treatment are responsible for the safety of drinking water. Therefore, we systematically compared different disinfection processes to evaluate the control of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation and integrated cyto- and genotoxicity of the treated rainwater for the first time. The evaluated disinfection processes included chlorination and chloramination, pre-oxidation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and potassium ferrate (K2FeO4), ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2), and ultraviolet/persulfate (UV/PS) processes. The results revealed that chloramination was effective for controlling the formation of carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), but not nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs). Compared to KMnO4 pre-oxidation, better reduction of almost all DBPs was observed during K2FeO4 pre-oxidation. According to the calculation of cytotoxicity index (CTI) and genotoxicity index (GTI), cyto- and genotoxicity of the samples decreased obviously at the dosage of ≥ 2.0 mg/L KMnO4 and K2FeO4. The control of the cyto- and genotoxicity of the formed DBPs from the two UV-related AOPs was more effective at the dosage of ≥ 1.0 mM PS and ≥ 5.0 mM H2O2. Moreover, UV/PS was much more powerful to alter the structure of DBP precursors in rainwater.

20.
Water Res ; 160: 296-303, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154127

RESUMO

Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are promising alternatives to conventional low-pressure UV (LPUV) lamps, mainly because they contain no toxic mercury and have a potential for less energy consumption and longer lifetime. In this study, UV sources including UV-LEDs (265, 275 and 285 nm) and LPUV (254 nm) were compared in UV/chlorine degradation of an organic contaminant, ronidazole (RNZ). UV-LED/chlorine performed better than LPUV/chlorine at neutral and alkaline pH values for RNZ degradation considering the fluence-based rate constant. However, the wall plug efficiencies of UV-LEDs are relatively low at present and must reach about 20-25% to achieve the same electrical energy per order as the LPUV in UV/chlorine degradation of RNZ at pH 7.5 and 9. Neither the contribution of radical (HO· or Cl·) nor the quantum yield of chlorine could explain the different RNZ degradation rate by UV/chlorine at different wavelengths and pH values, while the chlorine photolysis rate should be the key factor for these phenomena. The effects of common co-existing substances in real water (chloride, bicarbonate and natural organic matter) on UV/chlorine degradation of RNZ were similar at different UV wavelengths. Opposite to other oxidants or reductants, the molar absorption coefficient of chlorine increases when the UV wavelength increases from 254 to 285 nm at neutral and alkaline pH, which makes UV-LED/chlorine one of the best choices for UV-LED-based advanced oxidation/reduction processes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Ronidazole , Raios Ultravioleta
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