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1.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(8): 776-780, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517460

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the long-term characteristic changes of virus, immune status, and liver fibrosis markers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients after receiving direct-antiviral agents (DAAs). Methods: HIV/HCV co-infected patients who visited the Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University from May 2014 to December 2019 were selected as the research subjects. The changes of virological response rate, peripheral blood CD4(+)T lymphocyte level and serological markers of liver fibrosis (APRI score and FIB-4 index) were observed during 144 weeks of follow-up course after the end of DAAs treatment. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical approach. Results: A total of 103 cases were included in the study. There were 87 males (87.5%), with a median age of 44 years. Sustained virological response rate at 12 weeks (SVR12) after DAAs treatment was 97.6%, and the SVR during the entire follow-up period was at least 95.9%. Compared with baseline, CD4(+)T lymphocyte count were significantly increased equally at 12 weeks (Z = -2.283, P = 0.022), 24 weeks (Z = -3.538, P < 0.001), 48 weeks (Z = -3.297, P = 0.001), 96 weeks (Z = -3.562, P < 0.001), and 144 weeks (Z = -2.842, P = 0.004). APRI score (Z = -6.394, P < 0.001) and FIB-4 index (Z = -2.528, P = 0.011) were significantly lower than baseline at week 4 of DAAs treatment, and thereafter remained at a low level, without further declination. Conclusion: HIV/HCV co-infected patients can maintain high SVR for a long time, acquire good immune reconstitution, and significantly improve liver fibrosis after DAAs treatment.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 26(7): 495-498, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317770

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the combined effects of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) infection on the cause of death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The causes of death of 111 cases of AIDS with HBV/HCV (combined infection group) and 210 AIDS patients (single infection group) admitted to our hospital from 2012 to 2016 data were compared using chi-square test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in gender composition and age in the combined infection groups (P > 0.05). The main causes of death in the combined infection group were severe pneumonia (44.1%), end-stage liver disease (18.9%), and central nervous system infection (14.4%). The main causes of death in the single infection group were severe pneumonia (47.6%) and central nervous system infection (14.3%) and tumor (13.3%). There was no case of end-stage liver disease. The ratio of end-stage liver disease in the former group was significantly higher than that in the latter group (χ(2) = 42.511, P < 0.001). The main cause of death in 12 HIV/HBV/HCV triple-infected patients was end-stage liver disease, accounting for 41.7%, which was significantly higher than 18.9% of end-stage liver disease in HIV/HBV or HIV/HCV dual infection (99 cases). And the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 4.539, P = 0.033); however, the ratio of end-stage liver disease in 50 HIV/HBV co-infected patients and 49 HIV/HCV co-infected patients was 16.0% vs. 16.3%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (χ(2) = 0.002, P = 0.965). In the co-infected group, 36 patients had CD4(+) cell counts >100/µl, the primary cause of death was end-stage liver disease, accounting for 38.2%. 75 patients with CD4(+) ≤ 100/µl died due to end-stage liver disease, accounting for 9.3% and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 13.852, P < 0.05). Conclusion: End-stage liver disease is the main cause of death in patients with AIDS combined with HBV or HCV, especially triplet infection and CD4(+) cell count > 100/µl. An early diagnosis and treatment of HBV or HCV infection should commence as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Hepatite B/mortalidade , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Infecções por HIV , Humanos
3.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 26(4): 282-287, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996340

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the optimal duration of pegylated-alpha interferon (Peg-INFα) combined with ribavirin (RBV) in treating chronic hepatitis C infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Methods: A multicenter prospective study was conducted. The study subjects were divided into two groups; HIV/HCV co-infections (Group A, n = 158) and control with HCV-monoinfections (Group B, n = 60). All recruited patients received standard Peg-INFα plus RBV therapy. Group A was divided into 3 subgroups according to CD4(+) cell counts: A1 subgroup, 79 cases, CD4(+) counts > 350 cells /µl, who received anti-HCV before combination antiretroviral therapy(cART); A2 subgroup, 45 cases, CD4(+) counts between 200 and 350 cells/µl, who did not start anti-HCV until they could tolerate cART well; A3 subgroup, 34 cases, CD4(+) counts < 200 cells /µl, cART was administered first, and anti-HCV therapy was started when CD4(+) counts > 200 cells/µl. The anti-HCV efficacy of two groups and 3 subgroups were compared. Statistical analysis for normal distribution and homogeneity of variance data was calculated by t-test and the counting data was analyzed by χ (2) test. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for non-normal data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the comparison of multiple groups, followed by SNK method. Multiple independent samples were used for non-parametric tests. Results: There was no significant difference in age and baseline HCV RNA levels between groups and subgroups (P > 0.05). By an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis, in Group A, the ratio of complete early virological response (cEVR) rate was 75.3% (119/158), the ratio of end of treatment virological response (eTVR) rate was 68.4% (108/158), and the ratio of sustained virological response (SVR) rate was 48.7% (77/158); in Group B, the ratio of cEVR rate was 93.3% (56/60), the ratio of eTVR rate was 90.0% (54/60), and the ratio of SVR rate was 71.7% (43/60); The therapeutic index of Group A were lower than those of Group B (P≤0.05). By per-protocol (PP) analysis, the ratio of cEVR rate in Group A [75.2% (88/112)] was still lower than that in Group B [93.3% (56/60)], but no significant differences were found in the ratio of eTVR rate and SVR rate between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Comparing the efficacy of subgroups (A1, A2 and A3) by ITT analysis, the ratios of cEVR rate were respectively 78.5% (62/79), 75.6% (34/45) and 67.6% (23/34); the ratios of eTVR rate were respectively 68.4%(54/79), 80.0%(36/45)and 52.9%(18/34); and the ratios of SVR rate were respectively 41.8%(33/79), 64.4%(29/45)and 44.1%(15/34). The ratio of eTVR in subgroup A2 was obviously higher than that in subgroup A3 and the ratio of SVR in subgroup A2 was statistically higher than that of subgroup A1(P≤0.05). However, by PP analysis, no significant differences of the therapeutic indexes were found among the respective subgroups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: HIV-HCV co-infected patients would have better anti-HCV efficacy with Peg-INFα-2a plus RBV than HCV- monoinfected patients. The best time for initiating anti-HCV therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients is when CD4(+) counts 200 cells/ µl.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 37(6): 1099-1102, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536323

RESUMO

Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) can cause talaromycosis, a fatal systemic mycosis, in patients with AIDS. With the increasing number of talaromycosis cases in Guangdong, China, we aimed to investigate the susceptibility of 189 T. marneffei clinical strains to eight antifungal agents, including three echinocandins (anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin), four azoles (posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and fluconazole), and amphotericin B, with determining minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) by Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 assay in the yeast phase. The MICs of anidulafungin, micafungin, caspofungin, posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B were 2 to > 8 µg/ml, >8 µg/ml, 2 to > 8 µg/ml, ≤ 0.008 to 0.06 µg/ml, ≤ 0.015 to 0.03 µg/ml, ≤ 0.008 to 0.06 µg/ml, 1 to 32 µg/ml, and ≤ 0.12 to 1 µg/ml, respectively. The MICs of all echinocandins were very high, while the MICs of posaconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole, as well as amphotericin B were comparatively low. Notably, fluconazole was found to have a higher MIC than other azoles, and exhibited particularly weak activity against some isolates with MICs over 8 µg/ml. Our data in vitro support the use of amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole in management of talaromycosis and suggest potential resistance to fluconazole.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Equinocandinas/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Talaromyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Anidulafungina , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Micafungina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Talaromyces/isolamento & purificação , Talaromyces/fisiologia , Voriconazol/farmacologia
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 97(45): 3529-3533, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275589

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the features of cognitive impairment and potential physiopathologic mechanism using neuropsychological assessment and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA). Methods: A total of 13 patients with LA (LA group) and 13 healthy controls (NC group) from Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital between January and June 2016 were recruited. The two groups were matched for age, sex, education, and vascular risk factors. All the subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment and the scan of rs-fMRI. The neuropsychological scores and the brain areas had significant differences of cerebral spontaneous activity in resting state of the two groups were compared, and the relationship between the scores and the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) were evaluated in these areas. Results: LA group was associated with comprehensive cognitive impairment, including minimum mental state examination (MMSE) (LA group: 23.3±10.7 vs NC group: 29.7±0.6), montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) (22.7±10.7 vs 29.5±0.7), digit span test (DS) forwards (6.5±3.2 vs 8.7±1.1) and backwards (4.2±2.2 vs 6.2±0.9), trail making test (TMT) part A (168±136 vs 47±10), immediate memory (6.1±3.5 vs 11.0±2.2) and delayed memory (4.7±2.8 vs 11.0±2.4) of auditory verbal learning test (AVLT), Stroop B (60±34 vs 32±7) and C (127±72 vs 48±12), verbal similarity test (16.5±8.1 vs 23.1±2.5) (all P<0.05). Compared with the NC group, patients with LA showed decreased ALFF in areas of the right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus_R, cuneus, postcentral_R, precentral_R, calcarine_R (all P<0.05). After adjustment for the influences of age, sex and education, the correlation analysis showed that right PCC, precuneus_R, cuneus, postcentral_R, etc, were closely related with cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Patients with LA exhibits significant cognitive impairment, such as executive function, memory, attention and information processing speed. And cognitive impairment of LA is related to abnormal cerebral spontaneous activity, especially in areas of right PCC, precuneus_R, cuneus, etc.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Leucoaraiose/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
6.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(4)2016 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27966738

RESUMO

Trichomes are derived from the epidermis and constitute an ideal system for studying cell division in plants. Here, a Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) line (FT) without trichomes was crossed with another DH line (PurDH-1) with trichomes to develop an F2 population for fine mapping of trichome control genes. Genetic analysis showed that the trichome phenotype was controlled by a single dominant gene, Brtri1. Using 1226 glabrous individuals in the F2 segregation population, Brtri1 was localized to a 16.84 kb region between markers Pur6-31 and Pur6-39 on chromosome A06. One of the four complete open reading frames within the mapping region, Bra025311, encodes a MYB transcription factor and is highly homologous to the trichome regulatory gene GL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was thus regarded as a candidate gene for Brtri1. Comparative sequencing showed a 5-bp deletion in the third exon of Bra025311 in FT, resulting in a frame-shift mutation. No expression of Bra025311 was detected in FT. A co-dominant indel marker close to this mutation site was developed for marker-assisted selection in Chinese cabbage breeding.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA de Plantas/análise , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Marcadores Genéticos , Haploidia , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tricomas/genética
7.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 24(3): 181-5, 2016 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-INF-α) combined with ribavirin in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) who failed prior standard interferon therapy. METHODS: A prospective study was performed to analyze HCV RNA load, liver function, and CD4+ count at weeks 0 (baseline), 12, 24, and 48 of treatment and at 24 weeks after drug discontinuation in 20 patients co-infected with HIV and HCV who failed standard interferon therapy and were then treated with PEG-INF-αand ribavirin. RESULTS: Among the 20 patients, 14 were infected with HCV genotype 1b, 3 with HCV genotype 2a, and 3 failed sequencing. At baseline, the mean CD4(+)count, mean CD8(+)count, and mean CD4(+)/CD8(+)ratio were 406.45 ± 210.83 cells/ml, 1 076.45 ± 716.18 cells /ml, and 0.43 ± 0.17, respectively; the mean HCV RNA load was 6.01 ± 1.13 log10IU/ml; 12 patients (60%) had abnormal liver function. A total of 14 patients (70%) achieved complete early virologic response, 15 (75%) achieved end-of-treatment virologic response, 7 (35%) achieved sustained virologic response (SVR), and 8 (40%) experienced recurrence. The incidence rate of drug-related adverse events during the treatment was 50% (10/20); no serious adverse events occurred, and no patient withdrew from the treatment due to adverse events. At week 48, both CD4(+)and CD8(+)counts of all patients declined significantly compared with the baseline values (P= 0.001 and 0.001), but the CD4(+)/CD8(+)ratio increased significantly (P= 0.032). The SVR group had a significantly lower mean baseline HCV RNA load than the non-SVR group (4.95 ± 1.18 log10IU/ml vs 6.59 ± 0.53 log10IU/ml,t= 3.49,P= 0.009). CONCLUSION: In the patients co-infected with HIV and HCV who failed standard interferon therapy, PEG-INF-αcombined with ribavirin has good efficacy and safety, and the patients with a low baseline HCV RNA load are more likely to achieve SVR.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Coinfecção , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/sangue , Recidiva , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Padrão de Cuidado , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
8.
Scand J Immunol ; 83(6): 438-44, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26972443

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to accumulate during chronic viral infection, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and play a critical role in suppressing immune responses. However, the role of MDSCs in HIV/HCV coinfection is unclear. Here, we observed a dramatic increase in monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) level in the peripheral blood of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients compared to that of healthy controls; the level of M-MDSCs proportion in coinfection was not higher than that in HIV or HCV monoinfection. Interestingly, we found the M-MDSCs level in coinfected patients correlated well with CD4(+) T cell loss (r = -0.5680; P = 0.0058), HIV-1 load (r = 0.6011; P = 0.0031), HCV load (r = 0.6288; P = 0.0017) and activated CD38(+) T cells (r = 0.5139; P = 0.0144). Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy considerably reduced both M-MDSCs and CD8(+) CD38(+) -activated T cell proportion in coinfected patients, and they showed a parallel course of decline. Thus, our results suggest that HIV-1 infection and high chronic immune activation may contribute to the expansion of M-MDSCs and accelerate the disease progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , China , Coinfecção , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J STD AIDS ; 27(10): 890-7, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26384940

RESUMO

This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HIV-infected adults at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2793 HIV-infected adults were enrolled between January 2004 and September 2011. Demographic data and laboratory parameters were collected, HBV-DNA levels were measured, and HBV genotypes were identified before ART initiation. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HIV-infected patients was 13.2%. A total of 266 HIV/HBV co-infected patients and 1469 HIV mono-infected patients were recruited. The median alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels of HIV/HBV co-infected patients were higher than HIV mono-infected patients (32 U/L vs. 22 U/L, p < 0.001 and 35 U/L vs. 24 U/L, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas the median CD4 cell count of HIV/HBV co-infected patients was lower than HIV mono-infected patients (59 cells/mm(3) vs. 141 cells/mm(3), p < 0.001). The level of CD4 cell count was lower in hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive co-infected patients than HBeAg-negative patients (36 cells/mm(3) vs. 69 cells/mm(3), p = 0.014). A similar result was found in high level of HBV-DNA and low level of HBV-DNA groups (33 cells/mm(3) vs. 89 cells/mm(3), p < 0.001). HBV genotypes were classified as genotypes B and C. Patients infected with genotypes B and C differed significantly in terms of proportion of those who were HBeAg-positive (40.5% vs. 62.2%, p = 0.014). This study indicates a high prevalence of HBsAg in HIV-infected adults in Guangdong. The level of CD4 cell count in HIV/HBV co-infected patients was much lower than HIV mono-infected patients, especially in patients who were HBeAg-positive and had a high level of HBV-DNA. The predominant HBV genotype in HIV/HBV co-infected patients is genotype B.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Eur J Neurol ; 23(3): 621-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26563553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim was to analyse the clinical profiles and outcomes of patients with anti- N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis in China. METHODS: A retrospective study of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in China was performed between June 2011 and June 2014. The clinical characteristics and predictors of poor outcome were determined. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients with a definitive diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis were included in this study. Four of them were surgically confirmed to have a neoplasm. Thirty-two patients, amongst whom 24 were female, presented with psychiatric disorder as the initial symptom, whereas 14 patients, of whom nine were male, presented with seizure as the initial symptom (P = 0.011). Twenty-nine patients (56.86%) were initially misdiagnosed with psychosis, viral encephalitis or other diseases, and 58.8% of the patients experienced at least one type of complication. It typically took 3 weeks before these patients were admitted to our hospital and another 2 weeks before the correct diagnosis was made. Forty-one patients (80%) reached a good outcome; 10 patients (20%) had a poor outcome. Older age, extended hospital stay, memory deficits, decreased consciousness, central hypoventilation, complications and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid results were associated with poor outcome (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Female patients more frequently initially present with psychiatric disorder but male patients more frequently initially present with seizure. Patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in China have a lower incidence of neoplasm. Nevertheless, this study reveals several challenges in treating anti-NMDAR encephalitis in China that may contribute to poor outcome.


Assuntos
Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/diagnóstico , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/terapia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Plant Dis ; 99(3): 417, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699716

RESUMO

The climbing vine, Vitis heyneana Roem. & Schult, is a member of the grape family endemic to Asia. Its fruits are used in wine production, and its roots, stems, and leaves can be used in medicinal materials. This plant is grown in Southwest China, as well as in India, Bhutan, and Nepal. Mulao Autonomous County in Guangxi Province is the only artificial cultivation area in China. During the summer of 2013, a panicle blight and leaf spot were detected on V. heyneana on four farms in Mulao Autonomous County. The symptoms were observed from the onset of florescence through fruit harvest. Brown lesions initially appeared at the base of a panicle and then extended to the whole panicle, finally causing the panicle to die and fruit to drop. When the disease developed on leaves, the symptom initially appeared as small dark brown circular spots, later enlarging into irregular spots (average diameter 6 mm) with a light brown center and dark brown rim. With severe disease, some individual leaves were affected by numerous spots, leading to premature senescence. Small sections of diseased tissue excised from 10 panicle and 10 leaf samples were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 28°C. Fungal colonies developed, initially with abundant white aerial mycelium, which turned olivaceous gray after 5 days and formed black pycnidia after 25 days. The conidia were hyaline, ellipsoidal to fusiform, externally smooth, thin-walled, and nonseptate. Thirty conidia were measured; the dimensions were 12.0 to 17.5 × 4.0 to 6.0 µm. Morphological characteristics of the isolates were similar to the descriptions of Neofusicoccum parvum (3). The isolate MPT-1 was selected as a representative for molecular identification. Genomic DNA was extracted and used for PCR to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) gene, using primers ITS1/ITS4 and EF1-728F/EF1-986R, respectively. The obtained ITS sequence (GenBank Accession No. KJ599627) and EF1-α sequence (KM921768) showed >99% homology with several GenBank sequences of N. parvum. Morphological and molecular results confirmed the isolate as N. parvum. For pathogenicity tests, detached, young healthy panicles and leaves of V. heyneana were surface-sterilized, wounded by sterile needle, and inoculated with mycelial plugs (3 mm in diameter) of four N. parvum isolates. Ten panicles and 10 leaves were used for every isolate. Control panicles and leaves were treated with sterile PDA plugs. All the samples were placed in a humid chamber (RH 90%, 28°C, 12 h of light) for 3 days. Symptoms similar to those observed in the field developed on all panicles and leaves inoculated with N. parvum isolates. N. parvum was reisolated from all inoculated, symptomatic tissues. The controls remained symptomless. N. parvum has been reported to cause trunk canker on V. vinifera (2), dieback on Cupressus funebris (3), and a leaf spot on Myristica fragrans (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. parvum causing panicle blight and leaf spot on V. heyneana in China. Panicle blight caused a large number of fruits to drop and reduced the yield seriously. Some effective measures should be taken to control this disease. References: (1) V. Jayakumar et al. New Dis. Rep. 23:19, 2011. (2) J. Kaliternam et al. Plant Dis. 97:1656, 2013. (3) S. B. Li et al. Plant Dis. 94:641, 2010.

12.
Plant Dis ; 97(12): 1659, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716840

RESUMO

Akebia species have been used for centuries in medicinal practices in a few Asian countries such as China and Japan. The dried stems of Akebia trifoliata are known as mutong in the Chinese pharmacopoeia (4) and mokutsu in Kampo, the traditional Chinese medicine developed in Japan (2). In China, the plant is grown in the provinces of Shandong, Hebei, Shanxi, Henan, Gansu, and some provinces in the south of the Yangtze River basin. During the summer of 2012, a leaf spot disease was detected on A. trifoliata grown in Nanning, Guangxi, China. The disease occurred and spread rapidly in July under conditions of high temperature and high humidity. The symptoms appeared on three sites that we inspected; disease incidences were higher than 80%. Initial symptoms consisted of small (less than 5 mm in diameter), circular, purple-brown leaf spots. Spots later enlarged and became elliptical, circular, or irregular with gray-white centers and dark brown rims. The centers were slightly concave. The spots could coalesce with each other, resulting in leaf desiccation and wilting. A fungal isolate was obtained from symptomatic leaf tissue that taken from a field (22°50'N, 108°22'E) in Nanning, Guangxi, China. Single-spore culture of the isolate was incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days in the dark at 28°C. Conidiophores were straight to slightly curved, unbranched, and pale brown. Conidia (19.0 to 140.5 µm long and 7.0 to 11.0 µm wide) were formed singly or in chains, obclavate to cylindrical, straight or curved, pale brown, with a rounded apex and truncate base, and 1 to 13 pseudosepta. Morphological characteristics of the isolate were similar to the descriptions of Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei (1). Genomic DNA of the isolate was extracted and used for PCR amplification of rDNA-ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequence with primers ITS1 and ITS4. The PCR products were purified and sequenced. The sequence (GenBank Accession No. KC977496) was used in BLAST searches to interrogate GenBank for sequence similarity. High sequence similarity of 100% was obtained with several C. cassiicola strains. Pathogenicity of the isolate was investigated to demonstrate Koch's postulate. Young, healthy, fully expanded green leaves of A. trifoliata were surface sterilized. Fifteen leaves were inoculated with 10-µl drops of conidia suspension (105 conidia per ml) and 10 leaves were inoculated with the same volume of sterile water to serve as controls. All the leaves were placed in a humid chamber for 5 days. Spots with similar symptoms to those observed in the field developed on all inoculated leaves. The pathogen was reisolated and identified as C. cassiicola. The controls remained symptomless. According to previous reports, A. trifoliata was infected by Alternaria tenuissima in China and by Colletotrichum acutatum in Japan (3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. cassiicola found on Akebia species worldwide. Furthermore, this new disease primarily affects plantations and reduces the quality and yield of the medicine. Some effective measures should be taken to control this disease. References: (1) M. B. Ellis and P. Holliday. CMI Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, 303, 1971. (2) F. Kitaoka et al. J. Nat. Med. 63:374, 2009. (3) Y. Kobayshi et al. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 70:295, 2004. (4) L. Li et al. HortScience 45:4, 2010.

13.
Eur J Neurol ; 18(2): 362-4, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20491893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dopa-responsive dystonia has been shown to be caused by a number of different mutations in the GCH1 gene. Up to now, only several genetic studies of Chinese patients with Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) have been reported. METHODS: We performed a genetic analysis by amplifying the entire coding region of GCH1 gene and direct sequencing in four DRD families from mainland China. RESULTS: A novel missense mutation, Gly155Ser, has been identified in a sporadic case from a consanguineous marriage family. Furthermore, two known mutations, Met137Arg and Gly203Arg, have also been detected in the other families. CONCLUSIONS: A novel missense mutation in the GCH1 gene can be associated with DRD. Our findings further expanded the mutational spectrum of GCH1 gene associated with DRD.


Assuntos
GTP Cicloidrolase/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Criança , China , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Neurol ; 18(5): 778-83, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21138504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The transcription factor Pitx3 plays a crucial role in the development and survival of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, especially the mDA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The degeneration of these neurons is the pathological hallmark in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several polymorphisms of the Pitx3 gene have been linked with sporadic and early-onset forms of PD, but different studies have given conflicting or inconsistent findings. Amongst the polymorphisms studied, the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3758549, located in the promoter region of Pitx3 gene, is one of the most well-studied but also one of the most controversial. In order to explore the nature of this association in greater detail and in a new ethnic group, we carried out a case-control study of the SNP rs3758549. METHODS: A total of 316 patients with sporadic PD and 305 healthy controls, from two centers in mainland China, were analyzed in our study. The genotypes at rs3758549 were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. And we also analyzed the association between genotype and phenotype. RESULT: Our data showed a significant association between the rs3758549 polymorphism and PD (P = 0.012, OR = 1.50, 95%CI: 1.15-1.96). Furthermore, allele T of SNP rs3758549 was significantly more frequent in early-onset PD than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the SNP rs3758549 (C >T substitution) in the Pitx3 gene is a potential risk for sporadic PD, especially early-onset PD in Chinese Han population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Química Encefálica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/etnologia
15.
Epilepsy Behav ; 19(3): 405-8, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20833111

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) and the HLA-B*1502 allele among patients from central China. Eight patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), 28 with mild maculopapular eruptions (MPEs), 50 CBZ-tolerant controls, and 71 healthy volunteers were recruited. HLA genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (SBT) method. As a result, the HLA-B*1502 allele was observed at the following rates: (1) 100% (8/8) among those with CBZ-induced SJS/TEN, (2) 10.7% (3/28) among those with CBZ-induced MPEs; (3) 8.0% (4/50) among CBZ-tolerant controls; (4) 8.5% (6/71) among healthy volunteers. The eight patients with SJS/TEN positive for the HLA-B*1502 allele had an odds ratio (OR) of 184 compared with CBZ-tolerant controls. There was no significant difference in frequency between patients with MPEs and CBZ-tolerant controls (P>0.05). Thus, CBZ-induced SJS/TEN, but not MPEs, is strongly associated with HLA-B*1502. Testing for HLA-B*1502 should be recommended for patients from central China prior to initial CBZ treatment.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Carbamazepina/efeitos adversos , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Pré-Escolar , China , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Neurol ; 17(12): 1476-8, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20528910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have been implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, recent screenings for GBA mutations in PD subjects from different ethnic populations have yielded contradictory results. METHODS: We performed a case-control study to look for a possible association between PD and the GBA N370S allele involving 628 subjects in two separate Chinese Han populations from mainland China. All subjects were successfully genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: A total of six patients with PD and two control subjects carried the N370S allele. Although PD cases (1.8%) had an increased frequency of N370S compared to controls (0.7%), the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.290). However, when PD cases were stratified by age at onset, a higher frequency of N370S in late-onset PD (LOPD) cases (3.2%) compared to controls was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the N370S allele might be associated with LOPD in Chinese Han population and that this phenomenon should be further examined in a larger study.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 479(1): 31-3, 2010 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20478361

RESUMO

Recent studies have implicated polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs356165 is one of polymorphisms located in the 3'UTR and its association with PD has been reported but remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a case-control study to further evaluate the possible association between SNP rs356165 and PD in Chinese. All subjects (330 PD patients and 300 normal controls) were successfully genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. No statistically significant difference in genotype frequency between cases and controls was observed (P=0.863), suggesting no association of SNP rs356165 with PD in our population. Thus, it may be premature to conclude an association between the 3'UTR of the SNCA gene and PD, and this association should be further examined in different ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 100(7): 4050-4, 2003 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12642667

RESUMO

Annual and perennial habit are two major strategies by which grasses adapt to seasonal environmental change, and these distinguish cultivated cereals from their wild relatives. Rhizomatousness, a key trait contributing to perenniality, was investigated by using an F(2) population from a cross between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its wild relative, Oryza longistaminata. Molecular mapping based on a complete simple sequence-repeat map revealed two dominant-complementary genes controlling rhizomatousness. Rhz3 was mapped to the interval between markers OSR16 [1.3 centimorgans (cM)] and OSR13 (8.1 cM) on rice chromosome 4 and Rhz2 located between RM119 (2.2 cM) and RM273 (7.4 cM) on chromosome 3. Comparative mapping indicated that each gene closely corresponds to major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling rhizomatousness in Sorghum propinquum, a wild relative of cultivated sorghum. Correspondence of these genes in rice and sorghum, which diverged from a common ancestor approximately 50 million years ago, suggests that the two genes may be key regulators of rhizome development in many Poaceae. Many additional QTLs affecting abundance of rhizomes in O. longistaminata were identified, most of which also corresponded to the locations of S. propinquum QTLs. Convergent evolution of independent mutations at, in some cases, corresponding genes may have been responsible for the evolution of annual cereals from perennial wild grasses. DNA markers closely linked to Rhz2 and Rhz3 will facilitate cloning of the genes, which may contribute significantly to our understanding of grass evolution, advance opportunities to develop perennial cereals, and offer insights into environmentally benign weed-control strategies.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Magnoliopsida/genética , Oryza/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tempo
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 86(12): 5981-7, 2001 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11739473

RESUMO

Progesterone and its 5 alpha reduced metabolite, 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, rise greatly in pregnancy. Both are known to have anesthetic properties, as do a number of other ring A-reduced progesterone metabolites. The possible significance of these steroids with respect to the mood changes that are common in pregnancy and in the puerperium has not been explored. In this study, pregnenolone, progesterone, and five neuroactive progesterone metabolites: the 5 alpha and 5 beta dihydroprogesterones (DHP), and three tetrahydroprogesterones (THP)-3 alpha,5 alpha-THP, 3 beta,5 beta-THP, and 3 beta,5 alpha-THP-were studied at various stages of pregnancy and in the early postpartum period. Levels of all of the steroids rose greatly during pregnancy (P < 0.001), being highest for progesterone (562-fold the follicular level), 5 alpha-DHP (161-fold), 3 beta,5 alpha-THP (56-fold), 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP (37-fold), pregnenolone (30-fold), 5 beta-DHP (16-fold) and 3 beta,5 beta-THP (16-fold) at 37 wk of gestation. During the period 2-7 d postpartum, the level of progesterone fell precipitously, whereas those of pregnenolone and the metabolites fell more slowly and mean levels were still elevated compared with follicular levels 2 wk after delivery. By 7 wk postpartum, only 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone and 3 beta,5 beta-tetrahydroprogesterone remained slightly elevated (P < or = 0.012 and 0.007, respectively). Mean levels of the progesterone metabolites tended to be higher in depressed patients compared with controls, and this difference reached significance for 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone both at 27 wk (P = 0.04) and at 37 wk (P = 0.02) of gestation (combined, P = 0.003). These results show that all five of these metabolites rise markedly during pregnancy and suggest that alterations in progesterone metabolites may be involved in the mood changes of pregnancy and the puerperium.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Depressão/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/psicologia , Pregnanodionas/sangue , Progesterona/metabolismo , 5-alfa-Di-Hidroprogesterona , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Pregnenolona/metabolismo
20.
AIDS Care ; 13(2): 191-6, 2001 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11304424

RESUMO

Two questionnaire surveys about satisfaction with hospital services were carried out among HIV-infected people in Flanders. In a first survey (CIRCA '93 study) between 1993 and 1995, before highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was available, questionnaires were distributed by HIV treatment centres, general practitioners and HIV support organizations: 315 people with HIV infection completed the questionnaire. The level of patient satisfaction was generally higher with services at university hospitals than at general hospitals. Most patients preferred to be hospitalized in a ward specialized in HIV care. Contact with other HIV-infected patients was generally experienced as supportive. The second survey included 34 patients with HIV-infection and 83 patients with lung disease. They were admitted to the same ward at the Antwerp University Hospital, between July 1996 and July 1997. Patients with HIV infections were expecting more services than patients with lung disease. Both studies showed that HIV-infected patients wanted to be actively involved in diagnostic and treatment decisions. The multidisciplinary approach, offered by the Antwerp University Hospital, was widely appreciated by patients and could be used as an example for organizing patient care for other diseases.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/normas , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Bélgica , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pneumopatias/psicologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
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