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1.
Cardiology ; : 1-12, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical condition of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and concomitant systemic hypertension is growing more and more prevalent, and it brings about a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. However, whether systemic hypertension has an impact on HOCM, and whether sex-related differences exist in this impact, remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 453 HOCM patients (age 48.7 ± 12.8 years, 252 [55.6%] males) were recruited in this study. There were 150 patients (33.1%, 81 males and 69 females) with a history of controlled systemic hypertension. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was performed in all patients. Left ventricular (LV) remodeling index (LVRI) was determined by CMR. LVRI >1.3 g/mL was defined as pathological LV remodeling. RESULTS: Men had significantly greater LVRI (1.40 ± 0.54 vs. 1.15 ± 0.38 g/mL, p < 0.001) and LVRI >1.3 g/mL (p = 0.002), compared with women. The incidence of syncope and 5-year sudden cardiac death risk score were significantly lower in HOCM with hypertension than those without hypertension. LVRI (p = 0.003) and LVRI >1.3 g/mL (p = 0.007) were significantly smaller in males with hypertension, but not in females with hypertension. However, log cardiac troponin I and log N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were positively correlated with LVRI in men and women. On multivariable logistic analysis, hypertension (OR 0.172, 95% CI 0.056-0.528, p = 0.002) remained an independent determinant of pathological LV remodeling in males, whereas not in females. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant sex differences in the impact of systemic hypertension on LV remodeling in patients with HOCM. Controlled systemic hypertension may contribute to improving LV remodeling in male patients with HOCM, but not in females.

2.
Heart Vessels ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907598

RESUMO

As highly sensitive and specific markers of myocardial damage, cardiac troponins were demonstrated to correlate with clinical parameters of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the relationship between cardiac troponins and presence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy remains unclear. The aim of our study was to explore the association between serum cardiac troponin I (cTNI) and presence of NSVT in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). A total of 309 HOCM patients were enrolled in our study. All participants underwent clinical evaluations, including collections of medical history, blood tests, 24-h Holter monitoring, echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. There were 53 (17.2%) patients with NSVT and 256 patients without it. Compared to patients without NSVT, serum cTNI (P < 0.001) and plasma NT-proBNP (P = 0.042) were significantly higher in patients with NSVT. Moreover, cTNI and NT-proBNP were positively correlated with left atrial diameter, maximum wall thickness (MWT), left ventricular volume index and left ventricular mass index. In multivariable logistic analysis, log cTNI [odds ratio (OR) = 2.408, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.108-5.325, P = 0.027], left ventricular end-diastole diameter (OR = 0.922, 95%CI 0.856-0.994, P = 0.034), MWT (OR = 1.131, 95%CI 1.035-1.235, P = 0.006) and left ventricular end-systole volume index (OR = 1.060, 95%CI 1.025-1.096, P = 0.001) were independent determinants of NSVT occurrence after adjustment for potential cofounders. Serum cTNI level was elevated in patients with NSVT. And it was independently associated with NSVT in patients with HOCM. Our results suggest that it may be more reasonable for HOCM patients with elevated serum cTNI to extend the time of Holter monitoring.

3.
Heart Vessels ; 35(1): 78-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250132

RESUMO

Lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) contributes to fibrosis in patients with myocardial infarction. However, the role of LMVD in the process of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) patients is unclear. We studied LMVD in ventricular septal (VS) samples from 52 individuals (42 was HOCM patients who underwent a transaortic extended septal myectomy, and 10 traffic accident victims), and examined the relationships between the LMVD stained immunohistochemically with lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) antibodies, collagen volume fraction (CVF), and clinical characteristics. Compared with traffic accident victims, LMVD was significantly increased in VS of HOCM patients (132.0 ± 49.0 VS 57.8 ± 48.8/mm2, p = 0.000). HOCM patients with syncope had higher level of LMVD than without syncope [166.7 (131.0-201.1) VS 116.4 (80.7-152.1)/mm2, p = 0.017], and LMVD were positively correlated with Log (CVF) (r = 0.431, p = 0.004). On multiple variables regression analysis, LMVD was independently associated with Log (CVF) (r = 0.379, p = 0.009) and syncope (r = 0.335, p = 0.020). In conclusions, the LYVE-1-positive lymphatics have close associations with VS fibrosis in HOCM patients.

4.
Exp Physiol ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808213

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The concentrations of ß1 -adrenergic receptor and M2 -muscarinic receptor autoantibodies in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and the relationship between the cardiac autoantibodies and clinical manifestations of HCM have rarely been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that the concentrations of the two autoantibodies in HCM patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects. Furthermore, we found that the concentrations of the two autoantibodies could reflect myocardial injury and diastolic dysfunction in HCM patients to some extent and might be involved in the occurrence of arrhythmia. These findings might be valuable in exploration of the mechanisms of occurrence and progression of HCM. ABSTRACT: Increasing attention is being given to the role of immunological mechanisms in the development of heart failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of serum ß1 -adrenergic receptor autoantibody (ß1 -AAb) and M2 -muscarinic receptor autoantibody (M2 -AAb) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and the relationship between ß1 -AAb, M2 -AAb and clinical indices. One hundred and thirty-four patients with HCM were recruited consecutively into the HCM group. Forty healthy subjects were assigned as the normal controls (NCs). Serum samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ß1 -AAb and M2 -AAb by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical data of HCM patients were collected. The serum concentrations of ß1 -AAb and M2 -AAb of HCM patients were significantly higher than those of NCs. In HCM patients, those with a left atrial diameter ≥50 mm or moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation had significantly higher concentrations of the two autoantibodies. Patients with a history of syncope had higher concentrations of ß1 -AAb. Female patients and patients with a family history of sudden cardiac death or atrial fibrillation had higher concentrations of M2 -AAb. Maximal wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness and resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient were positively correlated with log ß1 -AAb or log M2 -AAb in HCM patients. In conclusion, the serum concentrations of ß1 -AAb and M2 -AAb of HCM patients were significantly higher than those of NCs. Being female, syncope, a family history of sudden death, atrial fibrillation, left atrial diameter ≥50 mm, moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation, maximal wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness and resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient may affect the concentrations of the two autoantibodies.

5.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2019: 2579526, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772518

RESUMO

Objectives: We aim to present a new way to introduce reverse wire in crusade microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique to solve markedly angulated bifurcated lesions. Background: Markedly angulated coronary bifurcation lesions are still one of the considerable challenges of treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention especially with severe proximal stenosis. Microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique improved the efficacy of crossing a guide wire to such an extremely angulated complex targeted vessel. However, there has been a debate regarding what kind of curve was the best to introduce reverse guide wire in this technique. Methods: We analyzed 7 patients who were admitted to Fuwai Hospital and underwent antegrade wiring which failed. Crusade microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique with simple short tip one round curve was used successfully to solve in all 7 bifurcation lesions. We investigated the bifurcation lesion's characteristics and details of the reverse wire technique procedures. Results: All 7 bifurcations exhibit both a smaller take-off angle and a larger carina angle and severe proximal significant stenosis. After having suitable size of balloon predilation, reverse wire with simple short distal one curve was delivered to distal segment of targeted vessel successfully. We performed all PCI procedures without any complications and no major adverse cardiac event was observed during hospitalization. Conclusions: In solving markedly angulated bifurcated lesions, especially with severe proximal stenosis, crusade microcatheter-facilitated reverse wire technique with simple short tip one curve is an effective and safe way of wiring.

6.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 43: 107150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether current proposed biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis (BMFs) actually reflect the changes in fibrous characteristics of myocardial tissue remains unclear. The relation between peripheral BMFs and histological myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 52 HCM patients who underwent a transaortic extended septal myectomy. Complete medical history was collected, and related examinations were performed. Echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance were employed to characterize cardiac morphology and function. Procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CITP), matrix metalloproteinases (total MMP-2 and total MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) levels in both plasma and myocardial tissues were determined and compared. Myocardial fibrosis was detected with Masson's trichrome staining, and collagen volume fraction (CVF) was calculated. There was a significant correlation between plasma PICP levels and myocardial PICP contents (r=0.382, P=.007). Besides, plasma PICP (r=0.332, P=.020) levels correlated positively with CVF. In addition, plasma TIMP-1 levels were significantly correlated with myocardial TIMP-1 contents (r=0.282, P=.043). Plasma MMP-2 levels correlated positively with CVF (r=0.379, P=.006). Patients who took calcium channel blockers (CCBs; diltiazem or verapamil) had significantly lower plasma PICP levels, myocardial PICP content, and CVF in comparison with those who did not take CCBs. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HCM, plasma PICP and MMP-2 levels quantitatively reflect myocardial fibrosis, suggesting that PICP and MMP-2 may be used as reliable BMFs. CCBs may attenuate cardiac fibrosis in patients with HCM.

7.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 20(5): 258-265, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ABO blood type is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have suggested sex-related differences in both hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) clinical features and ABO blood type. However, few data are available regarding the relationship between ABO blood type and HCM clinical features. We aimed to analyze the relationship between ABO blood type and HCM clinical features, and the potential effects of sex on these relationship. METHODS: A total of 549 patients with HCM were enrolled consecutively. Left ventricular outflow tract gradients at rest (LOVTG-R) were measured by echocardiography. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, interventricular septum, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were assessed using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Compared with the non-B antigen group, patients with B antigen had significantly higher LOVTG-R and LVEF values, worse New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, lower left ventricular volume index values, as well as no difference in LVM index values. After adjustments for sex, male patients with B antigen still had higher LOVTG-R values and frequency of NYHA classification III/IV as well as lower LVEDV and LVESV index values. These differences were not present in female patients. Additionally, patients with NYHA classification III/IV had lower LVEDV index values. CONCLUSION: In males, not females, patients with HCM with blood type B antigens exhibited worse cardiac functional capacity, higher LOVTG-R values, and lower left ventricular volume index values. These relationships are a potential indicator for clinical prevention. We speculate that rehydration is more efficient in relieving symptoms in male patients with HCM with B antigens.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/imunologia , Antígenos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Sociedades Médicas
8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 18(1): 207, 2018 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common complication in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The mechanisms of AF is associated with left atrial (LA) structural remodeling in HCM patients. However, the impact of left ventricular (LV) remodeling on the presence of AF in HCM patients has not been evaluated yet. We sought to investigate effect of LV remodeling on the presence of AF assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in HCM patients. METHODS: A total of 394 HCM patients were enrolled into this study, including HOCM patients (n = 293) and NOHCM patients (n = 101). Patients were divided into HCM with AF (50) and HCM without AF (n = 344). Data were collected from hospital records. RESULTS: LA diameter and LV remodeling index (LVRI) were significantly higher in HCM patients with AF than that of HCM patients without AF (46.6 ± 7.4 mm versus 39.9 ± 8.0 mm, p < 0.001, and 1.46 ± 0.6 versus 1.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.002, respectively). HCM patients with AF were older than HCM patients without AF (53.6 ± 11.7 years versus 47.7 ± 13.6 years, p = 0.002). Additionally, LVRI positively correlated to LA size (r = 0.12, p = 0.02). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, when adjusting for age and LV end diastolic mass index, LVRI and LA size remained an independent determinant of AF in HCM patients (OR = 4.7, p = 0.001 and OR = 1.13, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HCM patients with AF showed significantly more LA diameter, LVRI and age than HCM patients without AF. LVRI and LA size were strong independent predictor of AF in HCM, suggesting LV remodeling may contribute to the occurrence of AF in HCM patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Remodelamento Atrial , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Cardiology ; 141(4): 202-211, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is a myocardial disease characterized by fibrosis and microvascular ischemia. Microvessels play a critical role in myocardial fibrosis in HOCM. However, it remains unclear whether or not myocardial fibrosis is associated with microvascular density (MVD) changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a reduction in MVD is related to myocardial fibrosis in HOCM cardiac samples. METHODS: We analyzed MVD and fibrosis in myectomy left ventricular (LV) septal wall specimens from 53 HOCM patients. Control myocardium from the LV septal wall was collected at autopsy of 9 individuals who died of noncardiac causes. RESULTS: The fibrosis ratio (% area) in HOCM was higher and the MVD was lower than that in control subjects (i.e., 12.7 ± 10.0 vs. 4.0 ± 1.4%, p = 0.012, and 480.9 ± 206.7 vs. 1,425 ± 221/mm2, p < 0.001). Patients with mild fibrosis had a higher MVD than patients with moderate fibrosis (i.e., 568.2 ± 214.8 vs. 403.2 ± 167.8/mm2, p = 0.006) and patients with severe fibrosis (i.e., 568.2 ± 214.8 vs. 378.6 ± 154.0/mm2, p = 0.024). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between myocardial fibrosis and MVD in HOCM patients (r = -0.40, p = 0.003), which was also found in mild fibrosis (r = -0.40, p = 0.043), moderate fibrosis (r = -0.50, p = 0.024), and severe fibrosis (r = -0.24, p = 0.61), although no significant differences were observed in severe fibrosis. Additionally, we demonstrated that late gadolinium enhancement was negatively correlated with MVD (r = -0.37, p = 0.03) and positively correlated with fibrosis (r = 0.44, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: HOCM patients had a higher myocardial fibrosis ratio and a lower MVD. The severity of myocardial fibrosis was negatively correlated with MVD in HOCM. These findings showed that a reduced MVD may contribute to myocardial fibrosis in HOCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Rarefação Microvascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Meios de Contraste , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Fibrose , Gadolínio DTPA , Septos Cardíacos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rarefação Microvascular/etiologia , Rarefação Microvascular/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica
10.
Biol Sex Differ ; 7: 63, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27924218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that inefficient energy utilization may play a pivotal role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, whether plasma free fatty acid (FFA), a main energy substrate of heart, has an effect on HCM remains unclear. Besides, several studies have suggested sex-related differences in HCM features and FFA metabolism. Here, we aimed to explore the association between plasma FFA levels and HCM and potential effects of sex on this relation. METHODS: A total of 412 patients (age 47.8 ± 12.7 years, 243 males (59.0%)) with HCM were recruited. Complete medical history was collected. Echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) were performed. Fasting plasma FFA was determined by clinical laboratory. Left ventricular mass (LVM), maximum wall thickness (MWT), and left atrium diameter (LAD) were assessed with CMRI. RESULTS: The median FFA levels were 0.38 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.27-0.52) mmol/L in men and 0.40 (IQR 0.30-0.59) mmol/L in women. The FFA levels were significantly lower in men compared with those in women (p = 0.005). Compared with women, men had greater LVM index (LVMI) (96.8 ± 37.6 vs. 78.6 ± 31.5 g/m2, p < 0.001). FFA levels in male patients correlated positively with LVM, LVMI, LAD, cholesterol levels, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure (SBP). However, none of these variables were significantly associated with sqrt (FFA) in female patients except a borderline correlation of LAD (p = 0.050). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed in male patients and revealed that HDL-C (ß = 0.191, p = 0.002), heart rate (ß = 0.182, p = 0.004), SBP (ß = 0.167, p = 0.007), LVMI (ß = 0.132, p = 0.032), and LAD (ß = 0.165, p = 0.009) were independently associated with increasing FFA levels. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HCM, LVMI, LAD, HDL-C, SBP, and heart rate were independently associated with increasing plasma FFA levels in males, whereas not in females. These results suggest that sex may affect the pathogenesis of HCM through influencing FFA metabolism. And these sex-related differences should be taken into account in therapeutic approaches to influence myocardial FFA metabolism in HCM.

11.
Biol Sex Differ ; 7: 22, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27054027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in a wide spectrum of study population. However, whether this association exists in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, including obstructive HCM), and if present, whether gender has any impact on this association, remains unknown. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with obstructive HCM (age 47.2 ± 10.8 years, 99 (62 %) men) were included in this study. All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging examinations. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was assessed using CMR. RESULTS: The mean value of SUA was 353.4 ± 87.5 µmol/L. Both SUA levels (381.2 ± 86.4 vs. 309.0 ± 69.3 µmol/L, p < 0.001) and LVMI (96.2 ± 32.1 vs. 84.4 ± 32.4 g/m(2), p = 0.025) were significantly higher in men than in women. LVMI increased progressively across sex-specific tertiles of SUA in women (p = 0.030), but not in men (p = 0.177). SUA was positively correlated with LVMI in female patients (r = 0.372, p = 0.003), but not in males (r = 0.112, p = 0.269). On multivariate linear regression analysis, SUA was independently associated with LVMI in females (ß = 0.375, p = 0.002), but not in males. CONCLUSIONS: SUA levels are significantly and independently associated with LVMI in women with obstructive HCM, but not in men. Our findings imply the potential significance of urate-lowering regimens in female patients with obstructive HCM.

12.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 28(3): 99-103, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26945252

RESUMO

AIMS: Data on the effectiveness of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and extreme septal hypertrophy (ESH) are lacking. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of ASA in patients with vs without ESH. METHODS: Clinical profiles of 17 patients with ESH and 256 patients without ESH were compared. RESULTS: Baseline pressure gradient and limiting symptoms were comparable between patients with and without ESH. At median 1.1 years of follow-up after ASA, pressure gradient was 48.5 ± 40.4 mm Hg in the ESH group and 40.9 ± 35.2 mm Hg in the non-ESH (N-ESH) group (P=.33). Patients with New York Heart Association class III/IV represented 5.9% of the ESH group and 16.9% of the N-ESH group (P=.39). Patients with Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III/IV represented 5.9% of the ESH group and 10.2% of the N-ESH group (P=.87). CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of ASA seems comparable between patients with and without ESH.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Etanol/farmacologia , Septos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Seguimentos , Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0146572, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and B-type natriuretic peptide are useful in detecting myocardial fibrosis, as determined by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), in patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, their values to predict myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) remain unclear. We investigated the role of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) to identify LGE-CMR in patients with HOCM. METHODS: Peripheral concentrations of NT-proBNP and cTnI were determined in patients with HOCM (n = 163; age = 47.2 ± 10.8 years; 38.7% females). Contrast-enhanced CMR was performed to identify and quantify myocardial fibrosis. RESULTS: LGE was detected in 120 of 163 patients (73.6%). Patients with LGE had significantly higher levels of NT-proBNP and cTnI than those without LGE (1386.2 [904.6-2340.8] vs. 866.6 [707.2-1875.2] pmol/L, P = 0.003; 0.024 [0.010-0.049] vs. 0.010 [0.005-0.021] ng/ml, P <0.001, respectively). The extent of LGE was positively correlated with log cTnI (r = 0.371, P <0.001) and log NT-proBNP (r = 0.211, P = 0.007). On multivariable analysis, both log cTnI and maximum wall thickness (MWT) were independent predictors of the presence of LGE (OR = 3.193, P = 0.033; OR = 1.410, P < 0.001, respectively), whereas log NT-proBNP was not. According to the ROC curve analysis, combined measurements of MWT ≥21 mm and/or cTnI ≥0.025 ng/ml indicated good diagnostic performance for the presence of LGE, with specificity of 95% or sensitivity of 88%. CONCLUSIONS: Serum cTnI is an independent predictor useful for identifying myocardial fibrosis, while plasma NT-proBNP is only associated with myocardial fibrosis on univariate analysis. Combined measurements of serum cTnI with MWT further improve its value in detecting myocardial fibrosis in patients with HOCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
14.
Heart Vessels ; 31(5): 744-51, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25739657

RESUMO

Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has been shown to improve left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, its beneficial effect on diastolic function assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has not been reported. We investigated the mid-term changes of diastolic function by CMR combined with echocardiography in HCM patients after ASA at a median of 14-month follow-up. CMR parameters of diastolic function including peak filling rate (PFR), and time to peak filling rate (TPFR) were evaluated in 43 patients (aged 48 ± 9 years). LV diastolic function improved significantly measured by echocardiography with the decrease in ratio of transmitral early LV filling velocity (E) to early diastolic mitral lateral annular velocity (E') (14.20 ± 1.17 to 11.58 ± 1.16, p < 0.001) and E-wave deceleration time (194.04 ± 19.30 to 168.45 ± 12.58 ms, p < 0.001). PFR increased significantly with associated decrease in TPFR after ASA (both p < 0.001) at follow-up. Furthermore, patients with larger decrease in LVOT gradients had a greater improvement of LV diastolic function, as measured by the reduction of E/E' (p < 0.001) and increase of PFR (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that successful ASA results in both echocardiographic and CMR indices of diastolic function improvement after ASA at 14-month follow-up. ASA therapy can significantly reduce LVOT gradient and mitral regurgitation, both of which may contribute to the improvement of diastolic function.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 116(11): 1744-51, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26434514

RESUMO

Serum cardiac troponins have been demonstrated to have important clinical implications in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). However, little is known about their roles in patients with obstructive HC. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical significance and determinants of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in patients with obstructive HC using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated the relations between serum cTnI levels and clinical, echocardiographic, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance parameters and assessed the determinants of serum cTnI in 149 consecutive patients with obstructive HC. The median level of serum cTnI was 0.019 ng/ml (interquartile range 0.009 to 0.044). CTnI was elevated (≥0.04 ng/ml) in 42 (28%) of the overall cohort. Patients with elevated cTnI had greater maximum wall thickness (p <0.001), larger left ventricular mass index (LVMI, p <0.001), more frequency of left atrium diameter ≥50 mm (p = 0.020), higher plasma values of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (p <0.001), and less hypertension (p = 0.014). Serum cTnI levels were positively correlated with maximum wall thickness (r = 0.444, p <0.001), LVMI (r = 0.556, p <0.001), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (r = 0.305, p <0.001), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (r = 0.246, p = 0.002), and left ventricular end-systolic volume index (r = 0.272, p = 0.001) but negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.180, p = 0.028). On multivariate analysis, LVMI was independently associated with both elevated cTnI (odds ratio 1.032, p = 0.001) and increasing serum cTnI levels (ß = 0.556, p <0.001). In addition, the presence of hypertension was independently related to less likely elevated cTnI (odds ratio 0.307, p = 0.029) and decreasing levels of serum cTnI (ß = -0.165, p = 0.015). In conclusion, levels of serum cTnI are elevated in a significant proportion of our patients. Serum cTnI is associated with multiple parameters of disease severity, suggesting its great significance in assessing cardiac remodeling in patients with obstructive HC. Left ventricular hypertrophy, as indicated by LVMI, is the major determinant of serum cTnI levels.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Função Ventricular Esquerda
16.
Cardiol J ; 22(6): 657-64, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26100829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) on the survival of patients with drug-refractory obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains unresolved. The aim of this study was to compare survival after ASA vs. conservative therapy. METHODS: We studied a consecutive cohort of 274 patients with severe drug-refractory obstructive HCM, 229 in ASA group and 45 in conservative group. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and aborted cardiac arrest. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 4.3 years, primary endpoint occurred in 13 (5.7%) patients in the ASA group, and 8 (17.8%) patients in the conservative group. The 5- and 10-year survival free from primary endpoint of the ASA group (94.5% and 93.0%, respectively) was significantly better than that of the conservative group (78.3% and 72.2%, respectively, log-rank p = 0.009). Independent determinants of primary endpoint were ASA therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.60; p = 0.003) and maximal septal thickness (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.27; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe drug-refractory obstructive HCM, survival after ASA is favorable and better than that of conservative therapy. ASA seems to improve survival.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Septos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/cirurgia , Septo Interventricular/cirurgia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Injeções Intralesionais , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Solventes/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/etiologia , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/mortalidade
17.
Eur J Radiol ; 84(8): 1487-1492, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26001434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated sex differences in left ventricular (LV) remodeling and fibrosis and their relationship with LV diastolic dysfunction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: CMR imaging was performed simultaneously in 152 age-matched patients (76 men, 76 women; mean age: 49±9 years) without LV systolic dysfunction. LV remodeling index (LVRI) was calculated as the ratio of LV mass and end-diastolic volume. Diastolic function indexes including peak filling rate (PFR) and time to PFR (tPFR) were evaluated. Extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was measured. RESULTS: LVRI and extent of LGE were greater in women compared with men (1.48±0.22 vs. 1.36±0.28g/ml; 13.15±2.48 vs. 11.35±2.34g, respectively, both P<0.001). Women had lower PFR and higher tPFR (both P<0.001) than men. LVRI and the extent of LGE showed significant relationships with parameters of diastolic function in both sex. In a multivariate analysis, LVRI remained a strong independent predictor of PFR and TPFR in women (ß=-0.272, P=0.032; ß=0.348, P=0.016, respectively), and in men (ß=-0.374, P<0.001; ß=0.660, P<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the extent of LGE also remained an independent predictor of PFR in women (ß=-0.283, P=0.033) and men (ß=-0.492, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There are prominent sex differences in LV remodeling and myocardial fibrosis. We suggest that the effects of LV remodeling and fibrosis may lead to diastolic dysfunction with greater susceptibility to worse clinical outcome in women.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Diástole/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Gadolínio DTPA , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia
18.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0119846, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25781461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tongxinluo (TXL) has been shown to decrease myocardial necrosis after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) by simulating ischemia preconditioning (IPC). However, the core mechanism of TXL remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the key targets of TXL against I/R injury (IRI) among the cardiac structure-function network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the severity of lethal IRI, a mathematical model was established according to the relationship between myocardial no-reflow size and necrosis size. A total of 168 mini-swine were employed in myocardial I/R experiment. IRI severity among different interventions was compared and IPC and CCB groups were identified as the mildest and severest groups, respectively. Principal component analysis was applied to further determine 9 key targets of IPC in cardioprotection. Then, the key targets of TXL in cardioprotection were confirmed. RESULTS: Necrosis size and no-reflow size fit well with the Sigmoid Emax model. Necrosis reduction space (NRS) positively correlates with I/R injury severity and necrosis size (R2=0.92, R2=0.57, P<0.01, respectively). Functional and structural indices correlate positively with NRS (R2=0.64, R2=0.62, P<0.01, respectively). TXL recovers SUR2, iNOS activity, eNOS activity, VE-cadherin, ß-catenin, γ-catenin and P-selectin with a trend toward the sham group. Moreover, TXL increases PKA activity and eNOS expression with a trend away from the sham group. Among the above nine indices, eNOS activity, eNOS, VE-cadherin, ß-catenin and γ-catenin expression were significantly up-regulated by TXL compared with IPC (P>0.05) or CCB (P<0.05) and these five microvascular barrier-related indices may be the key targets of TXL in minimizing IRI. CONCLUSIONS: Our study underlines the lethal IRI as one of the causes of myocardial necrosis. Pretreatment with TXL ameliorates myocardial IRI through promoting cardiac microvascular endothelial barrier function by simulating IPC.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Precondicionamento Isquêmico , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Fenômeno de não Refluxo , Análise de Componente Principal , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Suínos
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 115(4): 493-8, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25541323

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) on left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) remodeling in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). CMR was performed at baseline and 16 months after ASA in 38 patients with obstructive HC (mean age 48 ± 9 years) despite optimal medical treatment. ASA resulted in significant reductions of LV outflow tract gradient (mean 89 ± 22 vs 24 ± 12 mm Hg, p <0.001) and improvements in New York Heart Association functional class (p <0.001) during the follow-up period. LV remote mass and septal mass decreased from 98.34 ± 37.02 to 84.23 ± 34.71 g and from 77.56 ± 16.40 to 68.43 ± 14.02 g, respectively (p <0.001 for both) at 16-month follow-up. There were significant reductions of RV mass (mean 53.69 ± 7.12 vs 47.49 ± 6.17 g, p <0.001) and improvements in RV end-diastolic volume (mean 110.58 ± 22.47 vs 124.22 ± 24.17 ml, p <0.001) and the RV ejection fraction (p <0.001) during 16-month follow-up. Linear regression analysis showed that LV outflow tract gradient reduction was correlated significantly with LV remote mass reduction (r = 0.475, p = 0.003) and RV mass reduction (r = 0.535, p = 0.001) at 16-month follow-up. In conclusion, successful ASA can lead to positive biventricular reverse remodeling, showing significant reductions of RV and LV mass as well as increased RV and LV end-diastolic volumes during follow-up.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Etanol/uso terapêutico , Septos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 147: 92-102, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25541436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and 17ß-estradiol (E2) replacement on both mitochondrial and myocardial function in cTnT-Q92 transgenic mice generated by cardiac-restricted expression of a human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation. METHODS: The cTnT-Q92 mice were ovariectomized at twenty weeks of age and were treated with either placebo (OVX group) or E2 (OVX+E2 group) for twelve weeks before being sacrificed. Wild-type and cTnT-Q92 female mice receiving sham operation were used as controls. Indices of diastolic function such as mitral early (E) and late (A) inflow as well as isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) were measured by echocardiography. A Clark-type electrode was used to detect respiratory control, and ATP levels were determined at the mitochondrial level using HPLC. Key components related to mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), were also analyzed using Western blot and RT-PCR. The levels of oxidative stress markers were determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) using the thiobarbituric acid assay. RESULTS: The cTnT-Q92 mice had impaired diastolic function compared with wild-type mice (E/A ratio, 1.39 ± 0.04 vs. 1.21 ± 0.01, p<0.001; IVRT, 19.17 ± 0.85 vs. 22.15 ± 1.43 ms, p=0.028). In response to ovariectomy, cardiac function further decreased compared with that observed in cTnT-Q92 mice that received the sham operation (E/A ratio, 1.15 ± 0.04 vs. 1.21 ± 0.01, p<0.001; IVRT, 28.31 ± 0.39 vs. 22.15 ± 1.43 ms, p=0.002). Myocardial energy metabolism, as determined by ATP levels (3.49 ± 0.31 vs. 5.07 ± 0.47 µmol/g, p<0.001), and the mitochondrial respiratory ratio (2.04 ± 0.10 vs. 2.63 ± 0.11, p=0.01) also decreased significantly. By contrast, myocardial concentrations of MDA increased significantly in the OVX group, and PGC-1α, PPARα and NRF-1decreased significantly. E2 supplementation significantly elevated myocardial ATP levels (4.55 ± 0.21 vs. 3.49 ± 0.31 µmol/g, p=0.003) and mitochondrial respiratory function (3.93 ± 0.05 vs. 2.63 ± 0.11, p=0.001); however, it reduced the MDA level (0.21 ± 0.02 vs. 0.36 ± 0.03 nmol/g, p<0.001), which subsequently improved diastolic function (E/A ratio, 1.35 ± 0.06 vs. 1.15 ± 0.04, p<0.001; IVRT, 18.22 ± 1.16 vs. 28.31 ± 0.39 ms, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that 17ß-estradiol improved myocardial diastolic function, prevented myocardial energy dysregulation, and reduced myocardial oxidative stress in cTnT-Q92 mice.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Troponina T/genética , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Mutação , Ovariectomia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR alfa
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