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1.
Neuropeptides ; 81: 102044, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241604

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disease. Senile plaques (SPs) in the extracellular space and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the intracellular areas of the brain are two typical features of AD. SPs and NFTs are composed of amyloid-ß (Aß) aggregates and hyperphosphorylated Tau, respectively. (m)RVD-hemopressin (RVD), which is derived from mouse brain peptide, binds to the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) as an agonist. Our previous study indicated that RVD reversed Aß1-42-induced memory impairment in mice. Here, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of RVD on Aß1-42-induced neurotoxicity in retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Cell viability and neurite outgrowth were investigated by live cell imaging and analysis instrument. We found that RVD reversed Aß1-42-induced Tau phosphorylation, apoptosis and suppression of neurite outgrowth and the synapse-associated protein postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) by inhibiting the activity of protein kinase A (PKA) and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß). Combined treatment with AM251 (a CB1R antagonist) blocked the effects of RVD. In conclusion, RVD may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive dysfunctions, such as Alzheimer's disease.

2.
Peptides ; 124: 170185, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730791

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disease. Senile plaques (SPs) composed of amyloid-ß (Aß) are typical features of AD. Aß plays a key role in the disease and has the ability to induce other pathological characteristics of AD, including oxidative stress injury. (m)VD-hemopressin (VD), a peptide derived from mouse brain extracts, can bind cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) as an agonist. Our previous report indicated that VD reverses memory impairment induced by Aß1-42 in mice. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism by which VD protects hippocampal neurons against Aß1-42-induced impairment. Our results showed that VD inhibited oxidative stress injury induced by Aß1-42, as demonstrated by the VD-induced reversal of the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the intracellular lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and the downregulation of the activities of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in mouse hippocampal neurons. We also found that VD restored the decrease in cell growth and viability induced by Aß1-42 and reversed Aß1-42-induced apoptosis mediated by the apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2 and Bax. However, cotreatment with AM251 (an antagonist of CB1R) blocked the effects of VD. In brief, this study suggested that through CB1R, VD reversed the impairment of cell growth and viability, oxidative stress injury and apoptosis induced by Aß1-42. Therefore, VD may be a promising agent for the treatment of diseases that involve oxidative stress injury and apoptosis induced by Aß1-42, such as AD.

3.
J Drug Target ; 28(1): 33-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092045

RESUMO

In patients with cancer, drug tolerance often occurs during the use of chemotherapy drugs, seriously affecting patient prognosis and survival. Therefore, scientists began to study the factors that affect chemotherapy drug sensitivity, and the high correlation between Schlafen-11 (SLFN11) and sensitivity to chemical drugs (mainly DNA-damaging agents, DDAs) has received increasing attention since it was discovered through bioinformatics analyses. Regarding the mechanism, SLFN11 may sensitise cells to chemotherapy drugs by preventing DNA damage repair. In recent years, SLFN11 has gradually become a hot research topic, and the results are enriching our understanding of this molecule. Indeed, the biological functions of SLFN11 under normal physiological conditions and in cancer, changes in its expression levels and mechanisms promoting apoptosis within the context of chemotherapeutic interventions have gradually been uncovered. Studies to date provide knowledge and the experimental and theoretical bases underlying SLFN11 and its effects on sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs. This review summarises the existing research on SLFN11 with the aim of achieving a more comprehensive understanding and furthering the development of strategies to target SLFN11 in the treatment of cancer.

4.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(4): 2443-2450, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555356

RESUMO

Immunotherapy with transplanted T-regulatory (Treg) cells is currently in use. However, patients have complex internal environments with confounding factors, including the presence of inflammatory cytokines. The present study aimed to detect Treg cell function under simulated inflammatory conditions to provide a foundation for Treg cell-based immunotherapy. CD4+CD25high Treg cells were sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cultured for 14 days in the presence of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) and anti-CD3/CD28 beads, with or without 25 ng/ml rhIL-6. Next, the absolute count of Treg cells was determined, the stability and activity were detected by measuring the expression levels of forkhead box (Fox)P3 and CD39, and the suppressive function of Treg cells was investigated by assessing the suppression of T-effector cell proliferation by Treg cells after co-culture for 5 days. The number of Treg cells cultured in the presence of 25 ng/ml rhIL-6 for 14 days was reduced by 49.7% when compared with that of cells cultured without rhIL-6. Of the Treg cells continually cultured for 14 days without or with 25 ng/ml rhIL-6, 56.15 and 24.7% expressed FoxP3, respectively. There was no difference in the activity of the FoxP3+ Treg cells after culture for 14 days without or with 25 ng/ml rhIL-6. The suppressive function of Treg cells tended to deteriorate in the presence of rhIL-6. In conclusion, IL-6 inhibited the proliferation and stability of Treg cells, suggesting that administration of increased numbers of Treg cells may be required during Treg cell-based immunotherapy.

5.
Exp Ther Med ; 16(4): 3511-3517, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233703

RESUMO

Aerobic exercise induces many adaptive changes in the whole body and improves metabolic characteristics. Klotho, an anti-aging gene, is mainly expressed in the brain and kidney. The roles of Klotho in the brain and kidney during aerobic exercise remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to determine whether aerobic exercise could influence the expression of Klotho, decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prolong life span. Sprague Dawley rats were exercised on a motor treadmill. Klotho mRNA and protein expression levels in rat brain and kidney tissues were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. ROS production was detected following intermittent aerobic exercise (IAE) or continuous aerobic exercise (CAE). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis demonstrated that aerobic exercise significantly improved rat survival (P<0.001). The ROS levels in rat brain and kidney tissues were decreased in the aerobic exercise groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, Klotho mRNA and protein expression levels were increased significantly following aerobic exercise compared with controls (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the IAE and CAE groups in any experiments (P>0.05). These results suggest that aerobic exercise-stimulated Klotho upregulation extends the life span by attenuating the excess production of ROS in the brain and kidney. As Klotho exhibits a potential anti-aging effect, promoting Klotho expression through aerobic exercise may be a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of aging and aging-related diseases.

6.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2262, 2017 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273808

RESUMO

Broadband tunability is a central theme in contemporary nanophotonics and metamaterials research. Combining metamaterials with phase change media offers a promising approach to achieve such tunability, which requires a comprehensive investigation of the electromagnetic responses of novel materials at subwavelength scales. In this work, we demonstrate an innovative way to tailor band-selective electromagnetic responses at the surface of a heavy fermion compound, samarium sulfide (SmS). By utilizing the intrinsic, pressure sensitive, and multi-band electron responses of SmS, we create a proof-of-principle heavy fermion metamaterial, which is fabricated and characterized using scanning near-field microscopes with <50 nm spatial resolution. The optical responses at the infrared and visible frequency ranges can be selectively and separately tuned via modifying the occupation of the 4f and 5d band electrons. The unique pressure, doping, and temperature tunability demonstrated represents a paradigm shift for nanoscale metamaterial and metasurface design.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(2): 026401, 2017 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753331

RESUMO

Here we show that, in single perovskite CsPbI_{3} nanocrystals synthesized from a colloidal approach, a bright-exciton fine-structure splitting as large as hundreds of µeV can be resolved with two orthogonally and linearly polarized photoluminescence peaks. This doublet could switch to a single peak when a single CsPbI_{3} nanocrystal is photocharged to eliminate the electron-hole exchange interaction. The above findings have prepared an efficient platform suitable for probing exciton and spin dynamics of semiconductor nanostructures at the visible-wavelength range, from which a variety of practical applications such as in entangled photon-pair source and quantum information processing can be envisioned.

8.
Oncotarget ; 7(52): 85963-85974, 2016 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27852062

RESUMO

Glioblastoma(GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive malignant primary tumors of the central nervous system and mitochondria have been proposed to participate in GBM tumorigenesis. Previous studies have identified a potential role of Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a multi-compartmentalized protein, in mitochondria. But whether DISC1 could regulate GBM tumorigenesis via mitochondria is still unknown. We determined the expression level of DISC1 by both bioinformatics analysis and tissue analysis, and found that DISC1 was highly expressed in GBM. Knocking down of DISC1 by shRNA in GBM cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, down-regulation of DISC1 decreased cell migration and invasion of GBM and self renewal capacity of glioblastoma stem-like cells. Furthermore, multiple independent rings or spheres could be observed in mitochondria in GBM depleted of DISC1, while normal filamentous morphology was observed in control cells, demonstrating that DISC1 affected the mitochondrial dynamic. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was reported to contribute to mitochondrial dynamic regulation and influence glioma cells proliferation and invasion by RHOA/ ROCK1 pathway. Our data showed a significant decrease of Drp1 both in mRNA and protein level in GBM lack of DISC1, indicating that DISC1 maybe affect the mitochondrial dynamic by regulating Drp1. Taken together, our findings reveal that DISC1 affects glioblastoma cell development via mitochondria dynamics partly by down regulation of Drp1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Glioblastoma/prevenção & controle , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/etiologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/fisiologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/fisiologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Nano Lett ; 16(10): 6425-6430, 2016 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27689439

RESUMO

Over the last two decades, intensive research efforts have been devoted to the suppressions of photoluminescence (PL) blinking and Auger recombination in metal-chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs), with significant progresses being made only very recently in few specific NC structures. Here we show that nonblinking PL is readily available in the newly synthesized perovskite CsPbI3 NCs and that their Auger recombination of charged excitons is greatly slowed down, as signified by a PL lifetime about twice shorter than that of neutral excitons. Moreover, spectral diffusion is completely absent in single CsPbI3 NCs at the cryogenic temperature, leading to a resolution-limited PL line width of ∼200 µeV.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(10): 106404, 2016 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27015498

RESUMO

To confirm the existence of the carrier multiplication (CM) effect and estimate its generation efficiency of multiple excitons in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), it is imperative to completely exclude the false contribution of charged excitons from the measured CM signal. Here we place single CdSe NCs above an aluminum film and successfully resolve their UV-excited photoluminescence (PL) time trajectories where the true and false CM signals are contained in the blinking "on" and "off" levels, respectively. By analyzing the PL dynamics of the on-level photons, an average CM efficiency of ∼20.2% can be reliably estimated when the UV photon energy is ∼2.46 times the NC energy gap.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(1): 016602, 2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799035

RESUMO

One of the basic assumptions in organic field-effect transistors, the most fundamental device unit in organic electronics, is that charge transport occurs two dimensionally in the first few molecular layers near the dielectric interface. Although the mobility of bulk organic semiconductors has increased dramatically, direct probing of intrinsic charge transport in the two-dimensional limit has not been possible due to excessive disorders and traps in ultrathin organic thin films. Here, highly ordered single-crystalline mono- to tetralayer pentacene crystals are realized by van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy on hexagonal BN. We find that the charge transport is dominated by hopping in the first conductive layer, but transforms to bandlike in subsequent layers. Such an abrupt phase transition is attributed to strong modulation of the molecular packing by interfacial vdW interactions, as corroborated by quantitative structural characterization and density functional theory calculations. The structural modulation becomes negligible beyond the second conductive layer, leading to a mobility saturation thickness of only ∼3 nm. Highly ordered organic ultrathin films provide a platform for new physics and device structures (such as heterostructures and quantum wells) that are not possible in conventional bulk crystals.

12.
Nanotechnology ; 27(1): 015301, 2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595508

RESUMO

A series of highly ordered c-plane InGaN/GaN elliptic nanorod (NR) arrays were fabricated by our developed soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography on a wafer. The photoluminescence (PL) integral intensities of NR samples show a remarkable enhancement by a factor of up to two orders of magnitude compared with their corresponding as-grown samples at room temperature. The radiative recombination in NR samples is found to be greatly enhanced due to not only the suppressed non-radiative recombination but also the strain relaxation and optical waveguide effects. It is demonstrated that elliptic NR arrays improve the light extraction greatly and have polarized emission, both of which possibly result from the broken structure symmetry. Green NR light-emitting diodes have been finally realized, with good current-voltage performance and uniform luminescence.

13.
ACS Nano ; 9(12): 12410-6, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26522082

RESUMO

The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on semiconductor perovskites has reached ∼20% after just several years of research efforts. With concomitant discoveries of other promising applications in lasers, light-emitting diodes, and photodetectors, it is natural to anticipate what further excitement these exotic perovskites could bring about. Here we report on the observation of single photon emission from single CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized from a facile colloidal approach. Compared with traditional metal-chalcogenide NCs, these CsPbBr3 NCs exhibit nearly 2 orders of magnitude increase in their absorption cross sections at similar emission colors. Moreover, the radiative lifetime of CsPbBr3 NCs is greatly shortened at both room and cryogenic temperatures to favor an extremely fast output of single photons. The above superior optical properties have paved the way toward quantum-light applications of perovskite NCs in various quantum information processing schemes.

14.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8898, 2015 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754220

RESUMO

Here we report two types of defect-induced photoluminescence (PL) blinking behaviors observed in single epitaxial InGaAs quantum dots (QDs). In the first type of PL blinking, the "off" period is caused by the trapping of hot electrons from the higher-lying excited state (absorption state) to the defect site so that its PL rise lifetime is shorter than that of the "on" period. For the "off" period in the second type of PL blinking, the electrons relax from the first excited state (emission state) into the defect site, leading to a shortened PL decay lifetime compared to that of the "on" period. This defect-induced exciton quenching in epitaxial QDs, previously demonstrated also in colloidal nanocrystals, confirms that these two important semiconductor nanostructures could share the same PL blinking mechanism.

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