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2.
Virol J ; 18(1): 181, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) that affects the effectiveness of the first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is becoming prevalent worldwide. However, its prevalence and transmission among HIV-1 treatment-naïve patients in Guangdong, China are rarely reported. We aimed to comprehensively analyze the prevalence of TDR and the transmission clusters of HIV-1 infected persons before ART in Guangdong. METHODS: The HIV-1 treatment-naïve patients were recruited between January 2018 and December 2018. The HIV-1 pol region was amplified by reverse transcriptional PCR and sequenced by sanger sequencing. Genotypes, surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) and TDR were analyzed. Genetic transmission clusters among patients were identified by pairwise Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distance, with a threshold of 0.015. RESULTS: A total of 2368 (97.17%) HIV-1 pol sequences were successfully amplified and sequenced from the enrolled 2437 patients. CRF07_BC (35.90%, 850/2368), CRF01_AE (35.56%, 842/2368) and CRF55_01B (10.30%, 244/2368) were the main HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Guangdong. Twenty-one SDRMs were identified among fifty-two drug-resistant sequences. The overall prevalence of TDR was 2.20% (52/2368). Among the 2368 patients who underwent sequencing, 8 (0.34%) had TDR to protease inhibitors (PIs), 22 (0.93%) to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and 23 (0.97%) to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Two (0.08%) sequences showed dual-class resistance to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, and no sequences showed triple-class resistance. A total of 1066 (45.02%) sequences were segregated into 194 clusters, ranging from 2 to 414 sequences. In total, 15 (28.85%) of patients with TDR were included in 9 clusters; one cluster contained two TDR sequences with the K103N mutation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is high HIV-1 genetic heterogeneity among patients in Guangdong. Although the overall prevalence of TDR is low, it is still necessary to remain vigilant regarding some important SDRMs.

3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 728415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466405

RESUMO

Background: The second human pegivirus (HPgV-2) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) belong to the Flaviviridae family and share some common genome features. However, the two viruses exhibit significantly different genetic diversity. The comparison of intrahost dynamics of HPgV-2 and HCV that mainly reflect virus-host interactions is needed to elucidate their intrahost difference of genetic diversity and the possible mechanisms. Methods: Intrahost single nucleotide variations (iSNVs) were identified by means of next-generation sequencing from both cross-sectional and longitudinal samples from HPgV-2- and HCV-coinfected patients. The levels of human cytokines were quantified in the patient before and after HCV elimination by the treatment of direct-acting antivirals (DAA). Results: Unlike HCV, the viral sequences of HPgV-2 are highly conserved among HPgV-2-infected patients. However, iSNV analysis confirmed the intrahost variation or quasispecies of HPgV-2. Almost all iSNVs of HPgV-2 did not accumulate or transmit within host over time, which may explain the highly conserved HPgV-2 consensus sequence. Intrahost variation of HPgV-2 mainly causes nucleotide transition in particular at the 3rd codon position and synonymous substitutions, indicating purifying or negative selection posed by host immune system. Cytokine data further indicate that HPgV-2 infection alone may not efficiently stimulate innate immune responses since proinflammatory cytokine expression dramatically decreased with elimination of HCV. Conclusion: This study provided new insights into the intrahost genomic variations and evolutionary dynamics of HPgV-2 as well as the impact of host immune selection and virus polymerase on virus evolution. The different genetic diversity of HPgV-2 and HCV makes HPgV-2 a potential new model to investigate RNA virus diversity and the mechanism of viral polymerase in modulating virus replication.

4.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2853-2857, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373969

RESUMO

Strains of the HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) 06_cpx and 56_cpx were identified for the first time in Guangzhou, China. The nearly full-length genome (NFLG) sequence was amplified, and the PCR products were sequenced by the Sanger method. The CRF06_cpx and CRF56_cpx strains were identified using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and confirmed by neighbour-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, these strains were found to contain transmitted drug resistance mutations that have little effect on first-line efavirenz (EFV)-based treatment. Genetic analysis of the detailed sequence data will provide more information on the HIV-1 epidemic in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4984, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404803

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has been launched worldwide to build effective population-level immunity to curb the spread of this virus. The effectiveness and duration of protective immunity is a critical factor for public health. Here, we report the kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 specific immune response in 204 individuals up to 1-year after recovery from COVID-19. RBD-IgG and full-length spike-IgG concentrations and serum neutralizing capacity decreases during the first 6-months, but is maintained stably up to 1-year after hospital discharge. Even individuals who had generated high IgG levels during early convalescent stages had IgG levels that had decreased to a similar level one year later. Notably, the RBD-IgG level positively correlates with serum neutralizing capacity, suggesting the representative role of RBD-IgG in predicting serum protection. Moreover, viral-specific cellular immune protection, including spike and nucleoprotein specific, persisted between 6 months and 12 months. Altogether, our study supports the persistence of viral-specific protective immunity over 1 year.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
6.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(10): 1355-1361, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185938

RESUMO

We studied the characteristics of immune activation and investigated the underlying mechanisms in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) coinfection after receiving HBV-active antiretroviral therapy. Forty patients with HIV/HBV coinfection, 38 patients with HIV monoinfection and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. CD4+ count, HIV load, HBV load, markers of immune activation and regulatory T-cell (Treg cell) frequency were assessed and compared between HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HBV-coinfected patients at week 0 (baseline), 12, 24, 36 and 48 after the onset of HBV-active antiretroviral therapy. Before antiretroviral therapy, frequencies of CD4+ HLADR+ CD38+ , CD8+ HLADR+ CD38+ , and Treg cells, and sCD163 and sCD14 levels were significantly higher in both HIV/HBV-coinfected patients and HIV-monoinfected patients, compared with healthy controls. Frequencies of CD4+ HLADR+ CD38+ and CD8+ HLADR+ CD38+ cells decreased following antiretroviral therapy in both groups. sCD163 levels did not change significantly in both groups and no significant difference was observed between the two groups at each time point during the 48-week antiretroviral therapy. In week 24, levels of sCD14 and frequencies of Treg cells appeared significantly higher in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients than in HIV-monoinfected patients, in which sCD14 levels and Treg cell frequencies declined to those in healthy controls. The Treg cell frequency was consistent with that of sCD14 levels in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. Coinfection with HBV significantly increases sCD14 levels in HIV-infected patients during HBV-active antiretroviral therapy, which may potentially contribute to liver inflammation.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Linfócitos T Reguladores
7.
J Immunol ; 206(9): 2146-2159, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846224

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with some patients developing severe illness or even death. Disease severity has been associated with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and lymphopenia. To elucidate the atlas of peripheral immune response and pathways that might lead to immunopathology during COVID-19 disease course, we performed a peripheral blood RNA sequencing analysis of the same patient's samples collected from symptom onset to full recovery. We found that PBMCs at different disease stages exhibited unique transcriptome characteristics. We observed that SARS-CoV-2 infection caused excessive release of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators as well as an aberrant increase of low-density neutrophils. Further analysis revealed an increased expression of RNA sensors and robust IFN-stimulated genes expression but a repressed type I IFN production. SARS-CoV-2 infection activated T and B cell responses during the early onset but resulted in transient adaptive immunosuppression during severe disease state. Activation of apoptotic pathways and functional exhaustion may contribute to the reduction of lymphocytes and dysfunction of adaptive immunity, whereas increase in IL2, IL7, and IL15 may facilitate the recovery of the number and function of lymphocytes. Our study provides comprehensive transcriptional signatures of peripheral blood response in patients with moderate COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Virol ; 95(12)2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789991

RESUMO

Recombinant influenza A viral (IAV) vectors are potential to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity, but the packaging capacity is limited and only one or a few epitopes can be carried. Here, we report the generation of a replication-competent IAV vector that carries a full-length HIV-1 p24 gene linked to the 5'-terminal coding region of the neuraminidase segment via a protease cleavage sequence (IAV-p24). IAV-p24 was successfully rescued and stably propagated, and P24 protein was efficiently expressed in infected mammalian cells. In BALB/c mice, IAV-p24 showed attenuated pathogenicity compared to that of the parental A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus. An intranasal inoculation with IAV-p24 elicited moderate HIV-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in the airway and vaginal tracts and in the spleen, and an intranasal boost with a replication-incompetent adenovirus type 2 vector expressing the HIV-1 gag gene (Ad2-gag) greatly improved these responses. Importantly, compared to an Ad2-gag prime plus IAV-p24 boost regimen, the IAV-p24 prime plus Ad2-gag boost regimen had a greater efficacy in eliciting HIV-specific CMI responses. P24-specific CD8+ T cells and antibodies were robustly provoked both systemically and in mucosal sites and showed long-term durability, revealing that IAV-p24 may be used as a mucosa-targeted priming vaccine. Our results illustrate that IAV-p24 is able to prime systemic and mucosal immunity against HIV-1 and warrants further evaluation in nonhuman primates.IMPORTANCE An effective HIV-1 vaccine remains elusive despite nearly 40 years of research. CD8+ T cells and protective antibodies may both be desirable for preventing HIV-1 infection in susceptible mucosal sites. Recombinant influenza A virus (IAV) vector has the potential to stimulate these immune responses, but the packaging capacity is extremely limited. Here, we describe a replication-competent IAV vector expressing the HIV-1 p24 gene (IAV-p24). Unlike most other IAV vectors that carried one or several antigenic epitopes, IAV-p24 stably expressed the full-length P24 protein, which contains multiple epitopes and is highly conserved among all known HIV-1 sequences. Compared to the parental A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus, IAV-p24 showed an attenuated pathogenicity in BALB/c mice. When combined with an adenovirus vector expressing the HIV-1 gag gene, IAV-p24 was able to prime P24-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. IAV-p24 as an alternative priming vaccine against HIV-1 warrants further evaluation in nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/análise , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Feminino , Genes gag , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Celular , Imunização Secundária , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 625461, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777838

RESUMO

Background: Talaromycosis (TM) caused by Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is a growing public health concern. Although Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes play a critical role in the host defense against fungal infection, the influence of polymorphisms in these genes on the susceptibility of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients to TM remains unknown. This study aims to uncover the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR genes with TM susceptibility among patients with AIDS. Methods: Altogether 200 AIDS patients complicated with TM, 200 matched AIDS patients without TM, and 76 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this case-control study. In total, 23 SNPs in the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 genes, which may influence the susceptibility of AIDS patients to TM, were checked by the time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) method among these Han Chinese subjects. Results: No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies of selected SNPs were found among the TM group, Non-TM group, and HC group. Haplotype analysis also demonstrated no correlation of these SNPs with TM. However, subgroup analysis showed that the genotype TT and the T allele in TLR2 SNP rs1339 were more frequent in typical TM cases than controls (50.0 vs. 35.8%, 70.5 vs. 59.7%); the frequency of the GT genotype in TLR2 SNP rs7656411 was markedly higher in severe TM cases compared to controls (57.8 vs. 34.4%). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a genetic connection of TLR2 SNPs rs1339 and rs7656411 with an increased susceptibility and severity of TM among Han Chinese populations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Micoses , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Talaromyces , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 91: 104781, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639308

RESUMO

A retrospective analysis was conducted on HIV-infected patients whose continuously HAART strategy was lamivudine +tenofovir+ efavirenz. Propensity matching for 35 HBeAg-positive/HIV co-infected patients, 35 HBeAg-negative/HIV co-infected patients, and 70 HIV mono-infected patients. Immune recovery (including CD4 cells count, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD4 count multiples and CD4/CD8 multiples) of HBeAg-negative/HIV co-infected group are continuously lower than HBeAg-positive/HIV co-infected group and HIV mono-infected group. The result indicated that the mechanisms associated with HBeAg-negative may be involved in the regulation of immune recovery after HAART.

11.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2505-2512, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433006

RESUMO

To investigate the dynamic changes of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the role of KL-6 as a noninvasive biomarker for predicting long-term lung injury, the clinical information and laboratory tests of 166 COVID-19 patients were collected, and a correlation analysis between KL-6 and other parameters was conducted. There were 17 (10.2%, 17/166) severe/critical and 149 (89.8%, 149/166) mild COVID-19 patients in our cohort. Serum KL-6 was significantly higher in severe/critical COVID-19 patients than in mild patients (median 898.0 vs. 451.2 U/ml, p < .001). KL-6 was next confirmed to be a sensitive and specific biomarker for distinguishing mild and severe/critical patients and correlate to computed tomography lung lesions areas. Serum KL-6 concentration during the follow-up period (>100 days postonset) was well correlated to those concentrations within 10 days postonset (Pearson r = .867, p < .001), indicating the prognostic value of KL-6 levels in predicting lung injury after discharge. Finally, elevated KL-6 was found to be significantly correlated to coagulation disorders, and T cells subsets dysfunctions. In summary, serum KL-6 is a biomarker for assessing COVID-19 severity and predicting the prognosis of lung injury of discharged patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar/sangue , Mucina-1/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
12.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(2): 157-161, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873064

RESUMO

Multiple HIV-1 genotypes were found circulating in Guangdong Province, China, as this province is located in South China and has a high frequency of international trade. In this study, we report the near full-length genome (NFLG) of CRF12_BF that was identified from a male patient in Guangzhou city, Guangdong Province; this is the first time CRF12_BF has been reported in mainland China. The NFLG was amplified, and then PCR products were sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The CRF12_BF strain was confirmed by the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. In addition, this CRF12_BF strain was confirmed to contain the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation E138A associated with potential low-level resistance against efavirenz and low-level resistance against rilpivirine by the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database program. The analyzed sequence data in this study will provide more information on the HIV epidemic in China.

13.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 794-802, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in the intestines and feces, but its clinical significance is not completely clear. We aim to characterize the longitudinal test results of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs and to explore the association with disease severity. METHODS: We included laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, who were hospitalized in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital and excluded those who had not received anal swabs for SARS-COV-2 RNA testing. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained. Throat swabs and anal swabs were collected periodically for SARS-COV-2 RNA detection. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventeen eligible patients (median aged 50 years, 50.2% were females) were analyzed. 21.2% (46/217) of the patients were detected with SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs. The duration of viral RNA was longer, but the viral load was lower in anal swabs than throat swabs in the early stage of the disease. During a median follow-up of 20 days, 30 (13.8%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for high-flow nasal cannula or higher-level oxygen support measures to correct hypoxemia. Detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-5.24), increased C-reactive protein (aHR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.35-7.32) and lymphocytopenia (aHR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.46-6.67) were independently associated with ICU admission. The cumulative incidence of ICU admission was higher among patients with detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (26.3% vs 10.7%, P = .006). CONCLUSION: Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the digestive tract was a potential warning indicator of severe disease.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/virologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfopenia/patologia , Linfopenia/terapia , Linfopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Faringe/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287631

RESUMO

The wide variety of new HIV-1 recombinant variants are a predominant challenge for understanding the molecular epidemiology and preventing the spread of the HIV-1 epidemic. In this study, we confirmed a novel HIV-1 unique B/C recombinant (ZLQ01186) isolated from a male patient infected with HIV-1 through injection drug use in Foshan city, Guangdong Province. The near full-length genome was amplified, and then the polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The genomic sequence of the strain, with two subtype B segments inserted into the subtype C backbone, was 8,953 bp in length, extending from 647 to 9,599 bp according to the HXB2 genome. In addition, this B/C recombinant strain contained the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutation K103N and the integrase strand transfer inhibitor other resistance mutation L74I according to the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database program. The drug resistance profile indicates high-level resistance against efavirenz and rilpivirine. This study identified a recombinant between the main circulating strains, indicating a more complicated trend of the HIV-1 epidemic in Guangdong, China.

15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 87: 104673, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309773

RESUMO

Guangzhou city is the political, economic, and cultural center of the Guangdong Province, China. The molecular epidemiological characteristics of HIV-1 in Guangzhou are not widely known. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of HIV-1 genotypes among treatment naïve HIV/AIDS patients living in Guangzhou. HIV-1 RNA was extracted from serum specimens. The partial pol gene of the HIV-1 genome was amplified and sequenced. The genotypes were screened using the subtyping tool COMET and further confirmed by phylogenetic analysis, with the exception of the URFs that were analyzed by jpHMM and RIP. The distributions of HIV genotypes in different risk populations were analyzed. Subsequently, pol sequences were used to construct transmission networks and analyze drug resistance. Twelve HIV-1 genotypes including 3 subtypes and 9 CRFs, with several URFs were identified from 1388 HIV-1 sequences, which were derived from 1490 patients. The main genotypes circulating in Guangzhou were CRF07_BC (38.3%), CRF01_AE (32.3%), and CRF55_01B (10.7%). CRF01_AE was the secondary dominant strain and multiple lineages of CRF01_AE had been identified in Guangzhou. The 01B recombinant forms, including CRF55_01B, CRF59_01B and CRF68_01B, have circulated widely in Guangzhou. 42.22% (586/1388) of the study sequences fell into 143 transmission networks, and the three main clusters revealed that sequences from MSM and HET populations were intermixed. 5.40% (75/1388) of patients had pre-treatment drug resistance. The HIV-1 strains that were present in Guangzhou have demonstrated complex genotypes. Particular attention should be given on these genotypes for the further strategy of prevention and intervention of HIV transmission.

16.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 4327-4334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293836

RESUMO

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection can accelerate HBV-induced liver disease. A previous study showed that variation in the HBV pre-S region and quasispecies heterogeneity (Sn, mean genetic distance, dS, dN, and dS/dN) are both related to HBV-induced terminal liver disease in HBV mono-infection. Currently, data are lacking on quasispecies variation of the HBV pre-S region in HIV/HBV co-infection. Investigating the quasispecies variation of the HBV pre-S region and its related factors in HIV/HBV co-infection will help to better explore the pathogenic mechanism of HIV/HBV co-infection. Methods: According to the HIV antibody results obtained before treatment, chronic HBV-infected patients were divided into HIV/HBV co-infected and HBV mono-infected groups. The clinical characteristics of all patients were collected, and DNA was extracted from the serum. The HBV pre-S region was amplified by nested PCR and was further TA cloned. BioEdit software 7.0 was used for sequence alignment with reference to the standard sequence of the matched HBV genotype. We used 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) to control for baseline confounding factors between the two groups. Results: After 1:1 PSM, we identified 100 patients with similar propensities: 50 HIV/HBV co-infected patients and 50 HBV mono-infected patients. HBV quasispecies indices were lower in the HIV/HBV co-infected group than those in the HBV mono-infected group. A significant correlation was observed between all quasispecies indices and soluble cluster of differentiation 163 (sCD163) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in the HIV/HBV co-infected group; however, this phenomenon was not found in the HBV mono-infected group. Conclusion: Combined HIV infection reduces quasispecies heterogeneity in the HBV pre-S region, and the quasispecies heterogeneity is related to the sCD163 and IL-18 levels.

17.
Virology ; 551: 26-35, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus and the cause of COVID-19. More than 80% of COVID-19 patients exhibit mild or moderate symptoms. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of viral load and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in a longitudinal cohort of COVID-19 patients with severe and mild/moderate diseases. METHODS: Demographic and clinical information were obtained. Serial samples of blood, nasal and pharyngeal and anal swabs were collected at different time points post-onset. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoassays, respectively. RESULTS: Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detectable in 58.0% (58/100) COVID-19 patients upon admission and lasted for a median of 13 days post-onset. In addition, 5.9% (1/17) and 20.2% (19/94) of the blood and anal swab specimens were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, respectively. Anal viral RNA was more frequently detected in the patients who were positive for viral RNA in the respiratory samples upon admission. Specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody developed within two weeks after onset, reached peak approximately 17 days post-onset and then maintained at relatively high level up to 50 days we analyzed in most patients. However, the levels of antibodies were variable among the patients. High titers of antibodies appeared to be associated with the severity of the disease. Furthermore, viral proteins from different sources showed significant difference of serological sensitivity especially during the first week post-onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate rapid clearance or self-elimination of viral RNA in about half of the COVID-19 patients upon admission. Viral RNA shedding of SARS-CoV-2 occurred in multiple tissues including the respiratory system, blood, and intestine. Variable levels of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody may be associated with disease severity. These findings have shed light on viral kinetics and antibody response in COVID-19 patients and provide scientific evidence for infection control and patient management.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 557453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123541

RESUMO

Approximately 15-20% of COVID-19 patients will develop severe pneumonia, and about 10% of these will die if not properly managed. Earlier discrimination of potentially severe patients basing on routine clinical and laboratory changes and commencement of prophylactical management will not only save lives but also mitigate the otherwise overwhelming healthcare burden. In this retrospective investigation, the clinical and laboratory features were collected from 125 COVID-19 patients who were classified into mild (93 cases) or severe (32 cases) groups according to their clinical outcomes after 3-7 days post-admission. The subsequent analysis with single-factor and multivariate logistic regression methods indicated that 17 factors on admission differed significantly between mild and severe groups but that only comorbidity with underlying diseases, increased respiratory rate (>24/min), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP >10 mg/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH >250 U/L) were independently associated with the later disease development. Finally, we evaluated their prognostic values with receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis and found that the above four factors could not confidently predict the occurrence of severe pneumonia individually, though a combination of fast respiratory rate and elevated LDH significantly increased the predictive confidence (AUC = 0.944, sensitivity = 0.941, and specificity = 0.902). A combination consisting of three or four factors could further increase the prognostic value. Additionally, measurable serum viral RNA post-admission independently predicted the severe illness occurrence. In conclusion, a combination of general clinical characteristics and laboratory tests could provide a highly confident prognostic value for identifying potentially severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients.

19.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(11): 1119-1125, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037400

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been redetected after discharge in some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The reason for the recurrent positivity of the test and the potential public health concern due to this occurrence are still unknown. Here, we analyzed the viral data and clinical manifestations of 289 domestic Chinese COVID-19 patients and found that 21 individuals (7.3%) were readmitted for hospitalization after detection of SARS-CoV-2 after discharge. First, we experimentally confirmed that the virus was involved in the initial infection and was not a secondary infection. In positive retests, the virus was usually found in anal samples (15 of 21, 71.4%). Through analysis of the intracellular viral subgenomic messenger RNA (sgmRNA), we verified that positive retest patients had active viral replication in their gastrointestinal tracts (3 of 16 patients, 18.7%) but not in their respiratory tracts. Then, we found that viral persistence was not associated with high viral titers, delayed viral clearance, old age, or more severe clinical symptoms during the first hospitalization. In contrast, viral rebound was associated with significantly lower levels of and slower generation of viral receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgA and IgG antibodies. Our study demonstrated that the positive retest patients failed to create a robust protective humoral immune response, which might result in SARS-CoV-2 persistence in the gastrointestinal tract and possibly in active viral shedding. Further exploration of the mechanism underlying the rebound in SARS-CoV-2 in this population will be crucial for preventing virus spread and developing effective vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Testes Sorológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
20.
J Clin Virol ; 133: 104661, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is threatening billions of people. We described the clinical characteristics and explore virological and immunological factors associated with clinical outcomes. METHODS: 297 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital between January 20 and February 20, 2020 were included. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in respiratory tract, blood samples and digestive tract was detected and lymphocyte subsets were tested periodically. RESULT: Among the 297 patients (median age of 48 years), 154 (51.9 %) were female, 245 (82.5 %) mild/moderate cases, and 52 (17.5 %) severe/critical cases. 270 patients were detected for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs and/or blood samples, and the overall positive rate was 23.0 % (62/270), higher in severe/critical cases than in mild/moderate cases (52.0 % vs. 16.4 %, P < 0.001). The CD4/CD8 ratio on admission was significantly higher in severe/critical cases than in mild/moderate cases (1.84 vs. 1.50, P = 0.022). During a median follow-up period of 17 days, 36 (12.1 %) patients were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), 16 (5.4 %) patients developed respiratory failure and underwent mechanical ventilation, four (1.3 %) patients needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), only one (0.34 %) patients died of multiple organ failure. Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs and/or blood samples, as well as higher CD4/CD8 ratio were independent risk factors of respiratory failure and ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Most of COVID-19 patients in Guangzhou are mild/moderate, and presence of extrapulmonary virus and higher CD4/CD8 ratio are associated with higher risk of worse outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Relação CD4-CD8 , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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