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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 48: 101429, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35516446

RESUMO

Background: The obesity epidemic in the USA continues to grow nationwide. Although excess weight-related mortality has been studied in general, less is known about how it varies by demographic subgroup within the USA. In this study we estimated excess mortality associated with elevated body weight nationally and by state and subgroup. Methods: We developed a nationally-representative microsimulation (individual-level) model of US adults between 1999 and 2016, based on risk factor data from 6,002,012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents. Prior probability distributions for hazard ratios relating body-mass index (BMI) to mortality were informed by a global pooling dataset. Individual-level mortality risks were modelled accounting for demographics, smoking history, and BMI adjusted for self-report bias. We calibrated the model to empirical all-cause mortality rates from CDC WONDER by state and subgroup, and assessed the predictive accuracy of the model using a random sample of data withheld from model fitting. We simulated counterfactual scenarios to estimate excess mortality attributable to different levels of excess weight and smoking history. Findings: We estimated that excess weight was responsible for more than 1300 excess deaths per day (nearly 500,000 per year) and a loss in life expectancy of nearly 2·4 years in 2016, contributing to higher excess mortality than smoking. Relative excess mortality rates were nearly twice as high for women compared to men in 2016 (21·9% vs 13·9%), and were higher for Black non-Hispanic adults. By state, overall excess weight-related life expectancy loss ranged from 1·75 years (95% UI 1·57-1·94) in Colorado to 3·18 years (95% UI 2·86-3·51) in Mississippi. Interpretation: Excess weight has substantial impacts on mortality in the USA, with large disparities by state and subgroup. Premature mortality will likely increase as obesity continues to rise. Funding: The JPB Foundation, NIH, CDC.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arginine-derived metabolites are involved in oxidative and inflammatory processes related with endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the associations of arginine catabolism metabolites with the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) or heart failure (HF), and to evaluate the potential modification of these associations through Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions in a large primary prevention trial. METHODS: Two nested matched case-control studies were designed within the PREDIMED trial. Five hundred and nine incident cases and 547 matched controls for the AF case-control study, and 326 cases and 402 matched controls for the HF case-control study participants were selected using incidence density sampling. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and arginine catabolism metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were applied to test the associations between the metabolites and incident AF or HF. Interactions between metabolites and intervention groups (MedDiet groups vs control group) were analyzed with the likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Inverse associations with incident AF were observed for arginine [OR per 1 SD (95% CI): 0.83 (0.73, 0.94)]) and homoarginine [0.87 (0.76, 0.98)], whereas positive associations were found for the asymmetric dimethylarginine/symmetric dimethylarginine ratio (ADMA/SDMA) [1.15 (1.01, 1.31)] and citrulline [1.19 (1.01, 1.39)]. For HF, inverse associations were found for arginine [0.82 (0.69, 0.97)] and homoarginine [0.81 (0.68, 0.96)], and positive associations for the ADMA/SDMA ratio [1.19 (1.02, 1.41)], N1-acetylspermidine [1.34 (1.12, 1.60)], and diacetylspermine [1.20 (1.02, 1.41)]. In the stratified analysis according to the dietary intervention, the lower HF risk associated with arginine was restricted to participants in the MedDiet groups (p for interaction 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that arginine catabolism metabolites could be involved in AF and HF. Interventions with the MedDiet may contribute to strengthen the inverse association between arginine and the risk of HF.This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(18): e435, 2022 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512868
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 113028, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483198

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Circulating fatty acids (FA) are known to be related to these conditions, possibly through their role in inflammation, although different types of FAs can have opposite effects on inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of plasma FAs with inflammatory biomarkers in a PREDIMED trial subsample after one year of intervention. In a one-year longitudinal study of 91 participants of the PREDIMED trial (Barcelona-Clinic center), plasma FAs and inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed using gas chromatography and ELISA, respectively. In baseline plasma, a multivariable-adjusted ordinary least squares regression model showed that n-3 polyunsaturated FAs concentrations were inversely associated with concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin, whereas the level of the most abundant saturated FA, palmitic acid, was directly associated with concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (ß = 0.48 pg/mL, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.93 per 1-SD increase, p-value = 0.037). After one year of nutritional intervention, changes of plasma diet-derived total saturated FAs and palmitic acid were directly associated with changes in IL-6 (ß = 0.59 pg/mL [95% CI: 0.28, 0.89] per 1-SD, p-value = 0.001; ß = 0.64 pg/mL, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.98, p-value = 0.001), respectively, after correction for multiple testing. Our findings suggest that saturated FAs of dietary origin, especially palmitic acid, are directly involved in the increase of IL-6 in plasma.

5.
Diabetologia ; 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391539

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Plant-based diets, especially when rich in healthy plant foods, have been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether plasma metabolite profiles related to plant-based diets reflect this association was unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the plasma metabolite profiles related to plant-based diets, and to evaluate the associations between the identified metabolite profiles and the risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Within three prospective cohorts (Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II and Health Professionals Follow-up Study), we measured plasma metabolites from 10,684 participants using high-throughput LC MS. Adherence to plant-based diets was assessed by three indices derived from the food frequency questionnaire: an overall Plant-based Diet Index (PDI), a Healthy Plant-based Diet Index (hPDI), and an Unhealthy Plant-based Diet Index (uPDI). Multi-metabolite profiles related to plant-based diet were identified using elastic net regression with a training/testing approach. The prospective associations between metabolite profiles and incident type 2 diabetes were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Metabolites potentially mediating the association between plant-based diets and type 2 diabetes risk were further identified. RESULTS: We identified multi-metabolite profiles comprising 55 metabolites for PDI, 93 metabolites for hPDI and 75 metabolites for uPDI. Metabolite profile scores based on the identified metabolite profiles were correlated with the corresponding diet index (Pearson r = 0.33-0.35 for PDI, 0.41-0.45 for hPDI, and 0.37-0.38 for uPDI, all p<0.001). Metabolite profile scores of PDI (HR per 1 SD higher = 0.81 [95% CI 0.75, 0.88]) and hPDI (HR per 1 SD higher = 0.77 [95% CI 0.71, 0.84]) showed an inverse association with incident type 2 diabetes, whereas the metabolite profile score for uPDI was not associated with the risk. Mutual adjustment for metabolites selected in the metabolite profiles, including trigonelline, hippurate, isoleucine and a subset of triacylglycerols, attenuated the associations of diet indices PDI and hPDI with lower type 2 diabetes risk. The explainable proportion of PDI/hPDI-related diabetes risk by these metabolites ranged between 8.5% and 37.2% (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Plasma metabolite profiles related to plant-based diets, especially a healthy plant-based diet, were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among a generally healthy population. Our findings support the beneficial role of healthy plant-based diets in diabetes prevention and provide new insights for future investigation.

6.
PLoS Med ; 19(4): e1003972, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes, but the extent to which there is a synergistic effect of the 2 factors is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the joint associations of genetic risk and diet quality with incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 35,759 men and women in the United States participating in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I (1986 to 2016) and II (1991 to 2017) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1986 to 2016) with available genetic data and who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Genetic risk was characterized using both a global polygenic score capturing overall genetic risk and pathway-specific polygenic scores denoting distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Diet quality was assessed using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for type 2 diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders. With over 902,386 person-years of follow-up, 4,433 participants were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 1.32; P < 0.001) per standard deviation (SD) increase in global polygenic score and 1.13 (1.09, 1.17; P < 0.001) per 10-unit decrease in AHEI. Irrespective of genetic risk, low diet quality, as compared to high diet quality, was associated with approximately 30% increased risk of type 2 diabetes (Pinteraction = 0.69). The joint association of low diet quality and increased genetic risk was similar to the sum of the risk associated with each factor alone (Pinteraction = 0.30). Limitations of this study include the self-report of diet information and possible bias resulting from inclusion of highly educated participants with available genetic data. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence for the independent associations of genetic risk and diet quality with incident type 2 diabetes and suggest that a healthy diet is associated with lower diabetes risk across all levels of genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385367

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Recent prospective studies suggest diabetes as a risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the extent to which diabetes-related traits, such as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, are related to OSA risk remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To examine risk of developing OSA according to baseline levels of fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: Participants from four prospective US cohorts were included: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 2002-2012), NHSII (1995-2013), the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1996-2012) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; 2000-2012). OSA was assessed by self-reported clinical diagnosis in NHS/NHSII/HPFS and by at-home polysomnography in MESA (defined as Apnea-Hypopnea Index≥30). RESULTS: Of 9,283 participants with fasting insulin data, 790 (8.5%) developed OSA over 10-18 years of follow-up. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle and co-morbidity factors, the odds ratio (OR) for incident OSA comparing the extreme quintiles of fasting insulin was 3.59 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.82; p-trend<0.0001). Of 6,342 participants with HbA1c data, 715 (11.3%) developed OSA. The comparable OR for HbA1c was 2.21 (95% CI: 1.69, 2.89; p-trend<0.0001). Additional adjustment for BMI and waist circumference attenuated the associations for fasting insulin (p-trend=0.005) and HbA1c (p-trend=0.03). In the fully-adjusted model simultaneously including both biomarkers, only fasting insulin but not HbA1c was associated with OSA risk. CONCLUSION: Independent of obesity, insulin resistance may play a more important role than hyperglycemia in the pathogenesis of OSA. Given the limitation of using self-reported diagnosis to exclude baseline prevalent OSA cases, additional studies are needed to further establish the temporal relationship and assess whether improving insulin resistance may reduce OSA risk.

8.
Am J Prev Med ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although insufficient or prolonged sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease, sleep duration is not included in most lifestyle scores. This study evaluates the relationship between a lifestyle score, including sleep duration and cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: A prospective analysis among 67,250 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 29,114 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016) was conducted in 2021. Lifestyle factors were updated every 2-4 years using self-reported questionnaires. The traditional lifestyle score was defined as not smoking, having a normal BMI, being physically active (≥30 minutes/day of moderate physical activity), eating a healthy diet, and drinking alcohol in moderation. Low-risk sleep duration, defined as sleeping ≥6 to <8 hours/day, was included as an additional component in the updated lifestyle score. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate cardiovascular disease risk. The likelihood-ratio test and C-statistics were used to compare both scores. RESULTS: A total of 11,710 incident cardiovascular disease cases during follow-up were documented. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios comparing 6 with 0 low-risk factors in the healthy lifestyle score including sleep duration were 0.17 (95% CI=0.12, 0.23) for cardiovascular disease, 0.14 (95% CI=0.10, 0.21) for coronary heart disease, and 0.20 (95% CI=0.12, 0.33) for stroke. Approximately 66% (95% CI=56%, 75%) of cardiovascular disease, 67% (95% CI=54%, 77%) of coronary heart disease, and 62% (95% CI=42%, 76%) of stroke cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle including sleep. Adding sleep duration to the score slightly increased the C-statistics from 0.64 (95% CI=0.63, 0.64) to 0.65 (95% CI=0.64, 0.65) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adopting a healthy lifestyle including sleep recommendations could substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in U.S. adults.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 45(4): 1013-1024, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the rapidly increasing availability of metabolomics data in prospective studies, an update of the meta evidence on metabolomics and type 2 diabetes risk is warranted. PURPOSE: To conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of plasma, serum, and urine metabolite markers and incident type 2 diabetes. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed and Embase until 6 March 2021. STUDY SELECTION: We selected prospective observational studies where investigators used high-throughput techniques to investigate the relationship between plasma, serum, or urine metabolites and incident type 2 diabetes. DATA EXTRACTION: Baseline metabolites per-SD risk estimates and 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes were extracted from all eligible studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 61 reports with 71,196 participants and 11,771 type 2 diabetes cases/events were included in the updated review. Meta-analysis was performed for 412 metabolites, of which 123 were statistically significantly associated (false discovery rate-corrected P < 0.05) with type 2 diabetes risk. Higher plasma and serum levels of certain amino acids (branched-chain, aromatic, alanine, glutamate, lysine, and methionine), carbohydrates and energy-related metabolites (mannose, trehalose, and pyruvate), acylcarnitines (C4-DC, C4-OH, C5, C5-OH, and C8:1), the majority of glycerolipids (di- and triacylglycerols), (lyso)phosphatidylethanolamines, and ceramides included in meta-analysis were associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.07-2.58). Higher levels of glycine, glutamine, betaine, indolepropionate, and (lyso)phosphatidylcholines were associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk (hazard ratio 0.69-0.90). LIMITATIONS: Substantial heterogeneity (I2 > 50%, τ2 > 0.1) was observed for some of the metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Several plasma and serum metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, are associated with type 2 diabetes risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Aminoácidos , Carboidratos , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 82, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The conversion of plant lignans to bioactive enterolignans in the gastrointestinal tract is mediated through microbial processing. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between lignan intake, plasma enterolactone concentrations, gut microbiome composition, and metabolic risk in free-living male adults. RESULTS: In 303 men participating in the Men's Lifestyle Validation Study (MLVS), lignan intake was assessed using two sets of 7-day diet records, and gut microbiome was profiled through shotgun sequencing of up to 2 pairs of fecal samples (n = 911). A score was calculated to summarize the abundance of bacteria species that were significantly associated with plasma enterolactone levels. Of the 138 filtered species, plasma enterolactone levels were significantly associated with the relative abundances of 18 species at FDR < 0.05 level. Per SD increment of lignan intake was associated with 20.7 nM (SEM: 2.3 nM) higher enterolactone concentrations among participants with a higher species score, whereas the corresponding estimate was 4.0 nM (SEM: 1.7 nM) among participants with a lower species score (P for interaction < 0.001). A total of 12 plasma metabolites were also significantly associated with these enterolactone-predicting species. Of the association between lignan intake and metabolic risk, 19.8% (95%CI: 7.3%-43.6%) was explained by the species score alone, 54.5% (95%CI: 21.8%-83.7%) by both species score and enterolactone levels, and 79.8% (95%CI: 17.7%-98.6%) by further considering the 12 plasma metabolites. CONCLUSION: We identified multiple gut bacteria species that were enriched or depleted at higher plasma levels of enterolactone in men. These species jointly modified the associations of lignan intake with plasma enterolactone levels and explained the majority of association between lignan intake and metabolic risk along with enterolactone levels and certain plasma metabolites.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lignanas , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/metabolismo , Adulto , Dieta , Humanos , Lignanas/metabolismo , Masculino
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(7): e024014, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352568

RESUMO

Background Epidemiologic studies on the relationship between avocado intake and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are lacking. Methods and Results This study included 68 786 women from the NHS (Nurses' Health Study) and 41 701 men from the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-up Study; 1986-2016) who were free of cancer, coronary heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Diet was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires at baseline and then every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs. A total of 14 274 incident cases of CVD (9185 coronary heart disease events and 5290 strokes) were documented over 30 years of follow-up. After adjusting for lifestyle and other dietary factors, compared with nonconsumers, those with analysis-specific higher avocado intake (≥2 servings/week) had a 16% lower risk of CVD (pooled hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95) and a 21% lower risk of coronary heart disease (pooled hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.91). No significant associations were observed for stroke. Per each half serving/day increase in avocado intake, the pooled hazard ratio for CVD was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.71-0.91). Replacing half a serving/day of margarine, butter, egg, yogurt, cheese, or processed meats with the equivalent amount of avocado was associated with a 16% to 22% lower risk of CVD. Conclusions Higher avocado intake was associated with lower risk of CVD and coronary heart disease in 2 large prospective cohorts of US men and women. The replacement of certain fat-containing foods with avocado could lead to lower risk of CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Persea , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-38, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between adherence to plant-based diets and mortality. DESIGN: prospective study. We calculated a plant-based diet index (PDI) by assigning positive scores to plant foods and reverse scores to animal foods. We also created a healthful PDI (hPDI) and an unhealthful PDI (uPDI) by further separate the healthy plant foods from less-healthy plant foods. SETTING: the VA Million Veteran Program. PARTICIPANTS: 315,919 men and women aged 19 to 104 years who completed a food frequency questionnaire at the baseline. RESULTS: We documented 31,136 deaths during the follow-up. A higher PDI was significantly associated with lower total mortality [hazard ratio (HR) comparing extreme deciles =0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71 to 0.79, Ptrend <0.001]. We observed an inverse association between hPDI and total mortality (HR comparing extreme deciles =0.64, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.68, Ptrend <0.001), whereas uPDI was positively associated with total mortality (HR comparing extreme deciles =1.41, 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.49, Ptrend <0.001). Similar significant associations of PDI, hPDI, and uPDI were also observed for CVD and cancer mortality. The associations between the plant-based diet indices and total mortality were consistent among African and European American participants, and participants free from CVD and cancer and those who were diagnosed with major chronic disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: A greater adherence to a plant-based diet was associated with substantially lower total mortality in this large population of veterans. These findings support recommending plant-rich dietary patterns for the prevention of major chronic diseases.

13.
Diabetologia ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357561

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to evaluate associations of multiple recommended dietary patterns (i.e. the alternate Mediterranean diet [aMED], the Healthy Eating Index [HEI]-2015 and the healthful Plant-based Diet Index [hPDI]) with serum metabolite profile, and to examine dietary-pattern-associated metabolites in relation to incident diabetes. METHODS: We included 2842 adult participants free from diabetes, CVD and cancer during baseline recruitment of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Metabolomics profiling of fasting serum was performed using an untargeted approach. Dietary pattern scores were derived using information collected by two 24 h dietary recalls. Dietary-pattern-associated metabolites were identified using multivariable survey linear regressions and their associations with incident diabetes were assessed using multivariable survey Poisson regressions with adjustment for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: We identified eight metabolites (mannose, γ/ß-tocopherol, N1-methylinosine, pyrraline and four amino acids) that were inversely associated with all dietary scores. These metabolites were detrimentally associated with various cardiometabolic risk traits, especially insulin resistance. A score comprised of these metabolites was associated with elevated risk of diabetes (RRper SD 1.54 [95% CI 1.29, 1.83]), and this detrimental association appeared to be attenuated or eliminated by having a higher score for aMED (pinteraction = 0.0001), HEI-2015 (pinteraction = 0.020) or hPDI (pinteraction = 0.023). For example, RR (95% CI) of diabetes for each SD increment in the metabolite score was 1.99 (1.44, 2.37), 1.67 (1.17, 2.38) and 1.08 (0.86, 1.34) across the lowest to the highest tertile of aMED score, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Various recommended dietary patterns were inversely related to a group of metabolites that were associated with elevated risk of diabetes. Adhering to a healthful eating pattern may attenuate or eliminate the detrimental association between metabolically unhealthy serum metabolites and risk of diabetes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that an overall healthy diet is associated with lower risk of frailty. However, the effect of diet composition, specifically the role of protein intake on frailty, is mostly unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of protein, including total, plant, animal, and dairy protein, in relation to frailty incidence in a large cohort of older women. METHODS: We analysed data from 85 871 women aged ≥60 participating in the Nurses' Health Study. Intake of protein was measured nine times during follow-up from 1980 until 2010. Frailty was defined as having at least three of the following five criteria from the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses and Loss of Weight (FRAIL) scale: fatigue, low strength, reduced aerobic capacity, having ≥5 illnesses, and weight loss of ≥5%. The occurrence of frailty was assessed every 4 years from 1992 up to 2014. RESULTS: During follow-up, we identified 13 279 incident cases of frailty. Women with a higher intake of plant protein had a lower risk of developing frailty after adjustment for all relevant confounders [relative risks across quintiles of consumption: 1.00, 0.94, 0.89, 0.86, and 0.86; P-trend < 0.001]. In contrast, those with a higher intake of animal protein intake had a higher risk of frailty [relative risks across quintiles of consumption: 1.00, 0.98, 0.99, 1.00, and 1.07; P-trend 0.04]. The intake of total and dairy protein showed no significant association with frailty in the full model. Substituting 5% of energy from plant protein intake at the expense of animal protein, dairy protein, or non-dairy animal protein was associated with 38% (29%, 47%), 32% (21%, 42%), and 42% (33%, 50%) reduced risk of frailty. CONCLUSIONS: A higher intake of plant protein, but not animal or dairy protein, was associated with a lower risk of frailty. Substitution of plant protein for animal protein, especially non-dairy animal protein, was associated with lower risk of frailty.

15.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between intakes of sodium and potassium and the ratio of sodium to potassium and incident myocardial infarction and stroke. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 180,156 Veterans aged 19 to 107 years with plausible dietary intake measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer at baseline in the VA Million Veteran Program (MVP). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CVD defined as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) or acute ischemic stroke (AIS) ascertained using high-throughput phenotyping algorithms applied to electronic health records. RESULTS: During up to 8 years of follow-up, we documented 4090 CVD cases (2499 MI and 1712 AIS). After adjustment for confounding factors, a higher sodium intake was associated with a higher risk of CVD, whereas potassium intake was inversely associated with the risk of CVD [hazard ratio (HR) comparing extreme quintiles, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99-1.21, p trend = 0.01) for sodium and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79-0.96, p trend = 0.005) for potassium]. In addition, the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) was positively associated with the risk of CVD (HR comparing extreme quintiles = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.14-1.39, p trend < 0.0001). The associations of Na/K ratio were consistent for two subtypes of CVD; one standard deviation increment in the ratio was associated with HRs (95% CI) of 1.12 (1.06-1.19) for MI and 1.11 (1.03-1.19) for AIS. In secondary analyses, the observed associations were consistent across race and status for diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol at baseline. Associations appeared to be more pronounced among participants with poor dietary quality. CONCLUSIONS: A high sodium intake and a low potassium intake were associated with a higher risk of CVD in this large population of US veterans.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , AVC Isquêmico , Sódio na Dieta , Veteranos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277008

RESUMO

Lactation is associated with a lower risk of subsequent cardiometabolic disease among parous women; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Further, the potential protective effects of lactation on cardiometabolic risk markers at mid-life among high-risk women with past gestational diabetes (GDM) are not established. Using data from the Diabetes & Women's Health Study (2012-2014; n = 577), a longitudinal cohort of women with past GDM from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002), we assessed associations of cumulative lactation duration (none, <6 months, 6-12 months, ≥12-24 months, and ≥24 months) with clinical metabolic outcomes (including type 2 diabetes [T2D], prediabetes, and obesity) and cardiometabolic biomarkers (including biomarkers of glucose/insulin metabolism, fasting lipids, inflammation, and anthropometrics) 9-16 years after enrollment when women were at mid-life. At follow-up, women were 43.9 years old (SD 4.6) with a BMI of 28.7 kg/m2 (IQR 24.6, 33.0); 28.6% of participants had T2D, 39.7% had prediabetes, and 41.2% had obesity. Relative risks (95% CI) of T2D for 0-6, 6-12, 12-24, and ≥24 months of cumulative lactation duration compared to none were 0.94 (0.62,1.44), 0.88 (0.59,1.32), 0.73 (0.46,1.17), and 0.71 (0.40,1.27), respectively. Cumulative lactation duration was not significantly associated with any other clinical outcome or continuous biomarker. In this high-risk cohort of middle-aged women with past GDM, T2D, prediabetes, and obesity were common at follow-up, but not associated with history of cumulative lactation duration 9-16 years after the index pregnancy. Further studies in diverse populations among women at mid-age are needed to understand associations of breastfeeding with T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
17.
Age Ageing ; 51(2)2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the comprehensive role of lifestyle in frailty risk is scarce. To assess the association between a lifestyle-based Healthy Heart Score (HHS), which estimates the 20-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk of frailty among older women. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 121,700 nurses from the USA participating at the Nurses' Health Study. This study included 68,416 women aged ≥60 year with a follow-up from 1990 to 2014. The HHS was computed using the gender-specific beta-coefficients of the nine lifestyle factors, including current smoking, high body mass index, low physical activity, lack of moderate alcohol intake and unhealthy diet. Frailty incidence was assessed every 4 years from 1992 to 2014 as having ≥3 of the following five criteria from the FRAIL scale: fatigue, low strength, reduced aerobic capacity, having ≥5 illnesses and weight loss ≥5%. RESULTS: During 22 years of follow-up, 11,041 total incident cases of frailty were ascertained. Compared to women in the lowest quintile of the HHS (lowest estimated CVD risk), the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of frailty across quintiles was: Q2:1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.53, 1.82); Q3: 2.34 (2.15, 2.53); Q4: 3.54 (3.28, 3.83) and Q5: 5.92 (5.48, 6.38); P-trend > 0.001. Results were consistent for each frailty criterion, among participants with 0 frailty criteria at baseline, when using only baseline exposure or in 6-year-, 10-year- and 14-year-exposure lagged analyses, and after excluding participants with diabetes and CVD at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The HHS, based on a set of modifiable-lifestyle factors, is strongly associated with risk of frailty in older women.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/etiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(4): 574-589, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978851

RESUMO

Asian Americans (AsA), Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) comprise 7.7% of the U.S. population, and AsA have had the fastest growth rate since 2010. Yet the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has invested only 0.17% of its budget on AsA and NHPI research between 1992 and 2018. More than 40 ethnic subgroups are included within AsA and NHPI (with no majority subpopulation), which are highly diverse culturally, demographically, linguistically, and socioeconomically. However, data for these groups are often aggregated, masking critical health disparities and their drivers. To address these issues, in March 2021, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, in partnership with 8 other NIH institutes, convened a multidisciplinary workshop to review current research, knowledge gaps, opportunities, barriers, and approaches for prevention research for AsA and NHPI populations. The workshop covered 5 domains: 1) sociocultural, environmental, psychological health, and lifestyle dimensions; 2) metabolic disorders; 3) cardiovascular and lung diseases; 4) cancer; and 5) cognitive function and healthy aging. Two recurring themes emerged: Very limited data on the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes for most conditions are available, and most existing data are not disaggregated by subgroup, masking variation in risk factors, disease occurrence, and trajectories. Leveraging the vast phenotypic differences among AsA and NHPI groups was identified as a key opportunity to yield novel clues into etiologic and prognostic factors to inform prevention efforts and intervention strategies. Promising approaches for future research include developing collaborations with community partners, investing in infrastructure support for cohort studies, enhancing existing data sources to enable data disaggregation, and incorporating novel technology for objective measurement. Research on AsA and NHPI subgroups is urgently needed to eliminate disparities and promote health equity in these populations.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Hawaii , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(5): 1270-1281, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of diet on age-related brain atrophy is largely unproven. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MED) higher in polyphenols and lower in red/processed meat (Green-MED diet) on age-related brain atrophy. METHODS: This 18-mo clinical trial longitudinally measured brain structure volumes by MRI using hippocampal occupancy score (HOC) and lateral ventricle volume (LVV) expansion score as neurodegeneration markers. Abdominally obese/dyslipidemic participants were randomly assigned to follow 1) healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), 2) MED, or 3) Green-MED diet. All subjects received free gym memberships and physical activity guidance. Both MED groups consumed 28 g walnuts/d (+440 mg/d polyphenols). The Green-MED group consumed green tea (3-4 cups/d) and Mankai (Wolffia-globosa strain, 100 g frozen cubes/d) green shake (+800 mg/d polyphenols). RESULTS: Among 284 participants (88% men; mean age: 51 y; BMI: 31.2 kg/m2; APOE-ε4 genotype = 15.7%), 224 (79%) completed the trial with eligible whole-brain MRIs. The pallidum (-4.2%), third ventricle (+3.9%), and LVV (+2.2%) disclosed the largest volume changes. Compared with younger participants, atrophy was accelerated among those ≥50 y old (HOC change: -1.0% ± 1.4% compared with -0.06% ± 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.6%, 1.3%; P < 0.001; LVV change: 3.2% ± 4.5% compared with 1.3% ± 4.1%; 95% CI: -3.1%, -0.8%; P = 0.001). In subjects ≥ 50 y old, HOC decline and LVV expansion were attenuated in both MED groups, with the best outcomes among Green-MED diet participants, as compared with HDG (HOC: -0.8% ± 1.6% compared with -1.3% ± 1.4%; 95% CI: -1.5%, -0.02%; P = 0.042; LVV: 2.3% ± 4.7% compared with 4.3% ± 4.5%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 5.2%; P = 0.021). Similar patterns were observed among younger subjects. Improved insulin sensitivity over the trial was the parameter most strongly associated with brain atrophy attenuation (P < 0.05). Greater Mankai, green tea, and walnut intake and less red and processed meat were significantly and independently associated with reduced HOC decline (P < 0.05). Elevated urinary concentrations of the polyphenols urolithin-A (r = 0.24; P = 0.013) and tyrosol (r = 0.26; P = 0.007) were significantly associated with lower HOC decline. CONCLUSIONS: A Green-MED (high-polyphenol) diet, rich in Mankai, green tea, and walnuts and low in red/processed meat, is potentially neuroprotective for age-related brain atrophy.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03020186.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Juglans , Atrofia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(2): 101-112, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olive oil consumption has been shown to lower cardiovascular disease risk, but its associations with total and cause-specific mortality are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether olive oil intake is associated with total and cause-specific mortality in 2 prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women. METHODS: The authors used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models to estimate HRs for total and cause-specific mortality among 60,582 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1990-2018) and 31,801 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1990-2018) who were free of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. RESULTS: During 28 years of follow-up, 36,856 deaths occurred. The multivariable-adjusted pooled HR for all-cause mortality among participants who had the highest consumption of olive oil (>0.5 tablespoon/day or >7 g/d) was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.84) compared with those who never or rarely consumed olive oil. Higher olive oil intake was associated with 19% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75-0.87), 17% lower risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78-0.89), 29% lower risk of neurodegenerative disease mortality (HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64-0.78), and 18% lower risk of respiratory disease mortality (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In substitution analyses, replacing 10 g/d of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with 8%-34% lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality. No significant associations were observed when olive oil was compared with other vegetable oils combined. CONCLUSIONS: Higher olive oil intake was associated with lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality. Replacing margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with olive oil was associated with lower risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Azeite de Oliva , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Transtornos Respiratórios/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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