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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 384, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C. sinensis is an important economic crop with fluoride over-accumulation in its leaves, which poses a serious threat to human health due to its leaf consumption as tea. Recently, our study has indicated that cell wall proteins (CWPs) probably play a vital role in fluoride accumulation/detoxification in C. sinensis. However, there has been a lack in CWP identification and characterization up to now. This study is aimed to characterize cell wall proteome of C. sinensis leaves and to develop more CWPs related to stress response. A strategy of combined cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics was employed to investigate CWPs. CWPs were extracted by sequential salt buffers, while N-glycoproteins were enriched by hydrophilic interaction chromatography method using C. sinensis leaves as a material. Afterwards all the proteins were subjected to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: A total of 501 CWPs and 195 CWPs were identified respectively by cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics profiling with 118 CWPs in common. Notably, N-glycoproteomics is a feasible method for CWP identification, and it can enhance CWP coverage. Among identified CWPs, proteins acting on cell wall polysaccharides constitute the largest functional class, most of which might be involved in cell wall structure remodeling. The second largest functional class mainly encompass various proteases related to CWP turnover and maturation. Oxidoreductases represent the third largest functional class, most of which (especially Class III peroxidases) participate in defense response. As expected, identified CWPs are mainly related to plant cell wall formation and defense response. CONCLUSION: This was the first large-scale investigation of CWPs in C. sinensis through cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics. Our results not only provide a database for further research on CWPs, but also an insight into cell wall formation and defense response in C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Parede Celular/química , Fluoretos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Proteômica
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1144, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602909

RESUMO

Pear is a major fruit tree crop distributed worldwide, yet its breeding is a very time-consuming process. To facilitate molecular breeding and gene identification, here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on eleven fruit traits. We identify 37 loci associated with eight fruit quality traits and five loci associated with three fruit phenological traits. Scans for selective sweeps indicate that traits including fruit stone cell content, organic acid and sugar contents might have been under continuous selection during breeding improvement. One candidate gene, PbrSTONE, identified in GWAS, has been functionally verified to be involved in the regulation of stone cell formation, one of the most important fruit quality traits in pear. Our study provides insights into the complex fruit related biology and identifies genes controlling important traits in pear through GWAS, which extends the genetic resources and basis for facilitating molecular breeding in perennial trees.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pyrus/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Lignina/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Plant Physiol ; 180(1): 435-452, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867332

RESUMO

Knowledge of the genetic changes that occurred during the domestication and improvement of perennial trees at the RNA level is limited. Here, we used RNA sequencing analysis to compare representative sets of wild, landrace, and improved accessions of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) to gain insight into the genetic changes associated with domestication and improvement. A close population relationship and similar nucleotide diversity was observed between the wild and landrace groups, whereas the improved group had substantially reduced nucleotide diversity. A total of 11.13 Mb of genome sequence was identified as bearing the signature of selective sweeps that occurred during pear domestication, whereas a distinct and smaller set of genomic regions (4.04 Mb) was identified as being associated with subsequent improvement efforts. The expression diversity of selected genes exhibited a 20.89% reduction from the wild group to the landrace group, but a 23.13% recovery was observed from the landrace to the improved group, showing a distinctly different pattern with variation of sequence diversity. Module-trait association analysis identified 16 distinct coexpression modules, six of which were highly associated with important fruit traits. The candidate trait-linked differentially expressed genes associated with stone cell formation, fruit size, and sugar content were identified in the selected regions, and many of these could also be mapped to the previously reported quantitative trait loci. Thus, our study reveals the specific pattern of domestication and improvement of perennial trees at the transcriptome level, and provides valuable genetic sources of fruit traits that could contribute to pear breeding and improvement.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pyrus/genética , Domesticação , Frutas/citologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Células Vegetais , Pyrus/citologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 591, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868056

RESUMO

Asian pear plays an important role in the world pear industry, accounting for over 70% of world total production volume. Commercial Asian pear production relies on four major pear cultivar groups, Japanese pear (JP), Chinese white pear (CWP), Chinese sand pear (CSP), and Ussurian pear (UP), but their origins remain controversial. We estimated the genetic diversity levels and structures in a large sample of existing local cultivars to investigate the origins of Asian pears using twenty-five genome-covering nuclear microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, nSSR) markers and two non-coding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnL-trnF and accD-psaI). High levels of genetic diversity were detected for both nSSRs (HE = 0.744) and cpDNAs (Hd = 0.792). The major variation was found within geographic populations of cultivated pear groups, demonstrating a close relationship among cultivar groups. CSPs showed a greater genetic diversity than CWPs and JPs, and lowest levels of genetic differentiation were detected among them. Phylogeographical analyses indicated that the CSP, CWP, and JP were derived from the same progenitor of Pyrus pyrifolia in China. A dissemination route of cultivated P. pyrifolia estimated by approximate Bayesian computation suggested that cultivated P. pyrifolia from the Middle Yangtze River Valley area contributed the major genetic resources to the cultivars, excluding those of southwestern China. Three major genetic groups of cultivated Pyrus pyrifolia were revealed using nSSRs and a Bayesian statistical inference: (a) JPs; (b) cultivars from South-Central China northward to northeastern China, covering the main pear production area in China; (c) cultivars from southwestern China to southeastern China, including Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian Provinces. This reflected the synergistic effects of ecogeographical factors and human selection during cultivar spread and improvement. The analyses indicated that UP cultivars might be originated from the interspecific hybridization of wild Pyrus ussuriensis with cultivated Pyrus pyrifolia. The combination of uniparental DNA sequences and nuclear markers give us a better understanding of origins and genetic relationships for Asian pear groups and will be beneficial for the future improvement of Asian pear cultivars.

5.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0135046, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26292286

RESUMO

Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear.


Assuntos
Alternaria/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença/genética , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Alternariose/genética , Alternariose/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(3): 813-8, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24984501

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to reveal the effect of bags with different colors on the fruit coloration of 'Yunhongli No. 2'. The differences in fruit skin color, chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin contents and the activities of related enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis among different bagging treatments were evaluated. The results showed that dark treatment at the fruit development stage was beneficial to skin coloration after bag removing. After removing bags, the anthocyanin content in the treatment of natural light was highest and the red coloration of the fruit skin were best, followed by the treatment of white bags. The different bagging treatments significantly affected the contents of chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin in the fruit skin, thereby affected the skin coloration. The activities of related enzymes for anthocyanin synthesis showed significant differences among the different bagging treatments. The correlation analysis suggested that the anthocyanin content was significantly positively related with the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransf-erase (UFGT), however, it had no significant correlation with the activity of phenylalanin ammo-nialyase (PAL).


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cor , Frutas , Pyrus , Oxirredutases do Álcool , Antocianinas/análise , Clorofila/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Luz , Fenóis/análise
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