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1.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; : 1-18, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-pleasure beliefs are found in both patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and individuals with high social anhedonia (SocAnh), and are associated with anhedonia. However, little is known about the development and maintenance of these low-pleasure beliefs in the clinical and subclinical populations. We investigated whether patients with SZ and individuals with high SocAnh have deficits in updating their beliefs, which may contribute to the understanding of the formation and maintenance of low-pleasure beliefs. METHODS: The Modified Belief Updating Task was administered to assess belief-updating patterns in a clinical sample (36 SZ patients and 30 matched controls) and a subclinical sample (27 individuals with high SocAnh and 30 matched controls). RESULTS: We found that compared with controls, SZ patients updated their beliefs to a greater extent and more frequently when receiving bad news for positive life events, but not for negative life events. Moreover, individuals with high SocAnh also exhibited similar patterns in updating their beliefs for positive life events after controlling depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that negative belief-updating patterns for positive events may play an important role in the formation and maintenance of low-pleasure beliefs in patients with SZ and individuals with high SocAnh.

2.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 317: 111390, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537603

RESUMO

Social anhedonia (SA) impairs social functioning in schizophrenia. Previous evidence suggested that certain brain regions predict longitudinal change of real-world social outcomes, yet previous study designs have failed to capture the corresponding functional connectivity among the brain regions involved. This study measured the real-world social network in 22 pairs of individuals with high and low levels of SA, and followed up them for 21 months. We further explored whether resting-state social brain network characteristics could predict the longitudinal variations of real-world social network. Our results showed that social brain network characteristics could predict the change of real-world social networks in both the high SA and low SA groups. However, the results differed between the two groups, i.e., the topological characteristics of the social brain network predicted real-world social network change in the high SA group; whereas the functional connectivity within the social brain network predicted real-world social network change in the low SA group. Principal component analysis and linear regression analysis on the entire sample showed that the functional connectivity component centered at the right orbital inferior frontal gyrus could best predict social network change. Our findings support the notion that social brain network characteristics could predict social network development.

3.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180325

RESUMO

Two new physalins, 7α-hydroxy-5-deoxy-4-dehydrophysalin IX (1) and 5-deoxy-4-dehydrophysalin IX (2), together with six known compounds, luteolin (3), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (4), neoechinulin A (5), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylphenyl)-2-propenamide (6), physalin D (7) and blumenol A (8) were isolated from Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic analysis, HR-ESI-MS, X-ray crystallographic data analysis and comparison with the known compounds. Among them, compounds 5 and 6 were isolated from the genus Physalis for the first time. Compound 1 exhibited weak NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987711

RESUMO

Altered interoception has been consistently found in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and this impairment may contribute to social cognitive dysfunctions. However, little is known regarding the intercorrelations between interoceptive sensibility, autistic, alexithymic, empathic, and self-related traits. We recruited 1360 non-clinical college students and adults to investigate the complex inter-relationship between these variables using network analysis. The resultant network revealed patterns connecting autistic traits to interoceptive sensibility, empathy, alexithymia, and self-awareness, with reasonable stability and test-retest consistency. The node of alexithymia exhibited the highest centrality and expected influence. As revealed by the network comparison test, networks constructed in high- and low-autistic subgroups were comparable in global strength and structure. Our findings suggested that alexithymia serves as an important node, bridging interoceptive deficits, self-awareness, and empathic impairments of autism spectrum disorder. The co-morbidity of alexithymia should be considered carefully in future studies of interoceptive impairments and social deficits in ASD.

5.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 61: 102671, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984618

RESUMO

Schizotypy is the latent personality reflecting the liability to schizophrenia. The Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) is a newly developed questionnaire to measure the levels of schizotypy. The Chinese version of MSS has been developed and previous findings supported its structure validity. The present study aimed to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the MSS by correlating it with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). A total of 1359 university students completed the MSS and the SPQ online. The results of 1027 valid participants demonstrated that all MSS dimensions showed good internal consistency. The MSS positive dimension is strongly correlated with SPQ cognitive-perceptual factor, the MSS negative dimension with the SPQ interpersonal factor, and the MSS disorganized dimension with the SPQ disorganized factor. Taken together, our study provides evidence for construct validity of the Chinese version of the MSS.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , China , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389057

RESUMO

The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia patients is as around 30%. Evidence suggested that mild OCS could reduce symptoms of schizophrenia, supporting the presence of compensatory functions. However, severe OCS could aggravate various impairments in schizophrenia patients, supporting the "double jeopardy hypothesis". Patients with schizo-obsessive comorbidity, schizophrenia patients and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients have been found to have similarities in executive dysfunctions and altered resting-state functional connectivity within the executive control network (ECN). Executive functions could be associated with the ECN. However, little is known as to whether such overlap exists in the subclinical populations of individuals with schizo-obsessive traits (SOT), schizotypal individuals and individuals with high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). In this study, we recruited 30 schizotypal individuals, 25 individuals with OCS, 29 individuals with SOT and 29 controls for a resting-state ECN-related functional connectivity (rsFC) and a go/shift/no-go task. We found that individuals with SOT exhibited increased rsFC within the ECN compared with controls, while schizotypal individuals exhibited the opposite. Individuals with OCS exhibited decreased rsFC within the ECN and between the ECN and the default mode network (DMN), relative to controls. No significant correlational results between altered rsFC related to the ECN with executive function performance were found after corrections for multiple comparisons in three subclinical groups. Our findings showed that individuals with SOT had increased rsFC within the ECN, while schizotypal individuals and individuals with OCS showed the opposite. Our findings provide evidence for possible neural substrates of subclinical comorbidity of OCS and schizotypy.

7.
Schizophr Res ; 224: 88-94, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046333

RESUMO

In this study, we applied brain grey matter volume and structural covariance methods on T1 weighted images to delineate potential structural brain changes in individuals with high schizotypy, who were defined as healthy individuals scoring in the top tenth percentile of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Eighty-seven college students with high schizotypy and 122 controls were recruited in China. Differences in grey matter volume and volume covariance between the two groups, and correlations of grey matter volume with SPQ scores in the high schizotypy group were examined. We found that individuals with high schizotypy had decreased grey matter volume at the left medial superior frontal gyrus (medsFG) extending towards the superior frontal gyrus, decreased structural covariance within the right medsFG, between the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), the right superior temporal gyrus and the right anterior insula; and increased structural covariance between the caudate and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis revealed that grey matter volume of the left middle temporal pole and the right sFG correlated positively with the SPQ total scores, volume of the bilateral cerebellum 9 sub-region correlated negatively with the SPQ cognitive-perceptual sub-scale scores, volume of the bilateral striatum correlated positively with the SPQ interpersonal sub-scale scores, and volume of the bilateral superior temporal pole correlated positively with the SPQ disorganization sub-scale scores in the high schizotypy group. These results highlight important grey matter structural changes in the medsFG in individuals with high schizotypy.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , China , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Planta Med ; 86(16): 1191-1203, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668478

RESUMO

Physalis Calyx seu Fructus, a traditional Chinese medicine consisting of the calyxes and fruits of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii, has been used as therapy for inflammation-related respiratory diseases such as excessive phlegm, cough, sore throat, and pharyngitis for a long history in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical constituents of Physalis Calyx seu Fructus and identify the bioactive constituents responsible for its traditional application as therapy for inflammation-related diseases. In the present study, one new phenylpropanoid (1: ), two new steroids (17: and 18: ), together with 55 known constituents have been purified from the EtOH extract of Physalis Calyx seu Fructus. Among them, seven and twelve known constituents were isolated for the first time from Physalis Calyx seu Fructus and the genus Physalis, respectively. Fourteen constituents, including steroids [physalins (5:  - 9, 12:  - 14: , and 15: ) and ergostane (21: )], a sesquiterpenoid (35: ), alkaloids (36: and 37: ), and a flavonoid (44: ), showed inhibitory effects against oxidative stress. Ten constituents, including steroids (5, 6, 8, 13: , and 15: ), sesquiterpenoids (34: and 35: ), alkaloids (37: and 41: ), and a flavonoid (43: ), were found be potential anti-inflammatory constituents of this medicinal plant. The inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory response may be related to the regulation of Nrf2 and nuclear factor-κB pathways. The ethnomedical use of Physalis Calyx seu Fructus as a treatment for respiratory diseases might be attributed to the combined inhibitory effects of steroids, alkaloids, sesquiterpenoids, and flavonoids against oxidative stress and inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Physalis , China , Flores , Frutas , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
J Nat Prod ; 83(4): 1217-1228, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159343

RESUMO

Environmental toxicant- and oxidant-induced [e.g., cigarette smoke (CS)] respiratory oxidative stress and inflammatory response play a vital role in the onset and progression of COPD. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) represents an important mechanism for regulating intracellular oxidative stress and inflammatory response and is a promising target for developing agents against COPD. Herein, a bioactivity-guided purification of goldenberry (whole fruits of Physalis peruviana L.) led to the isolation of a novel and potent Nrf2 activator 4ß-hydroxywithanolide E (4ß-HWE). Our study indicated that (i) 4ß-HWE activated the Nrf2-mediated defensive response through interrupting Nrf2-Keap1 protein-protein interaction (PPI) via modification of Cys151 and Cys288 cysteine residues in Keap1 and accordingly suppressing the ubiquitination of Nrf2. (ii) 4ß-HWE enhanced intracellular antioxidant capacity and inhibited oxidative stress in normal human lung epithelial Beas-2B cells and wild-type AB zebrafish. (iii) 4ß-HWE blocked LPS-stimulated inflammatory response and inhibited LPS-stimulated NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. (iv) 4ß-HWE effectively suppressed oxidative stress and inflammatory response in a CS-induced mice model of pulmonary injury. Collectively, these results display the feasibility of using 4ß-HWE to prevent or alleviate the pathological progression of COPD and suggest that 4ß-HWE is a candidate or a leading molecule against COPD.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Physalis/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça , Tabaco , Vitanolídeos/química , Vitanolídeos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Psych J ; 9(1): 77-86, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328448

RESUMO

Anhedonia and amotivation, the hallmarks of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, are believed to be due to "emotion-behavior decoupling," a failure in translating pleasure experience into appropriate goal-directed behavior. A number of studies have reported that long-term institutionalized schizophrenia patients suffer from more severe negative symptoms than community-dwelling patients, but few studies have investigated pleasure experience and motivational behavior in schizophrenia patients who have experienced long-term institutionalization. In this study, we recruited 26 long-term institutionalized schizophrenia patients, 27 community-dwelling schizophrenia patients, and 27 healthy controls. Participants were administered two specific computer-based tasks to assess anhedonia and amotivation. The Anticipatory and Consummatory Pleasure (ACP) Task was used to measure emotion-behavior decoupling and the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT) was used to measure amotivation related to rewards. Findings from the ACP Task showed that compared with healthy controls, the coupling between emotion experience and motivated behavior was significantly weaker in both clinical groups, suggesting that emotion-behavior decoupling could be a stable trait in schizophrenia patients. In the EEfRT, compared with both community-dwelling patients and healthy controls, institutionalized patients with schizophrenia failed to expend more effort to gain potential rewards even when reward probability increased. These findings further reveal the underlying mechanism of anhedonia and amotivation and their potential relationships with long-term institutionalization in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Institucionalização , Motivação , Prazer , Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , China , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
11.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 72(5): 649-669, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Withanolides are a group of modified C28 ergostane-type steroids with a C-22, C-26 δ-lactone side chain or a C-23, C-26 γ-lactone side chain. They enjoy a limited distribution in the plant kingdom and predominantly occur in several genera of Solanaceae. Of which, the genus Physalis is an important resource for this type of natural molecules. The present review aims to comprehensively illustrate the structural characteristics and classification of withanolides, and particularly focus on the progression on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of withanolides from Physalis ranging from January 2015 to June 2019. KEY FINDINGS: Approximately 351 natural withanolides with novel and unique structures have so far been identified from genus Physalis, mainly isolated from the species of P. angulata and P. peruviana. Withanolides demonstrated diverse biological activity, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunoregulatory, trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity. Their observed pharmacological functions supported the uses of Physalis species in traditional or folk medicines. SUMMARY: Due to their unique structure skeleton and potent bioactivities, withanolides are regarded to be promising drug candidates, particularly for developing anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. Further investigations for discovering novel withanolides of genus Physalis, exploiting their pharmacological values and evaluating their potency as therapeutic agents are significant work.


Assuntos
Physalis/química , Vitanolídeos/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Vitanolídeos/análise , Vitanolídeos/classificação
12.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 24(6): 434-453, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583951

RESUMO

Introduction: Negative symptoms, particularly amotivation and anhedonia, are important predictors of poor functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. There has been interest in the efficacy and mechanism of non-pharmacological interventions to alleviate these symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the remediation effect of working memory (WM) training in patients with schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms.Methods: Thirty-one schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms were recruited and assigned to either a WM training group or a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group. The WM training group underwent 20 sessions of training using the dual n-back task over one month. A functional neuroimaging paradigm of the Affective Incentive Delay (AID) task was administered before and after the training intervention to evaluate the remediation effect of the intervention.Results: Our results showed that the WM training group demonstrated significant improvement in the WM training task and inattention symptoms. Compared with the TAU group, increased brain activations were observed at the right insula and the right frontal sub-gyral after WM training in the training group.Conclusions: These findings support the efficacy of WM training in ameliorating hedonic dysfunction in schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108741, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299238

RESUMO

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a key role in redox homeostasis. Activation of Nrf2 pathway by natural molecules effectively inhibits oxidants and toxicants-induced redox imbalance, and thus is able to intervene the onset and progression of many human diseases. In our previous study, a chalcone named as artocarmitin B (ACB), formed by artocarmitin A (ACA) and a trans-feruloyl substituent, was found to be a potential Nrf2 activator. In the present research, we found that ACB up-regulated the expressions of Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase, modifier subunit (GCLM), inhibited Nrf2 degradation and promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus under non-toxic doses. Moreover, ACB enhanced intracellular antioxidant capability in human lung epithelial cells through up-regulating reduced glutathione (GSH) level. Furthermore, ACB-induced activation of Nrf2 was related to the kinase pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). In terms of activation of Nrf2 pathway, ACB was more potent than ACA and ferulic acid (FA) individually or in combination. Collectively, our results indicate that ACB is an novel Nrf2 activator and enhances intracellular antioxidant capacity in human lung epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chalcona/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Pulmão/citologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Chalcona/uso terapêutico , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 284: 37-44, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658243

RESUMO

The neural correlate of working memory (WM) impairment in schizophrenia is key to the understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in this disorder. We sought to determine the clinical validity of the dual version n-back paradigm in patients with schizophrenia, and whether schizophrenia patients exhibit altered brain activation patterns compared with healthy controls in this dual version WM measure using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 24) performed the dual n-back task that consists of both visuospatial and auditory-verbal n-back streams, in which participants were required to monitor and update the contents from these two different inputs simultaneously. Significant positive correlations were found between performance in the dual 2-back condition and another measure of WM capacity and IQ estimates. Moreover, hypoactivation was observed at the right middle frontal gyrus and the posterior parietal regions in schizophrenia participants compared with healthy controls. The right hippocampus was less deactivated in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls. Our results support the clinical utility of the dual n-back task in schizophrenia and may have implications for the development of specific cognitive training targeting these impaired neural substrates in relation to WM in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 7309073, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050659

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor regulating the intracellular antioxidant response and is an emerging target for the prevention and therapy of oxidative stress-related diseases. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and is commonly used for the therapy of cardiac cerebral diseases. Cumulative evidences indicated that the extract of SMRR and its constituents, represented by lipophilic diterpenoid quinones and hydrophilic phenolic acids, were capable of activating Nrf2 and inhibiting oxidative stress. These bioactive constituents demonstrated a therapeutic potential against human diseases, exemplified by cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, nephropathy, and inflammation, based on the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response and the inhibition of oxidative stress. In the present review, we introduced the SMRR and Nrf2 signaling pathway, summarized the constituents with an Nrf2-inducing effect isolated from SMRR, and discussed the molecular mechanism and pharmacological functions of the SMRR extract and its constituents.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 264: 39-45, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626830

RESUMO

Few studies have examined whether there is a relationship between social anhedonia and prediction of future events and the role of beliefs about pleasure and emotional experience. In this study, 513 college students were recruited to complete a set of self-reported questionnaires, including the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (CSAS), the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), the Belief about Pleasure Scale (BAPS) and the Beck Depression Inventory. Moreover, a checklist of 100 daily life events was also administrated to all participants. Mediation analysis found that social anhedonia had a direct impact on prediction of pleasant events. Emotional experience partly mediated the relationship between social anhedonia and subjective prediction of pleasant events. However, beliefs about pleasure had no significant mediation effect between social anhedonia and prediction of pleasant events, but were shown to influence the subjective prediction of pleasant events completely through emotional experience. These findings suggest that beliefs about pleasure and emotional experience may be considered promising factors for interventions in individuals with anhedonia.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Cultura , Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Negociação/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Negociação/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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