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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872541

RESUMO

Blacks experience disproportionate head and neck cancer (HNC) recurrence and mortality compared to Whites. Overall, vitamin D status is inversely associated to HNC pointing to a potential protective linkage. Although hypovitaminosis D in Blacks is well documented it has not been investigated in Black HNC patients. Thus, we conducted a prospective pilot study accessing vitamin D status in newly diagnosed HNC patients stratified by race and conducted in vitro studies to investigate mechanisms associated with potential cancer inhibitory effects of vitamin D. Outcome measures included circulating levels of vitamin D, related nutrients, and risk factor characterization as well as dietary and supplemental estimates. Vitamin D-based in vitro assays utilized proteome and microRNA (miR) profiling. Nineteen patients were enrolled, mean circulating vitamin D levels were significantly reduced in Black compared to White HNC patients, 27.3 and 20.0 ng/mL, respectively. Whites also supplemented vitamin D more frequently than Blacks who had non-significantly higher vitamin D from dietary sources. Vitamin D treatment of HNC cell lines revealed five significantly altered miRs regulating genes targeting multiple pathways in cancer based on enrichment analysis (i.e., negative regulation of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, chemokine, MAPK, and WNT signaling). Vitamin D further altered proteins involved in cancer progression, metastasis and survival supporting a potential role for vitamin D in targeted cancer prevention.

3.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(5): 948-957, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genetic variations in DNA damage repair (DDR) genes may influence radiation therapy (RT)-induced acute normal tissue toxicity in patients with breast cancer. Identifying an individual or multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RT-induced early adverse skin reactions (EASR) is critical for precision medicine in radiation oncology. METHODS AND MATERIALS: At the completion of RT, EASR was assessed using the Oncology Nursing Society scale (0-6) in 416 patients with breast cancer, and Oncology Nursing Society score ≥4 was considered RT-induced EASR. PLINK set-based tests and subsequent individual SNP association analyses were conducted to identify genes and SNPs associated with EASR among the 53 DDR genes and 1968 SNPs. A weighted polygenic risk score (PRS) model was constructed to ascertain the association between the joint effect of risk alleles and EASR. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 264 Hispanic whites, 86 blacks or African Americans, 55 non-Hispanic whites, and 11 others. A total of 115 patients (27.6%) developed EASR. Five genes (ATM, CHEK1, ERCC2, RAD51C, and TGFB1) were significantly associated with RT-induced EASR. Nine SNPs within these 5 genes were further identified: ATM rs61915066, CHEK1 rs11220184, RAD51C rs302877, rs405684, TBFB1 rs4803455, rs2241714, and ERCC2 rs60152947, rs10404465, rs1799786. In a multivariable-adjusted PRS model, patients in a higher quartile of PRS were more likely to develop EASR compared with patients in the lowest quartile (ORq2 vs.q1 = 1.94, 95% CI, 0.86-4.39; ORq3 vs.q1 = 3.46, 95% CI, 1.57-7.63; ORq4 vs.q1 = 8.64, 95% CI, 3.92-19.02; and Ptrend < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: We newly identified the associations between 9 SNPs in ATM, CHEK1, RAD51C, TGFB1, and ERCC2 and RT-induced EASR. PRS modeling showed its potential in identifying populations at risk. Multiple SNPs in DDR genes may jointly contribute to interindividual variation in RT-induced EASR. Validation in an independent external cohort is required to determine the clinical significance of these predictive biomarkers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Lesões por Radiação/genética , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Medição de Risco
5.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

6.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 28, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) can increase the risk of developing pain; however, the molecular mechanisms of RT-related pain remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify susceptibility loci and enriched pathways for clinically relevant acute post-RT pain, defined as having moderate to severe pain (pain score ≥ 4) at the completion of RT. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 1,344,832 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a gene-based analysis using PLINK set-based tests of 19,621 genes, and a functional enrichment analysis of a gene list of 875 genes with p < 0.05 using NIH DAVID functional annotation module with KEGG pathways and GO terms (n = 380) among 1112 breast cancer patients. RESULTS: About 29% of patients reported acute post-RT pain. None of SNPs nor genes reached genome-wide significant level. Four SNPs showed suggestive associations with post-RT pain; rs16970540 in RFFL or near the LIG3 gene (p = 1.7 × 10-6), rs4584690, and rs7335912 in ABCC4/MPR4 gene (p = 5.5 × 10-6 and p = 7.8 × 10-6, respectively), and rs73633565 in EGFL6 gene (p = 8.1 × 10-6). Gene-based analysis suggested the potential involvement of neurotransmitters, olfactory receptors, and cytochrome P450 in post-RT pain, whereas functional analysis showed glucuronidation (FDR-adjusted p value = 9.46 × 10-7) and olfactory receptor activities (FDR-adjusted p value = 0.032) as the most significantly enriched biological features. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first GWAS suggesting that post-RT pain is a complex polygenic trait influenced by many biological processes and functions such as glucuronidation and olfactory receptor activities. If validated in larger populations, the results can provide biological targets for pain management to improve cancer patients' quality of life. Additionally, these genes can be further tested as predictive biomarkers for personalized pain management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Dor/genética , Lesões por Radiação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , DNA Ligase Dependente de ATP/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Dor/etiologia , Dor/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Radioterapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação
7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 70, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-surgery adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) significantly improves clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients; however, some patients develop cancer or treatment-related pain that negatively impacts quality of life. This study examined an inflammatory biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), in RT-related pain in breast cancer. METHODS: During 2008 and 2014, breast cancer patients who underwent RT were prospectively evaluated for pre- and post-RT pain. Pre- and post-RT plasma CRP levels were measured using a highly sensitive CRP ELISA kit. Pain score was assessed as the mean of four pain severity items (i.e., pain at its worst, least, average, and now) from the Brief Pain Inventory. Pain scores of 4-10 were classified as clinically relevant pain. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to ascertain the associations between CRP and RT-related pain. RESULTS: In 366 breast cancer patients (235 Hispanic whites, 73 black/African Americans, and 58 non-Hispanic whites), 17% and 30% of patients reported pre- and post-RT pain, while 23% of patients had RT-related pain. Both pre- and post-RT pain scores differed significantly by race/ethnicity. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, RT-related pain was significantly associated with elevated pre-RT CRP (≥ 10 mg/L) alone (odds ratio (OR) = 2.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 5.85); or combined with obesity (OR = 4.73; 95% CI = 1.41, 15.81) after adjustment for age and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first pilot study of CRP in RT-related pain, particularly in obese breast cancer patients. Future larger studies are warranted to validate our findings and help guide RT decision-making processes and targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/etiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Front Oncol ; 8: 380, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271753

RESUMO

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has replaced whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as standard therapy for most patients with four or fewer brain metastases due to improved cognitive outcomes and more favorable health related quality of life (QoL). Whether SRS or WBRT is the optimal radiation modality for patients with five to fifteen brain metastases remains an open question. Efforts are underway to develop prospective evidence to answer this question. One of the planned trials is a Canadian Cancer Trials Group (CCTG)-lead North American intergroup trial. In general cancer treatments must have two basic aims: prolonging and improving QoL. In this vein, the selection of overall survival and QoL metrics as outcomes appear obvious. Potential secondary outcomes are numerous: patient/disease related, treatment related, economic, translational, imaging, and dosimetric. In designing a trial, one must also ponder what is standard WBRT-specifically, whether it should be associated with memantine. With the rapid accrual of an intergroup trial of hippocampal-sparing WBRT, we may find that the standard WBRT regimen changes in the course of planned trials. As up-front radiosurgery is increasingly used for more than 4 brain metastases without high level evidence, we have a window of opportunity to develop high quality evidence which will help guide our future clinical and policy decisions.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(24): 2473-2482, 2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989859

RESUMO

Purpose This study examined an inflammatory biomarker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), in radiotherapy (RT)-induced early adverse skin reactions or toxicities in breast cancer. Patients and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 1,000 patients with breast cancer who underwent RT were evaluated prospectively for skin toxicities through the National Cancer Institute-funded Wake Forest University Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base. Pre- and post-RT plasma hsCRP levels and Oncology Nursing Society skin toxicity criteria (0 to 6) were used to assess RT-induced skin toxicities. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to ascertain the associations between hsCRP and RT-induced skin toxicities after adjusting for potential confounders. Results The study comprised 623 white, 280 African American, 64 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 33 other race patients; 24% of the patients were Hispanic, and 47% were obese. Approximately 42% and 15% of patients developed RT-induced grade 3+ and 4+ skin toxicities, respectively. The hsCRP levels differed significantly by race and body mass index but not by ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, grade 4+ skin toxicity was significantly associated with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.34], post-RT hsCRP ≥ 4.11 mg/L (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.44), and both factors combined (OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.18 to 6.14). Above-median post-RT hsCRP (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.03 to 3.63), and change in hsCRP (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.42 to 5.54) were significantly associated with grade 4+ skin toxicity in nonobese patients. Conclusion This large prospective study is the first to our knowledge of hsCRP as an inflammatory biomarker in RT-induced skin toxicities in breast cancer. We demonstrate that nonobese patients with elevated RT-related change in hsCRP levels have a significantly increased risk of grade 4+ skin toxicity. The outcomes may help to predict RT responses and guide decision making.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Inflamação/sangue , Radiodermatite/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiodermatite/etnologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 17(1): 115-123, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28102098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are at an increased risk for developing second primary tumors (SPTs). Diets rich in fruits and vegetables (FVs) may lower HNC risk. FV concentrates may offer a potential alternative to increasing FV intake. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate whether Juice PLUS+ (JP; a commercial product with multiple FV concentrates) has an effect on p27 and Ki-67, biomarkers associated with the risk of SPTs. During 2004-2008, we randomized 134 HNC patients to 12 weeks of JP (n = 72) or placebo (n = 62). Oral cavity mucosal biopsies and whole blood were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks. All participants were given the opportunity to receive JP for 5 years following the end of the intervention period, and they were followed yearly for the development of SPTs. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, patients on JP had significantly higher serum α-carotene ( P = .009), ß-carotene ( P < .0001), and lutein ( P = .003) but did not differ significantly in p27 ( P = .23) or Ki-67 ( P = .95). JP use following the initial 12-week trial was not significantly associated with SPT prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased serum micronutrient levels, our results do not suggest a clinical benefit of JP in HNC patients. Future studies should focus on longer intervention periods and/or modified supplement formulations with demonstrated chemopreventive properties.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Micronutrientes/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/sangue , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Fitoterapia , Pós , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/sangue
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 109(8)2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117387

RESUMO

Prostate cancer incidence is 1.6-fold higher in African Americans than in other populations. The risk factors that drive this disparity are unknown and potentially consist of social, environmental, and genetic influences. To investigate the genetic basis of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis using two-sided statistical tests in 10 202 case subjects and 10 810 control subjects. We identified novel signals on chromosomes 13q34 and 22q12, with the risk-associated alleles found only in men of African ancestry (13q34: rs75823044, risk allele frequency = 2.2%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37 to 1.76, P = 6.10 × 10-12; 22q12.1: rs78554043, risk allele frequency = 1.5%, OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.89, P = 7.50 × 10-10). At 13q34, the signal is located 5' of the gene IRS2 and 3' of a long noncoding RNA, while at 22q12 the candidate functional allele is a missense variant in the CHEK2 gene. These findings provide further support for the role of ancestry-specific germline variation in contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Masculino
12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 3: 5, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649645

RESUMO

A coding region polymorphism exists in the TP53 gene (Pro47Ser; rs1800371) in individuals of African descent, which reduces p53 tumor suppressor function in a mouse model. It has been unclear whether this functionally significant polymorphism alters cancer risk in humans. This analysis included 6907 women with breast cancer and 7644 controls from the AMBER, ROOT, and AABC consortia. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations between the TP53 Pro47Ser allele and overall breast cancer risk. Because polymorphisms in TP53 tend to be associated with cancer risk in pre-menopausal women, we also limited our analyses to this population in the AMBER and ROOT consortia, where menopausal status was known, and conducted a fixed effects meta-analysis. In an analysis of all women in the AMBER, ROOT, and AABC consortia, we found no evidence for association of the Pro47Ser variant with breast cancer risk. However, when we restricted our analysis to only pre-menopausal women from the AMBER and ROOT consortia, there was a per allele odds ratio of 1.72 (95% confidence interval 1.08-2.76; p-value = 0.023). Although the Pro47Ser variant was not associated with overall breast cancer risk, it may increase risk among pre-menopausal women of African ancestry. Following up on more studies in human populations may better elucidate the role of this variant in breast cancer etiology. However, because of the low frequency of the polymorphism in women of African ancestry, its impact at a population level may be minimal.

13.
Mutat Res ; 800-802: 14-28, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28458064

RESUMO

The rise of advanced technologies for characterizing human populations at the molecular level, from sequence to function, is shifting disease prevention paradigms toward personalized strategies. Because minimization of adverse outcomes is a key driver for treatment decisions for diseased populations, developing personalized therapy strategies represent an important dimension of both precision medicine and personalized prevention. In this commentary, we highlight recently developed enabling technologies in the field of DNA damage, DNA repair, and mutagenesis. We propose that omics approaches and functional assays can be integrated into population studies that fuse basic, translational and clinical research with commercial expertise in order to accelerate personalized prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases linked to aberrant responses to DNA damage. This collaborative approach is generally applicable to efforts to develop data-driven, individualized prevention and treatment strategies for other diseases. We also recommend strategies for maximizing the use of biological samples for epidemiological studies, and for applying emerging technologies to clinical applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Precisão , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Mutagênese
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(7): 1016-1026, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377418

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 100 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk, the majority of which were discovered in women of European ancestry. Because of different patterns of linkage disequilibrium, many of these genetic markers may not represent signals in populations of African ancestry.Methods: We tested 74 breast cancer risk variants and conducted fine-mapping of these susceptibility regions in 6,522 breast cancer cases and 7,643 controls of African ancestry from three genetic consortia (AABC, AMBER, and ROOT).Results: Fifty-four of the 74 variants (73%) were found to have ORs that were directionally consistent with those previously reported, of which 12 were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Through fine-mapping, in six regions (3p24, 12p11, 14q13, 16q12/FTO, 16q23, 19p13), we observed seven markers that better represent the underlying risk variant for overall breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes, whereas in another two regions (11q13, 16q12/TOX3), we identified suggestive evidence of signals that are independent of the reported index variant. Overlapping chromatin features and regulatory elements suggest that many of the risk alleles lie in regions with biological functionality.Conclusions: Through fine-mapping of known susceptibility regions, we have revealed alleles that better characterize breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry.Impact: The risk alleles identified represent genetic markers for modeling and stratifying breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1016-26. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
15.
Front Genet ; 7: 170, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27708667

RESUMO

Recent genetic admixture coupled with striking differences in incidence of estrogen receptor (ER) breast cancer subtypes, as well as severity, between women of African and European ancestry, provides an excellent rationale for performing admixture mapping in African American women with breast cancer risk. We performed the largest breast cancer admixture mapping study with in African American women to identify novel genomic regions associated with the disease. We conducted a genome-wide admixture scan using 2,624 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in 3,629 breast cancer cases (including 1,968 ER-positive, 1093 ER-negative, and 601 triple-negative) and 4,658 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium, a collaborative study of four large geographically different epidemiological studies of breast cancer in African American women. We used an independent case-control study to test for SNP association in regions with genome-wide significant admixture signals. We found two novel genome-wide significant regions of excess African ancestry, 4p16.1 and 17q25.1, associated with ER-positive breast cancer. Two regions known to harbor breast cancer variants, 10q26 and 11q13, were also identified with excess of African ancestry. Fine-mapping of the identified genome-wide significant regions suggests the presence of significant genetic associations with ER-positive breast cancer in 4p16.1 and 11q13. In summary, we identified three novel genomic regions associated with breast cancer risk by ER status, suggesting that additional previously unidentified variants may contribute to the racial differences in breast cancer risk in the African American population.

16.
Theranostics ; 6(11): 1887-98, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27570558

RESUMO

A set of electrostatically charged, fluorescent, and superparamagnetic nanoprobes was developed for targeting cancer cells without using any molecular biomarkers. The surface electrostatic properties of the established cancer cell lines and primary normal cells were characterized by using these nanoprobes with various electrostatic signs and amplitudes. All twenty two randomly selected cancer cell lines of different organs, but not normal control cells, bound specifically to the positively charged nanoprobes. The relative surface charges of cancer cells could be quantified by the percentage of cells captured magnetically. The activities of glucose metabolism had a profound impact on the surface charge level of cancer cells. The data indicate that an elevated glycolysis in the cancer cells led to a higher level secretion of lactate. The secreted lactate anions are known to remove the positive ions, leaving behind the negative changes on the cell surfaces. This unique metabolic behavior is responsible for generating negative cancer surface charges in a perpetuating fashion. The metabolically active cancer cells are shown to a unique surface electrostatic pattern that can be used for recovering cancer cells from the circulating blood and other solutions.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Lactatos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática , Propriedades de Superfície , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos
17.
Hum Genet ; 135(10): 1145-59, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380242

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate breast biology by binding to specific RNA sequences, leading to RNA degradation and inhibition of translation of their target genes. While germline genetic variations may disrupt some of these interactions between miRNAs and their targets, studies assessing the relationship between genetic variations in the miRNA network and breast cancer risk are still limited, particularly among women of African ancestry. We systematically put together a list of 822 and 10,468 genetic variants among primary miRNA sequences and 38 genes in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, respectively; and examined their association with breast cancer risk in the ROOT consortium which includes women of African ancestry. Findings were replicated in an independent consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). For overall breast cancer risk, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA biogenesis genes DROSHA rs78393591 (OR = 0.69, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.88, P = 0.003), ESR1 rs523736 (OR = 0.88, 95 % CI: 0.82-0.95, P = 3.99 × 10(-4)), and ZCCHC11 rs114101502 (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI: 1.11-1.59, P = 0.002), and one SNP in primary miRNA sequence (rs116159732 in miR-6826, OR = 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.89, P = 0.001) were found to have significant associations in both discovery and validation phases. In a subgroup analysis, two SNPs were associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, and three SNPs were associated with risk of ER-positive breast cancer. Several variants in miRNA and miRNA biogenesis pathway genes were associated with breast cancer risk. Risk associations varied by ER status, suggesting potential new mechanisms in etiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Ribonuclease III/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 9(6): 445-55, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020654

RESUMO

Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P < .0001, vs. reference group CD44 <2.22 ng/mL and protein <1.23 mg/mL]. Total protein aided prediction above CD44 alone. Sensitivity and specificity in the frequency-matched study was 80% and 48.7%, respectively. However, controls were not representative of the target screening population due, in part, to a high rate of prior cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Receptores de Hialuronatos/análise , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Risco , Saliva/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
19.
Head Neck ; 38(8): 1234-41, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27028310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and minorities have the worst survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying survival disparities have not been elucidated. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we assessed association between HNSCC early death (<2 years) and 208 somatic mutations of 10 cancer-related genes in 214 patients: 98 non-Hispanic whites (46%), 72 Hispanic whites (34%), and 44 African Americans (20%). RESULTS: Hispanic whites and African Americans had significantly higher mutation rates for EGFR, HRAS, KRAS, and TP53. HNSCC early death was significantly associated with 3+ mutations (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 6.69), NOTCH1 mutations in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 5.51; 95% CI = 1.22-24.83) and TP53 mutations in Hispanic whites (OR = 3.84; 95% CI = 1.08-13.68) in multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, tumor site, and tumor stage. CONCLUSION: We have provided the proof-of-principal data to link racial/ethnic-specific somatic mutations and HNSCC prognosis and pave the way for precision medicine to overcome HNSCC survival disparities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38:1234-1241, 2016.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Genes erbB-1/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Estados Unidos
20.
Pain ; 157(5): 1122-31, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26780493

RESUMO

Pain related to cancer or treatment is a critical quality of life issue for breast cancer survivors. In a prospective study of 375 patients with breast cancer (enrolled during 2008-2014), we characterized the risk factors for adjuvant radiotherapy (RT)-associated pain. Pain score was assessed at pre-RT and post-RT as the mean of 4 pain severity items (ie, pain at its worst, least, average, and now) from the Brief Pain Inventory with 11-point numeric rating scale (0-10). Pain scores of 4 to 10 were considered clinically relevant pain. The study consists of 58 non-Hispanic whites (15%), 78 black or African Americans (AA; 21%), and 239 Hispanic whites (HW; 64%). Overall, the prevalence of pre-RT, post-RT, and RT-associated clinically relevant pain was 16%, 31% and 20%, respectively. In univariate analysis, AA and HW had significantly higher pre-RT and post-RT pain than non-Hispanic whites. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pre-RT pain was significantly associated with HW and obesity; post-RT pain was significantly associated with AA, HW, younger age, ≥2 comorbid conditions, above-median hotspot volume receiving >105% prescribed dose, and pre-RT pain score ≥4. Radiotherapy-associated pain was significantly associated with AA (odds ratio [OR] = 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-9.82), younger age (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.24-4.79), and 2 or ≥3 comorbid conditions (OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.32-7.08; OR = 4.61, 95% CI = 1.49-14.25, respectively). These risk factors may help to guide RT decision-making process, such as hypofractionated RT schedule. Furthermore, effective pain management strategies are needed to improve quality of life in patients with breast cancer with clinically relevant pain.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dor/etnologia , Dor/etiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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