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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 725223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484235

RESUMO

Background: Bladder cancer (BLCA) is one of the most common urinary malignancies with poor prognosis. There is an unmet need to develop novel robust tools to predict prognosis and treatment efficacy for BLCA. Methods: The hypoxia-related genes were collected from the Molecular Signatures Database. The TCGA-BLCA cohort was downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas and then was randomly divided into training and internal validation sets. Two external validation cohorts were gathered from Gene Expression Omnibus. Also, another independent validation cohort (Xiangya cohort) was collected from our hospital. The Cox regression model with the LASSO algorithm was applied to develop the hypoxia risk score. Then, we correlated the hypoxia risk score with the clinical outcomes, the tumor microenvironment (TME) immune characteristics, and the efficacy prediction for several treatments, which included cancer immunotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapies. Results: Hypoxia risk score was an independent prognostic factor. A high-risk score indicated an inflamed TME based on the evidence that hypoxia risk score positively correlated with the activities of several cancer immunity cycles and the infiltration levels of many tumor-infiltrating immune cells, such as CD8 + T cells, Dendritic cells, and NK cells. Consistently, the hypoxia risk score was positively related to the expression of several immune checkpoints, such as PD-L1, PD-1, CTLA-4, and LAG-3, as well as the T cell inflamed score. Furthermore, the hypoxia risk score positively correlated with the enrichment scores of most immunotherapy-positive gene signatures. Therefore, patients with higher risk score may be more sensitive to cancer immunotherapy. Meanwhile, the hypoxia risk score was positively related to the sensitivities of several chemotherapeutic drugs, including Cisplatin, Docetaxel, Paclitaxel, Bleomycin, Camptothecin, and Vinblastine. Similarly, the enrichment scores for radiotherapy-predicted pathways and EGFR ligands were higher in the high-risk score group. Conversely, the enrichment scores of several immunosuppressive oncogenic pathways were significantly higher in the low-risk score group, such as the WNT-ß-catenin network, PPARG network, and FGFR3 network. Conclusions: We developed and validated a new hypoxia risk score, which could predict the clinical outcomes and the TME immune characteristics of BLCA. In general, the hypoxia risk score may aid in the precision medicine for BLCA.

2.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2443-2460, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517783

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence suggests the pivotal role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in influenza virus infection. Based on next-generation sequencing, we previously demonstrated that Lnc45 was distinctively stimulated by H5N1 influenza virus in mice. In this study, we systematically investigated the specific role of Lnc45 during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Through qRT-PCR, we first demonstrated that Lnc45 is highly up-regulated by different subtypes of IAV strains, including H5N1, H7N9, and H1N1 viruses. Using RNA-FISH and qRT-PCR, we then found that Lnc45 can translocate from nuclear to cytoplasm during H5N1 virus infection. In addition, forced Lnc45 expression dramatically impeded viral replication of H1N1, H5N1, and H7N9 virus, while abolish of Lnc45 expression by RNA interference favored replication of these viruses, highlighting the potential broad antiviral activity of Lnc45 to IAV. Correspondingly, overexpression of Lnc45 inhibited viral polymerase activity and suppressed IAV-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, Lnc45 significantly restrained nuclear aggregation of viral NP and PA proteins during H5N1 virus infection. Further functional study revealed that the stem ring arms of Lnc45 mainly mediated the antiviral effect. Therefore, we here demonstrated that Lnc45 functions as a broad-spectrum antiviral factor to inhibit influenza virus replication probably through inhibiting polymerase activity and NP and PA nuclear accumulation via its stem ring arms. Our study not only advances our understanding of the complexity of the IAV pathogenesis but also lays the foundation for developing novel anti-IAV therapeutics targeting the host lncRNA.

3.
Virus Genes ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519961

RESUMO

H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus has dramatically evolved and undergone extensive reassortment since its emergence in early 1990s in China. The genotype S (G57), emerging in 2007 with the substitution of F98-like PB2 and M gene by G1-like ones, has become the overwhelming predominant genotype for the past 11 years since 2010. Here, we found that virus with G1-like PB2 were more efficient in protein expression and in infectious virus production than that with F98-like PB2 gene. By coinfected MDCK cells with the reassortant virus, more survival opportunity for viruses with G1-like PB2 than that of F/98-like was observed. Besides, in animal experiments, we found that the G1-like PB2 increases virus infectivity, replication, and virus shedding of H9N2 in chickens. Our results suggested that the substitution of G1-like PB2 play important role in promoting the fitness of genotype S H9N2 virus in China.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697026, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526985

RESUMO

N6-methylation of adenosine (m6A), a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, is the most abundant nucleotide modification in almost all types of RNAs. The biological function of m6A in regulating the expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes has been widely investigated in various cancers. However, recent studies have addressed a new role of m6A modification in the anti-tumor immune response. By modulating the fate of targeted RNA, m6A affects tumor-associated immune cell activation and infiltration in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In addition, m6A-targeting is found to affect the efficacy of classical immunotherapy, which makes m6A a potential target for immunotherapy. Although m6A modification together with its regulators may play the exact opposite role in different tumor types, targeting m6A regulators has been shown to have wide implications in several cancers. In this review, we discussed the link between m6A modification and tumor with an emphasis on the importance of m6A in anti-tumor immune response and immunotherapy.

5.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542812

RESUMO

Decades have passed since the first discovery of H10-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in chickens in 1949, and it has been detected in many species including mammals such as minks, pigs, seals and humans. Cases of human infections with H10N8 viruses identified in China in 2013 have raised widespread attention. Two novel reassortant H10N3 viruses were isolated from chickens in December 2019 in eastern China during routine surveillance for AIVs. The internal genes of these viruses were derived from genotype S (G57) H9N2 and were consistent with H5N6, H7N9 and H10N8, which cause fatal infections in humans. Their viral pathogenicity and transmissibility were further studied in different animal models. The two H10N3 isolates had low pathogenicity in chickens and were transmitted between chickens via direct contact. These viruses were highly pathogenic in mice and could be transmitted between guinea pigs via direct contact and respiratory droplets. More importantly, these viruses can bind to both human-type SAα-2,6-Gal receptors and avian-type SAα-2,3-Gal receptors. Asymptomatic shedding in chickens and good adaptability to mammals of these H10N3 isolates would make it easier to transmit to humans and pose a threat to public health.

7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104993, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242774

RESUMO

Avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N9 that emerged in 2013 in eastern China is a novel zoonotic agent mainly circulating in poultry without clinical signs but causing severe disease with high fatality in humans in more than 5 waves. Since the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 variants in 2016, it has induced heavy losses in the poultry industry leading to the implementation of an intensive nationwide vaccination program at the end of wave 5 (September 2017). To characterize the ongoing evolution of H7N9 AIV, we conducted analyses of H7N9 glycoprotein genes obtained from 2013 to 2019. Bayesian analyses revealed a decreasing population size of HP H7N9 variants post wave 5. Phylogenetic topologies revealed that two novel small subclades were formed and carried several fixed amino acid mutations that were along HA and NA phylogenetic trees since wave 5. Some of the mutations were located at antigenic sites or receptor binding sites. The antigenic analysis may reveal a significant antigenic drift evaluated by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay and the antigenicity of H7N9 AIV might evolute in large leaps in wave 7. Molecular simulations found that the mutations (V135T, S145P, and L226Q) around the HA receptor pocket increased the affinity to α2,3-linked sialic acid (SIA) while decreased to α2,6-linked SIA. Altered affinity may suggest that HP H7N9 variations aggravate the pathogenicity to poultry but lessen the threat to public health. Selection analyses showed that the HP H7N9 AIV experienced an increasing selection pressure since wave 5, and the national implementation of vaccination might intensify the role of natural selection during the evolution waves 6 and 7. In summary, our data provide important insights about the genetic and antigenic diversity of circulating HP H7N9 viruses from 2017 to 2019. Enhanced surveillance is urgently warranted to understand the current situation of HP H7N9 AIV.

8.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2217-2224, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091783

RESUMO

Swine influenza is an economically important respiratory disease in swine, but it also constantly poses a threat to human health. Therefore, developing rapid, sensitive, and efficient detection methods for swine influenza virus (SIV) is important. By aligning the haemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of SIVs circulating in China over a 10-year period, an H1 primer-probe set targeting both Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) and pandemic 2009 H1N1 ((H1N1)pdm09) lineages plus a H3 primer-probe set targeting the prevalent human-like H3N2 (HL H3N2) subtype were designed. Subsequently, a TaqMan-MGB-based duplex one-step real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was established and evaluated. The duplex RT-qPCR has a detection limit of 5 copies/µL of HA plasmid for EA H1N1, (H1N1)pdm09, and HL H3N2 subtype SIVs, and its overall detection sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 91.67% matches that of traditional virus isolation through chicken embryo inoculation using experimentally infected mouse lung samples. The method showed high repeatability both within run and between runs, and there was no cross-reactivity against several other porcine viruses that are commonly circulating in China. Furthermore, the duplex RT-qPCR method revealed a higher prevalence of subtype H1 than subtype H3 in 166 nasal swabs from pigs collected from one slaughterhouse between October and December 2019. This assay could be very helpful in the rapid differential detection and routine surveillance of EA H1N1, (H1N1)pdm09, and HL H3N2 SIVs in China.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Animais , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Nariz/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 258: 109106, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004568

RESUMO

H7N9 avian influenza virus poses a dual threat to both poultry industry and public health. Therefore, it is highly urgent to develop an effective vaccine to reduce its pandemic potential. Virus-like particles (VLP) represent an effective approach for pandemic vaccine development. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing the HA, NA and M1 genes of the H7N9 virus was constructed for generation of H7N9 VLP. Single immunization of chickens with 15 µg of the VLP or the commercial whole virus inactivated vaccine stimulates high hemagglutination inhibition, virus neutralizing and HA-specific IgY antibodies. Moreover, the antiserum had a good cross-reactivity with H7N9 field strains isolated in different years. Within 14 days after a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 virus, no clinical symptoms and death were observed in the vaccinated chickens, and no virus was recovered from the organs. Compared to the non-vaccinated chickens, H7N9 VLP significantly reduced the proportion of animals shedding virus. Only 30 % of the VLP-vaccinated birds shed virus, whereas virus shedding was detected in 50 % of the chickens immunized with the commercial vaccine. Moreover, both vaccines dramatically alleviated pulmonary lesions caused by HP H7N9 virus, with a greater degree observed for the VLP. Altogether, our results indicated that the H7N9 VLP vaccine candidate confers a complete clinical protection against a lethal challenge with HP H7N9 virus, significantly inhibits virus shedding and abolishes viral replication in chickens. The VLP generated in this study represents a promising alternative strategy for the development of novel H7N9 avian influenza vaccines for chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Lesão Pulmonar/veterinária , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
10.
Mol Microbiol ; 116(2): 438-458, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811693

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae resides in the human upper airway as a commensal but also causes pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media. It remains unclear how pneumococci adapt to nutritional conditions of various host niches. We here show that MetR, a LysR family transcriptional regulator, serves as a molecular adaptor for pneumococcal fitness, particularly in the upper airway. The metR mutant of strain D39 rapidly disappeared from the nasopharynx but was marginally attenuated in the lungs and bloodstream of mice. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses showed that MetR broadly regulates transcription of the genes involved in methionine synthesis and other functions under methionine starvation. Genetic and biochemical analyses confirmed that MetR is essential for the activation of methionine synthesis but not uptake. Co-infection of influenza virus partially restored the colonization defect of the metR mutant. These results strongly suggest that MetR is particularly evolved for pneumococcal carriage in the upper airway of healthy individuals where free methionine is severely limited, but it becomes dispensable where environmental methionine is relatively more abundant (e.g., inflamed upper airway and sterile sites). To the best of our knowledge, MetR represents the first known regulator particularly for pneumococcal carriage in healthy individuals.

11.
Virus Res ; 298: 198409, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819520

RESUMO

H7N9 avian influenza vaccines induce high levels of non-neutralizing (nonNeu) antibodies against the haemagglutinin (HA). However, the antigenic epitopes underlying this particular antibody response are still undefined. In this study, a panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the HA protein of H7N9 virus was generated and 12 of them had no hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing activities. One linear epitope in the stalk (373-TAA-375) recognized by three mAbs and one conformational epitope in the head (220Q-225S-227G) targeted by one mAb were identified using peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and biopanning of phage display random peptide library. In addition, competition ELISA revealed that the mAb targeting the head epitope strongly inhibited HA-binding of chicken nonNeu anti-H7N9 sera, whereas lower inhibition was observed for chicken neutralizing antisera, indicating the immunodominance of this epitope in the elicitation of nonNeu antibodies. Moreover, the stalk epitope is conserved among the H1-H17 subtypes and the mAb recognizing this epitope exhibited cross-reactivity with different subtypes. In conclusion, two novel nonNeu epitopes in H7N9 HA were identified, and an epitope in the head was identified as an immunodominant epitope underlying the induction of nonNeu H7N9 antibodies. Our results add new knowledge to the molecular basis for antibody immunity against H7N9 vaccines and provide useful implications for vaccine design and modification.

12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 254: 119611, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689998

RESUMO

The application of terahertz (THz)-based techniques in biomolecule study is very promising but still in its infancy. In the present work, we employed THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and THz time-domain attenuated total reflection (THz-TD-ATR) spectroscopy to investigate the properties of tyrosine (Tyr) enantiomers (L- and D-Tyr) and racemate (DL-Tyr) in solid state and aqueous solutions, respectively. THz absorption spectra of solid L- and D-Tyr show similar absorption spectra with peaks at 0.95, 1.92, 2.06 and 2.60 THz, which are obviously different from the spectrum of DL-Tyr with peaks at 1.5, 2.15 and 2.40 THz. In contrast, although THz absorption spectra of L-Tyr solution and D-Tyr solution are similar and different from the spectrum of DL-Tyr solution, both of them have no observable peaks. Interestingly, it was found that the solution containing equal amounts of L- and D-Tyr has a similar spectrum as that of DL-Tyr solution, as far as the mass concentrations of the two types of solutions are kept the same. On other hand, solid L-, D- and DL-Tyr were also investigated with infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the spectra of L- and D-Tyr can be regarded the same but they are slightly different from the spectrum of DL-Tyr. With the aid of principal component analysis (PCA), the difference between L-/D-Tyr and DL-Tyr can be confirmed without any ambiguity. Overall, this work systematically interrogated and evaluated the performance of THz-based techniques in the detection of the chirality of tyrosine.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia Terahertz , Tirosina , Aminoácidos , Análise Espectral Raman , Estereoisomerismo
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 255: 109019, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676094

RESUMO

PA-X is a novel discovered accessory protein encoded by the PA mRNA of the influenza A virus. Accumulated studies have demonstrated the crucial role of this protein in regulating the virulence of various subtypes of influenza virus, including H1N1, H5N1, H9N2, H1N2, H3N8 and H3N2 virus. However, the role of PA-X protein in regulating the virulence of the highly pathogenic avian H7N9 virus was unknown. In this study, we firstly generated two recombinant H7N9 viruses which have lower PA-X expression level than the parental H7N9 virus. We then systematically compared their difference in virus replication, polymerase activity, virulence and virus-induced host immune responses in mice. The results showed that the PA-X deficient viruses significantly increased viral replication in madin darby canine kidney cells and slightly increased viral replication in mouse lung. In addition, loss of PA-X expression significantly increased viral polymerase activity and alleviated the host-shutoff activity mediated by the parental PA protein. However, in contrast with the usual function of PA-X in regulating the virulence in different subtype influenza virus, no obvious effect on viral virulence in mice was observed by H7N9 PA-X protein. Furthermore, among the 12 kinds of cytokines and 2 kinds of complement derived components that we tested, the PA-X deficiency viruses only induced significantly higher expression levels of MX1 than the parental virus. Altogether, these results showed that PA-X has little effect on viral virulence and viral induced innate immune response of the H7N9 subtype virus. Our study adds further information for the growing understanding of the complexity of PA-X in regulating viral virulence and host innate immune response of different influenza virus.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência , Replicação Viral
14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(11): 2727-2735, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705142

RESUMO

pH sensing plays a key role in the life sciences as well as the environmental, industrial, and agricultural fields. Carbon nanodots (C-dots) with small size, low toxicity, and excellent stability hold great potential in pH sensing as nanoprobes due to their intrinsic pH-sensitive photoluminescence (PL). Nonetheless, the undesirable sensitivity and response range of C-dot PL toward pH cannot meet the requirements of practical applications, and the unclear pH-sensitive PL mechanism makes it difficult to control their pH sensitivity. Herein, the quantitative correlation of pH-sensitive PL with specific surface structures of C-dots is uncovered for the first time, to our best knowledge. The association of carboxylate and H+ increases the ratio of nonradiation to radiation decay of C-dots through excited-state proton transfer, resulting in the decrease of PL intensity. Meanwhile, the dissociation of α-H in ß-dicarbonyl forming enolate increases the extent of delocalization of the C-dots conjugated system, which induces the PL broadening to the red region and a decreasing intensity. Based on the understanding of the pH-sensitive PL mechanism, the pH-sensitive PL of C-dots can be switched by quantitative modulation of carboxyl and ß-dicarbonyl groups to achieve a desirable pH response range with high sensitivity. This work contributes to a better understanding of the pH-sensitive PL of C-dots and therefore presents an effective strategy for controllably tuning their pH sensitivity, facilitating the rational design of C-dot-based pH sensors.

15.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 80, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genotype S H9N2 viruses have become predominant in poultry in China since 2010. These viruses frequently donate their whole internal gene segments to other emerging influenza A subtypes such as the novel H7N9, H5N6, and H10N8 viruses. We recently reported that the PB2 and M genes of the genotype S H9N2 virus, which are derived from the G1-like virus, enhance the fitness of H5Nx and H7N9 avian influenza viruses in chickens and mice. However, whether the G1-like PB2 and M genes are preferentially incorporated into progeny virions during virus reassortment remains unclear; whether the G1-like PB2 and M genes from different subtypes are differentially incorporated into new virion progeny remains unknown. RESULTS: We conducted a reassortment experiment with the use of a H7N9 virus as the backbone and found that G1-like M/PB2 genes were preferentially incorporated in progeny virions over F/98-like M/PB2 genes. Importantly, the preference varied among G1-like M/PB2 genes of different subtypes. When competing with F/98-like M/PB2 genes during reassortment, both the M and PB2 genes from the H7N9 virus GD15 showed an advantage, whereas only the PB2 gene from the H9N2 virus CZ73 and the M gene from the H9N2 virus AH320 displayed the advantage. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the preferential and variable advantages of H9N2-derived G1-like M and PB2 genes in incorporating them into H7N9 progeny virions over SH14-derived F/98-like M/PB2 genes.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Coinfecção , Cães , Genótipo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Vírus Reordenados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Vírion
16.
Theranostics ; 11(7): 3089-3108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537076

RESUMO

Rationale: Siglec15 is an emerging target for normalization cancer immunotherapy. However, pan-cancer anti-Siglec15 treatment is not yet validated and the potential role of Siglec15 in bladder cancer (BLCA) remains elusive. Methods: We comprehensively evaluated the expression pattern and immunological role of Siglec15 using pan-cancer analysis based on RNA sequencing data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We then systematically correlated Siglec15 with immunological characteristics in the BLCA tumor microenvironment (TME), including immunomodulators, cancer immunity cycles, tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), immune checkpoints, and T cell inflamed score. We also analyzed the role of Siglec15 in predicting the molecular subtype and the response to several treatment options in BLCA. Our results were validated in several public cohorts as well as our BLCA tumor microarray cohort, the Xiangya cohort. We developed an immune risk score (IRS), validated it, and tested its ability to predict the prognosis and response to cancer immunotherapy. Results: We found that Siglec15 was specifically overexpressed in the TME of various cancers. We hypothesize that Siglec15 designs a non-inflamed TME in BLCA based on the evidence that Siglec15 negatively correlated with immunomodulators, TIICs, cancer immunity cycles, immune checkpoints, and T cell inflamed score. Bladder cancer with high Siglec15 expression was not sensitive to cancer immunotherapy, but exhibited a higher incidence of hyperprogression. High Siglec15 levels indicated a luminal subtype of BLCA characterized by lower immune infiltration, lower response to cancer immunotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but higher response to anti-angiogenic therapy and targeted therapies such as blocking Siglec15, ß-catenin, PPAR-γ, and FGFR3 pathways. Notably, a combination of anti-Siglec15 and cancer immunotherapy may be a more effective strategy than monotherapy. IRS can accurately predict the prognosis and response to cancer immunotherapy. Conclusions: Anti-Siglec15 immunotherapy might be suitable for BLCA treatment as Siglec15 correlates with a non-inflamed TME in BLCA. Siglec15 could also predict the molecular subtype and the response to several treatment options.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , China , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Progressão da Doença , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/fisiologia , Imunoterapia , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 254: 109000, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515926

RESUMO

The first avian H7N9 influenza outbreak in spring of 2013 emerged in an unprecedented transmission from infected poultry to humans in the Yangtze delta area, eastern China, posing a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. However, the mechanism for how avian H7N9 influenza virus adapts to mammalian hosts has not been clearly understood. Here, to identify adaptive changes that confer enhanced virulence of H7N9 virus in mammals, we generated a mouse-adapted H7N9 variant virus (S8) by serial lung-to-lung passages of the wild-type SDL124 virus in mice and compared their phenotype in vivo and in vitro. Sequence analysis showed that the two viruses differed by 27 amino acids distributed among six genes, containing changes in PB2 (E627K, D701N) and HA (Q226L) genes. The 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50) of S8 reduced about 500 folds, to be moderately pathogenic to mice when compared to that of low pathogenic wild-type SDL124. Moreover, S8 replicated efficiently in mouse lungs and displayed expanded tissue tropism, and induced a greater degree of pulmonary edema and higher level of inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids than SDL124 did. Interestingly, the mouse adapted S8 virus obtained strong affinity for human-like (SAα-2,6 Gal) receptor during the adaptation in mice. Correspondingly, compared with SDL124 virus, S8 virus showed higher replication efficiency in mammalian cells, whereas lower replication ability in avian cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that these mutations synergistically elevate the ability of H7N9 virus to disseminate to multiple organs and subsequently enhance the virulence of H7N9 virus in mammalian hosts.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Pulmão/microbiologia , Mutação , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Inoculações Seriadas , Proteínas Virais/genética , Tropismo Viral , Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral
18.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 8, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436086

RESUMO

Since 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 has become the dominant epidemic branch of the Asian lineage H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in southern and eastern China, while the H5N6 subtype is the most prevalent. We have shown earlier that lack of glycosylation at position 158 of the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein due to the T160A mutation is a key determinant of the dual receptor binding property of clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX subtypes. Our present study aims to explore other effects of this site among H5N6 viruses. Here we report that N-linked glycosylation at site 158 facilitated the assembly of virus-like particles and enhanced virus replication in A549, MDCK, and chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) cells. Consistently, the HA-glycosylated H5N6 virus induced higher levels of inflammatory factors and resulted in stronger pathogenicity in mice than the virus without glycosylation at site 158. However, H5N6 viruses without glycosylation at site 158 were more resistant to heat and bound host cells better than the HA-glycosylated viruses. H5N6 virus without glycosylation at this site triggered the host immune response mechanism to antagonize the viral infection, making viral pathogenicity milder and favoring virus spread. These findings highlight the importance of glycosylation at site 158 of HA for the pathogenicity of the H5N6 viruses.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Células A549/virologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/virologia , Galinhas , Glicosilação , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/fisiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 730-741, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677729

RESUMO

In recent years in China, clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 plus clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have gradually become endemic in poultry, and their co-circulation could inevitably facilitate the gene reassortment between each other. During our routine surveillance in live poultry markets (LPMs) in eastern China in 2017-2018, a novel reassortant H5N6 strain with the HA gene derived from clade 2.3.2.1 was isolated from the cloacal swabs of apparently healthy ducks. Phylogenetic tracing analysis indicated that another two clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 strains with divergent lineages of PB1 gene and one clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 isolate of the dominant genotype sharing spatio-temporal proximity were intimately involved in the generation of this rarely reported clade 2.3.2.1 H5N6 reassortant. Distinct with the other three HPAI H5 viruses showing moderate virulence in mice, the H5N1 strain of the homologous internal gene constellation against the clade 2.3.2.1 H5N6 reassortant was highly pathogenic, which might probably attribute to the H3 subtype-derived PB1 gene. However, as compared to the clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 ancestor, the clade 2.3.2.1 H5N6 reassortant displayed a broader tissue distribution and higher viral titres in mice, which could likely facilitate the viral maintenance and spread in nature. Therefore, our results highlight that continuous epidemiological survey of H5 subtype HPAI viruses in LPMs needs to be strengthened to prevent the potential poultry or even public health threat of the novel reassortants from endemic viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Patos/virologia , Genes Virais , Genótipo , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Vírus Reordenados/fisiologia , Virulência
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