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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130772, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399182

RESUMO

Macrolepiota albuminosa (Berk.) Pegler is abundant in active polysaccharides, but little is known about their structures and solution properties. In this study, water-extracted polysaccharides from M. albuminosa (MAWP) were purified into three fractions with structural heterogeneity, which was attributed to the diversity in molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and linkage patterns, further affecting their solution properties. Methylation and NMR analysis revealed MAWP-60p and MAWP-70 were a 3-O-methylated glucomannogalactan and a previously unreported glucomannogalactan, whereas MAWP-80 was elucidated as a branched galactoglucan. Besides, three fractions exhibited random coil conformation in aqueous solution, while MAWP-60p had the highest viscosity due to its highest molecular weight, mean square radius of gyration (Rg) and O-methyl group attached to the backbone. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages might be the major contributors to the flexibility, molecular size and stereochemistry of mushroom polysaccharide chains.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Polissacarídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos , Viscosidade
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1026-1036, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865892

RESUMO

Polysaccharides were extracted by hot water and alkali in sequence from Dolichos lablab L. hull, and further purified by ion-exchange and gel columns. Hot water extracted D. lablab hull polysaccharide (DLHP) was rich in glucuronoxylan and pectin, and alkali extracted polysaccharide (DLHAP) mostly embraced glucuronoxylan. The structures of purified glucuronoxylans from DLHP and DLHAP were mainly analyzed by HPAEC-PAD, methylation combined with GC-MS, NMR and SEC-MALLS. DLHP-1 was identified as acetylated glucuronoxylan containing →4)-ß-Xylp-(1→ backbone with substitution at O-2 site by α-GlcpA/4-O-methyl-α-GlcpA. The molar ratio of ß-Xylp to α-GlcpA was 6.9:1, and acetylation was mainly at O-3 site of ß-Xylp with acetylation degree of 21.5%. DLHP-1 and DLHP-2 had similar physicochemical properties, except for molecular weight (Mw). DLHAP-1 was the non-methylated glucuronoxylan almost without acetylation, and it had the molar ratio of ß-Xylp to α-GlcpA of 5.6:1. Besides, DLHP-1 (Mw of 20.0 × 103 g mol-1) adopted semi-flexible chain, while DLHAP-1 (Mw of 15.4 × 103 g mol-1) showed flexible chain. These results provided a structural basis for study on polysaccharides from D. lablab hull, which was benefit for understanding biological activities and developing functional food or pharmaceuticals of D. lablab.


Assuntos
Dolichos/química , Xilanos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos
3.
Food Funct ; 12(6): 2617-2630, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634806

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by overweight resulting from fat accumulation, along with disturbance of metabolism and gut microbiota. Fermentation, as a green processing method, is beneficial for improving the nutrition capacity of food components. Polysaccharides are considered as one of the important components in food and are also potential supplements for anti-obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of polysaccharides from fermented and non-fermented Momordica charantia L. with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (FP and NFP) on obese rats by serum metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis. Metabolomics results revealed that abnormal lipid metabolism was formed due to obesity. The supplement of FP and NFP improved the glycerophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, and amino acid metabolism of the obese rats, which alleviated the hypercholesterolemia and overweight in rats. Furthermore, the disorder of gut microbiota was ameliorated by FP and NFP. FP promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria, such as phylum Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and genera Anaerostipes, Coprococcus, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. FP also reduced several harmful bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria and genera Helicobacter. The positive correlation of the weight loss and lowering of serum lipids with the increased beneficial bacteria further elucidated that the anti-obesity effect of FP in obese rats is associated with the regulation of gut microbiota and serum metabolites. The results of this study could provide information for developing probiotic products in the future that may have beneficial effects on the prevention or treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum , Momordica charantia/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Food Res Int ; 121: 367-378, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108759

RESUMO

The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation on the anti-diabetic functionality of Momordica charantia was examined using a high-fat-diet and low-dose streptozocin-induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Fermented Momordica charantia juice (FMCJ) administration mitigated the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats more favorably than the non-fermented counterpart. Treatments with FMCJ improved ergosterols and lysomonomethyl-phosphatidylethanolamines metabolisms more effectively. Supplement of FMCJ regulated the composition of the gut microbiota, such as increased the abundance of Bacteroides caecigallinarum, Oscillibacter ruminantium, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella loescheii, Prevotella oralis, and Prevotella melaninogenica, in diabetic rats compared with untreated diabetic rats. Moreover, FMCJ-treated diabetic rats exhibited higher concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, total short-chain fatty acids and lower pH values in colonic contents than that in non-fermented juice-treated rats. These results demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation enhanced the anti-diabetic property of MC juice by favoring the regulation of gut microbiota and the production of SCFAs.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica charantia/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Food Funct ; 10(1): 448-457, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628614

RESUMO

Momordica charantia (M. charantia) has been widely used to treat obesity due to its bioactive ingredients. This research aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effect of polysaccharides (FP) from fermented M. charantia with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on high-fat induced obese rats. We found that FP could effectively lower the body weight gain, Lee's index, insulin resistance and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in obese rats compared with polysaccharides from non-fermented M. charantia (NFP). FP treatments decreased the total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leptin, whereas they elevated the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, significantly in the serum of obese rats. Furthermore, administrations of FP notably improved oxidative balance in obese rats. Lipidomics results indicated that 24 potential biomarkers have been identified in serum. Additionally, 21 lipids were considerably altered by FP and NFP intakes, such as fatty acyls, glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids and glycerophospholipids. The anti-obesity properties of FP were revealed via relieving insulin resistance and fat accumulation of obese rats, which was associated with the regulation of lipid metabolism. Overall, FP exerted more favourable impacts on the anti-obesity effect than NFP, which may be attributed to fermentation.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Momordica charantia/química , Momordica charantia/microbiologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fermentação , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Momordica charantia/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 201: 624-633, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241862

RESUMO

The influence of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation on the structure and anti-diabetic effects of Momordica charantia polysaccharides were evaluated. High-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats were administrated with polysaccharides from fermented and non-fermented Momordica charantia (FP and NFP) for 4 weeks. Fermentation affected the physicochemical characterization, monosaccharide composition, molecular weight, and viscosity of Momordica charantia polysaccharides. Treatment with FP significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats compared with NFP. Moreover, the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota (Lactococcus laudensis and Prevotella loescheii) in diabetic rats were notably increased by treatment with FP in comparison to NFP. Meanwhile, FP-treated diabetic rats exhibited more colonic short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lower pH values than that in NFP-treated rats. Overall, Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation could enhance the anti-diabetes effects of Momordica charantia polysaccharides in rats by modifying the structure of polysaccharides to optimize gut microbiota and heighten the production of SCFAs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Momordica charantia/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(19): 4781-4786, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671596

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide concern and obviously influences the quality of life of humans. Dietary polysaccharides were mainly from natural sources, namely, plants, fungi, algae, etc. They were resistant to human digestion and absorption, with complete or partial fermentation in the large bowel, and have shown antidiabetic ability. In this perspective, a literature search was conducted to provide information on the antidiabetic mechanism of dietary polysaccharides based on the whole gastrointestinal process, which was a new angle of view for understanding their antidiabetic mechanism. Further studies could take efforts on the mechanisms of the polysaccharide action through host-microbiota interactions targeting diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(17): 4384-4393, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656647

RESUMO

The interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 signaling pathway regulates proliferation and survival of intestinal epithelial cells and has profound impact on the tumorigenesis of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Tea polysaccharides (TPS) are the major nutraceutical component isolated from tea-leaves and are known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor bioactivities. Here, we investigated the antitumor activities of TPS on CAC using the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) mouse model and IL-6-induced colorectal cancer cell line (CT26) and determined whether TPS exerted its antitumor effects through the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Results demonstrated that TPS significantly decreased the tumor incidence, tumor size, and markedly inhibited the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines via balancing cellular microenvironment. Furthermore, we found that TPS suppressed the activation of STAT3 and transcriptionally regulated the expressions of downstream genes including MMP2, cyclin Dl, survivin, and VEGF both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, it was concluded that TPS attenuated the progress of CAC via suppressing IL-6/STAT3 pathway and downstream genes' expressions, which indicated that TPS may be a hopeful antitumor agent for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.


Assuntos
Colite/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-6/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/efeitos dos fármacos , Chá/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Azoximetano/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 114: 1049-1055, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626602

RESUMO

In vivo an ecological network of polysaccharides utilization by gut microbiota is not only an intense competition but also an impressive cooperation pattern. The present study evaluated the in vivo protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP) from Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma atrum on colon immune dysfunction, induced by 150mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CP). The results showed that C. sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) significantly promoted microbial-derived butyrate to improve histone h3 acetylation mediating regulatory T (Treg) cell specific Foxp3, as well as significantly restored CP-induced elevation of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-21. Additionally, G. atrum polysaccharides (PSG) significantly down-regulated MyD88, as well as significantly increased IL-10 and TGF-ß3. Furthermore, CFP balanced the disequilibrium of cytokines secretion and Foxp3/RORγt ratio related Treg/T helper 17 (Th17) balance, as well as down-regulated the TLR-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway and promoted secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) secretion to suppress colonic inflammation. Therefore, our results typically contribute to understand the in vivo immunoregulatory function of fungal polysaccharides compounds, involving microbial-associated inflammatory signals and specific metabolic products.


Assuntos
Colo/imunologia , Doenças do Colo/prevenção & controle , Cordyceps/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos , Ganoderma/química , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/prevenção & controle , Animais , Colo/patologia , Doenças do Colo/imunologia , Doenças do Colo/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(2)2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419740

RESUMO

The imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis can lead to tumor progression, causing oncogenic transformation, abnormal cell proliferation and cell apoptosis suppression. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is the major bioactive component in green tea, it has showed antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. In this study, the chemoprophylaxis effects of TPS on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis, especially the cell apoptosis activation and inhibition effects on cell proliferation and invasion were analyzed. The azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) was used to induce the colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Results showed that the tumor incidence was reduced in TPS-treated AOM/DSS mice compared to AOM/DSS mice. TUNEL staining and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry staining showed that the TPS treatment increased significantly the cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation among AOM/DSS mice. Furthermore, TPS reduced the expression levels of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. In addition, in vitro studies showed that TPS, suppressed the proliferation and invasion of the mouse colon cancer cells. Overall, our findings demonstrated that TPS could be a potential agent in the treatment and/or prevention of colon tumor, which promoted the apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation and invasion of the mouse colon cancer cells via arresting cell cycle progression.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/genética , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Expressão Gênica , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(12): 2485-91, 2016 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26329540

RESUMO

This research was aimed to study the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (Dendronan) on colonic health. Mice were fed Dendronan at doses of 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg body weight for 0, 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. Results showed that Dendronan, which has a special structure formed by mannose and glucose, rich in O-acetyl groups, exhibited improving effects on colonic and fecal parameters of Balb/c mice. After Dendronan feeding, the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), colon length and index, and fecal moisture were increased, whereas colonic pH was decreased and defecation time was shortened. All of these changes were significantly different between polysaccharide-treated groups and the control group (p < 0.05). These findings suggested that an adequate intake of Dendronan is beneficial to the process of fermentation and regulation of colonic microenvironment, thus playing a role in the maintenance of colonic health.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Dendrobium/química , Mananas/análise , Animais , Defecação/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Polissacarídeos/análise
12.
Avian Pathol ; 44(6): 463-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26395945

RESUMO

Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization in the chicken intestine. Recently, we demonstrated that certain selected Lactobacillus isolates were able to reduce Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver as well as down-regulated Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 virulence gene expression in the chicken caecum. To further understand the mechanisms through which Lactobacillus protected chickens from Salmonella infection, the present study has investigated the Lactobacillus isolate(s)-induced host immune response of chickens to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. A thorough examination of cytokine gene expression in the ileum, caecal tonsils, and spleen on days 1 and 3 post-Salmonella infection showed a dynamic spatial and temporal response to Salmonella infection and Lactobacillus treatments. In most instances, it was evident that treatment of chickens with Lactobacillus isolates could significantly attenuate Salmonella-induced changes in the gene expression profile. These included the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines [lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8], T helper 1 cytokines [IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ], and T helper 2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Another important observation from the present investigation was that the response induced by a combination of Lactobacillus isolates was generally more effective than that induced by a single Lactobacillus isolate. Our results show that administration of certain selected Lactobacillus isolates can effectively modulate Salmonella-induced cytokine gene expression, and thus help reduce Salmonella infection in chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Citocinas/genética , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ceco/imunologia , Feminino , Íleo/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Baço/imunologia
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 112: 563-8, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129782

RESUMO

In vitro fermentation of polysaccharide from Cyclocarya paliurus leaves by human fecal inoculums was investigated by determining the changes in contents of neutral and reducing sugar and pH value, consumption of monosaccharide and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). During fermentation, the content of neutral sugar and reducing sugar decreased as fermentation time increased except that the content of reducing sugar increased within the fermentation time 0.5h. The pH value significantly dropped from 7.2 to 6.04. Remarkably, the greatest yields and the fastest consumption of galacturonic acid were found and the yield of glucose and arabinose were relatively high. The dominant SCFAs, which were acetic acid, propionic acid and n-butyric acid, significantly increased. These results showed that polysaccharide was partly fermented, glycosidic bonds with galacturonic acid being more susceptible to be attacked by gut bacteria and galacturonic acid might be deemed as the main producer of acetic acid.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Juglandaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Arabinose/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácidos Hexurônicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Propionatos/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(27): 6408-16, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941348

RESUMO

White rice porridge and mixed grain porridge, which are often consumed in many countries, were used as two models to evaluate the effects of gum arabic on glucose levels and microbial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Gum arabic was incorporated into the two porridges individually. Apparent viscosity of the two porridges was significantly increased, and their glucose productions during gastrointestinal digestion were notably lowered (p < 0.05). Diffused glucose amount was significantly decreased after gum arabic addition (p < 0.05). Furthermore, blood glucose rise after oral administration of porridges in mice was considerably lowered after fortified with gum arabic (p < 0.05). Microbial SCFA production during in vitro fermentation of porridges was significantly increased after gum arabic addition, which may also have beneficial effects on reducing postprandial glycemic response. Therefore, gum arabic may be a helpful ingredient, which could be added in porridges to have benefits for the reduction of postprandial glycemic response.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Goma Arábica/metabolismo , Microbiota , Oryza/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Culinária , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Goma Arábica/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Oryza/química , Período Pós-Prandial , Viscosidade
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(1): 229-34, 2014 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341731

RESUMO

Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. was given via oral administration to mice (0.4 g/kg body weight, 30 days) to observe its effects on mouse nutrient metabolism and colon microbiota. It was found the polysaccharide intake could lower the apparent absorption of lipid. Total triglyceride, cholesterol, and atherogenic index in blood serum with total lipid and cholesterol levels in liver of polysaccharide group mice were all significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of the polysaccharide intake on mouse colon bacterial communities was investigated. Mice from the polysaccharide group showed a higher colon bacterial diversity than the control group. Bacteroides sp., Eubacterium sp., butyrate-producing bacteria Butyrivibrio sp., and probiotics Bifidobacterium bifidum , Lactobacillus fermentum , and Lactobacillus reuteri in mouse colon were all increased after polysaccharide intake. These indicated that the intake of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. could be beneficial for lipid metabolism and colon microbiota.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Plantago/química , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Sementes/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(25): 6092-101, 2013 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23738978

RESUMO

Effects of microwave irradiation on microbial short-chain fatty acid production and the activites of extracellular enzymes during in vitro fermentation of the polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. were investigated in this study. It was found that the apparent viscosity, average molecular weight, and particle size of the polysaccharide decreased after microwave irradiation. Reducing sugar amount increased with molecular weight decrease, suggesting the degradation may derive from glycosidic bond rupture. The polysaccharide surface topography was changed from large flakelike structure to smaller chips. FT-IR showed that microwave irradiation did not alter the primary functional groups in the polysaccharide. However, short-chain fatty acid productions of the polysaccharide during in vitro fermentation significantly increased after microwave irradiation. Activities of microbial extracellular enzymes xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylosidase, and glucuronidase in fermentation cultures supplemented with microwave irradiation treated polysaccharide were also generally higher than those of untreated polysaccharide. This showed that microwave irradiation could be a promising degradation method for the production of value-added polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Plantago/microbiologia , Plantago/efeitos da radiação , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Carboidratos , Fermentação , Micro-Ondas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Plantago/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
17.
Food Chem ; 138(4): 2338-45, 2013 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23497894

RESUMO

Physiological properties of homogenized and non-homogenized polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L., including antioxidant capacity and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, were compared in this study. High pressure homogenization decreased particle size of the polysaccharide, and changed the surface topography from large flake-like structure to smaller porous chips. FT-IR showed that high pressure homogenization did not alter the primary structure of the polysaccharide. However, high pressure homogenization increased antioxidant capacity of the polysaccharide, evaluated by 4 antioxidant capacity assays (hydroxyl radical-scavenging, superoxide radical-scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH)-scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition). Additionally, the production of total SCFA, propionic acid and n-butyric acid in ceca and colons of mice significantly increased after dieting supplementation with homogenized polysaccharide. These results showed that high pressure homogenization treatment could be a promising approach for the production of value-added polysaccharides in the food industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Plantago/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 92(2): 1143-50, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23399139

RESUMO

The saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. seeds was investigated in vitro. It was found that salivary amylase had no effect on the polysaccharide; however, the polysaccharide was influenced in later gastrointestinal digestion. A steady decrease in molecular weight (M(w)) of the polysaccharide from 1903.1±93.0 to 4.7±0.2 kDa was observed as digestion time increased. Meanwhile, the reducing ends were increased from 0.157±0.009 to 0.622±0.026 mM, indicating the decrease of M(w) may due to the breakdown of glycosidic bonds. In addition, there was no monosaccharide released throughout the whole digestion period, suggesting that the gastrointestinal digestion did not result in a production of free monosaccharide. These results may provide some information on the digestion of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. in vitro, and may contribute to the methods of studying the digestion of other carbohydrates.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Plantago/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Digestão , Humanos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Estômago/fisiologia
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 54: 264-9, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23246413

RESUMO

Effects of a novel polysaccharide (PLP) from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. on intestinal function were investigated in vitro. Results showed that PLP had notable influence on slowing down glucose diffusion and inhibiting α-amylase activity. These might help prolong blood glucose response and hence control the postprandial glucose concentration. PLP could also decrease pancreatic lipase and protease activities, which may help lower the levels of serum lipids and modify protein digestibility. In addition, PLP was able to bind bile acids and may reduce cholesterol level. These results suggested that PLP may have potential benefits for human intestinal function and might be used as a potential ingredient in functional food applications.


Assuntos
Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Plantago/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Bovinos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Difusão , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipase/metabolismo , Micelas , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Sus scrofa , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 60(46): 11525-32, 2012 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23113806

RESUMO

Mice (20.0 ± 2.0 g, n = 48 per group) were given 30 days oral administration of polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. seeds at the dose of 0.4 g/kg body weight by gavage to investigate the effects of the polysaccharide on mouse colon. Results showed that the concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetic, propionic, and n-butyric acids in mouse colonic content of polysaccharide treated group were all significantly higher than that of control group (water) (p < 0.05). In addition, moisture of mouse colonic content of polysaccharide treated group was also notably higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05) indicating the intake of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. resulted in a stronger water-holding capacity for colonic content throughout the experimental period. Furthermore, a decreased pH (from 7.5 ± 0.1 to 7.2 ± 0.1) was observed in mouse colon of the polysaccharide treated group compared with the control group (pH from 7.5 ± 0.1 to 7.5 ± 0.1). These results suggested that the intake of the polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. might be beneficial for the colon health.


Assuntos
Colo/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantago/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Água/análise , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantago/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
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