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1.
J Adv Res ; 35: 153-168, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35003799

RESUMO

Introduction: Colonic urea-nitrogen metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases which can be affected by environmental factors. Objectives: We aimed to explore the influence of ambient humidity on colonic urea-nitrogen metabolism. Methods: Blood biochemical indexes, metabolites of intestinal tract, and gut microbiota composition of mice (n = 10/group) exposed to high relative humidity (RH, 90 ± 2%) were analyzed during the 14-day exposure. Results: After 12-h exposure, plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level increased along with a decrease in the activity of erythrocyte Na+/K+ -ATPase. Moreover, abnormal erythrocyte morphologies appeared after 3 days of exposure. The colonic BUN and ammonia levels increased significantly after the 12-h and 24-h exposure, respectively. The colonic level of amino acids, partly synthesized by gut microbiota using ammonia as the nitrogen source, was significantly higher on the 7th day. Furthermore, the level of fecal short-chain fatty acids was significantly higher after 3-day exposure and the level of branched-chain fatty acids increased on the 14th day. Overall, gut microbiota composition was continuously altered during exposure, facilitating the preferential proliferation of urea-nitrogen metabolism bacteria. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that short-term high RH exposure influences colonic urea-nitrogen metabolism by increasing the influx of colonic urea and altering gut microbiota, which might further impact the host health outcomes.

2.
Food Chem ; 368: 130772, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399182

RESUMO

Macrolepiota albuminosa (Berk.) Pegler is abundant in active polysaccharides, but little is known about their structures and solution properties. In this study, water-extracted polysaccharides from M. albuminosa (MAWP) were purified into three fractions with structural heterogeneity, which was attributed to the diversity in molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and linkage patterns, further affecting their solution properties. Methylation and NMR analysis revealed MAWP-60p and MAWP-70 were a 3-O-methylated glucomannogalactan and a previously unreported glucomannogalactan, whereas MAWP-80 was elucidated as a branched galactoglucan. Besides, three fractions exhibited random coil conformation in aqueous solution, while MAWP-60p had the highest viscosity due to its highest molecular weight, mean square radius of gyration (Rg) and O-methyl group attached to the backbone. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages might be the major contributors to the flexibility, molecular size and stereochemistry of mushroom polysaccharide chains.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Polissacarídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos , Viscosidade
3.
Food Chem ; 370: 131069, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536780

RESUMO

Wholegrains have been promoted for human consumption due to their various health benefits. However, different wholegrains vary in nutritional composition and their beneficial impact on health. In this study, we compared the in vitro starch and protein digestibility, as well as dietary fiber content of eight different wholegrains including barley, buckwheat, coix seed, foxtail millet, oat, proso millet, quinoa, and sorghum and their porridges. We found that boiling improved starch digestibility of all grains, and protein digestibility except proso millet and sorghum. Porridges made from oats, quinoa, or buckwheat are considered healthier than others due to their lower glycemic index and glycemic load, higher digestible protein content and amino acid bioaccessibility, and higher dietary fiber content (>12%). This study could provide a comprehensive nutritional composition and digestibility of the eight types of wholegrains and their porridges. Dietary recommendations were also given for different populations based on factor analysis.


Assuntos
Dieta , Digestão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Amido
4.
Food Chem ; 371: 131106, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543925

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. Intake of dietary fiber is inversely associated with risks of T2D. Here, metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were employed to investigate the effects of arabinoxylan on gut microbiota and their metabolites in type 2 diabetic rats. T2D increased the abundance of opportunistic pathogens (such as Desulfovibrio and Klebsiella) and the levels of 12α-hydroxylated bile acids and acylcarnitines (C3) in diabetic rats, which eventually contribute to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Supplementation with arabinoxylan promoted the growth of fiber-degrading bacteria to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as decreased the abundance of opportunistic pathogens. Arabinoxylan treatment also decreased the concentrations of 12α-hydroxylated bile acids, and increased the levels of equol, indolepropionate, and eicosadienoic acid. This study indicated that the beneficial effects of arabinoxylan on T2D may be partially attributed to the modification of gut microbiota and related metabolites.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Xilanos
5.
Food Chem X ; 12: 100158, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825168

RESUMO

Plantago (Plantaginaceae) is an herbal plant, which is used in folk medicine, functional food, and dietary supplement products. Recent pharmacological and phytochemical studies have shown that polysaccharides isolated from Plantago have multiple medicinal and nutritional benefits, including improve intestinal health, hypoglycemic effect, immunomodulatory effect, etc. These health and pharmacological benefits are of great interest to the public, academia, and biotechnology industries. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in the physicochemical, structural features, and biological effects of Plantago polysaccharides and highlights the similarities and differences of the polysaccharides from different species and in different parts, including leaves, seeds, and husks. The scientific support for its use as a prebiotic is also addressed. The purpose of this review is to provide background as well as useful and up-to-date information for future research and applications of these polysaccharides.

6.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669541

RESUMO

Human gut microbiota played a key role in maintaining and regulating host health. Gut microbiota composition could be altered by daily diet and related nutrients. Diet polysaccharide, an important dietary nutrient, was one kind of biological macromolecules linked by the glycosidic bonds. Galactans were widely used in foods due to their gelling, thickening and stabilizing properties. Recently, effects of different galactans on gut microbiota have attracted much attention. This review described the structural characteristics of 4 kinds of galactans, including porphyran, agarose, carrageenan, and arabinogalactan, along with the effects of different galactans on gut microbiota and production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of gut microbiota to utilize galactans with different structural characteristics and related degradation mechanism were also summarized. All these four galactans could be used by gut Bacteroides. Besides, the porphyran could be utilized by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while the arabinogalactan could be utilized by Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Roseburia. Four galactans with significant difference in molecular weight/degree of polymerization, glycosidic linkage, esterification, branching and monosaccharide composition required gut microbes which could utilize them have corresponding genes encoding the corresponding enzymes for decomposition. This review could help to understand the relationship between galactans with different structural characteristics and gut microbiota, and provide information for potential use of galactans as functional foods.

7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 156: 112522, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary fibers have beneficial effects on human health through the interaction with gut microbiota. Larch wood arabinogalactan (LA-AG) is one kind of complex soluble dietary fibers that may be utilized by human gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the LA-AG degradation by gut microbiota were characterized by investigating the change of LA-AG, microbiota composition, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), lactic acid, succinic acid, as well as volatile organic metabolites. During the fermentation, pH decreased continuously, along with the organic acids (especially acetic acid and lactic acid) accumulating. LA-AG was degraded by gut microbiota then some beneficial metabolites were produced. In addition, LA-AG inhibited the proliferation of some gut microbiota (Unclassified_Enterobacteriaceae and Citrobacter) and the accumulation of some metabolites (Sulfide and indole) released by gut microbiota. CONCLUSION: LA-AG was partly fermentable fibers with prebiotic potential for human gut health.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(25): 7000-7015, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139119

RESUMO

High intake of dietary fibers was found to be inversely associated with type-2 diabetes (T2D), whereas the difference among different dietary fibers on T2D remains unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of different dietary fibers on T2D. Nine types of dietary fibers were used to investigate and evaluate their effects on type-2 diabetic rats via physiology, genomics, and metabolomics. We found that supplementation with ß-glucan, arabinogalactan, guar gum, apple pectin, glucomannan, and arabinoxylan significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose, whereas carrageenan, xylan, and xanthan gum did not affect glycemic control in diabetic rats. Also, bioactive dietary fibers (ß-glucan, arabinogalactan, guar gum, and apple pectin) associated with the increased butyric acid level and abundance of beneficial bacteria (Lachnobacterium, Parabacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Akkermansia, and some butyric acid-producing bacteria), as well as improved host metabolism by decreasing 12α-hydroxylated bile acids, acylcarnitines, and amino acids (leucine, phenylalanine, citrulline, etc.), thereby exert beneficial effects on T2D. It was also found that ß-glucan might attenuate insulin resistance via downregulation of Prevotella copri-mediated biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in T2D. Together, our study uncovered the effects of different dietary fibers on T2D, along with their potential mechanism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Fibras na Dieta , Hipoglicemiantes , Prevotella , Ratos
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1026-1036, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865892

RESUMO

Polysaccharides were extracted by hot water and alkali in sequence from Dolichos lablab L. hull, and further purified by ion-exchange and gel columns. Hot water extracted D. lablab hull polysaccharide (DLHP) was rich in glucuronoxylan and pectin, and alkali extracted polysaccharide (DLHAP) mostly embraced glucuronoxylan. The structures of purified glucuronoxylans from DLHP and DLHAP were mainly analyzed by HPAEC-PAD, methylation combined with GC-MS, NMR and SEC-MALLS. DLHP-1 was identified as acetylated glucuronoxylan containing →4)-ß-Xylp-(1→ backbone with substitution at O-2 site by α-GlcpA/4-O-methyl-α-GlcpA. The molar ratio of ß-Xylp to α-GlcpA was 6.9:1, and acetylation was mainly at O-3 site of ß-Xylp with acetylation degree of 21.5%. DLHP-1 and DLHP-2 had similar physicochemical properties, except for molecular weight (Mw). DLHAP-1 was the non-methylated glucuronoxylan almost without acetylation, and it had the molar ratio of ß-Xylp to α-GlcpA of 5.6:1. Besides, DLHP-1 (Mw of 20.0 × 103 g mol-1) adopted semi-flexible chain, while DLHAP-1 (Mw of 15.4 × 103 g mol-1) showed flexible chain. These results provided a structural basis for study on polysaccharides from D. lablab hull, which was benefit for understanding biological activities and developing functional food or pharmaceuticals of D. lablab.


Assuntos
Dolichos/química , Xilanos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos
10.
Trends Food Sci Technol ; 108: 187-196, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519087

RESUMO

Background: Patients with COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 exhibit diverse clinical manifestations and severity including enteric involvement. Commensal gut bacteria can contribute to defense against potential pathogens by promoting beneficial immune interactions. Interventions targeting the gut microbiome may have systemic anti-viral effects in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Scope and approach: To summarise alterations of gut microbiota in patients with COVID-19 including impact of specific bacteria on disease severity, discuss current knowledge on the role of probiotics, prebiotics and dietary approaches including vitamin D in preventing and reducing disease susceptibility and review clinical studies using probiotics to target coronavirus. A literature review on SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, gut microbiome and immunity was undertaken and relevant literature was summarised and critically examined. Key findings and conclusions: Integrity of gut microbiome was perturbed in SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated with disease severity. Poor prognosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in subjects with underlying co-morbidities who had increased gut permeability and reduced gut microbiome diversity. Dietary microbes, including probiotics or selected prebiotics of Chinese origin, had anti-viral effects against other forms of coronavirus, and could positively impact host immune functions during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Numerous studies are investigating the role of probiotics in preventing and reducing susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers, household contacts and affected patients. An approach to strengthen intestinal barrier and lower pro-inflammatory states by adopting a more diversified diet during COVID-19 pandemic.SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with immune dysfunction and gut microbiota alterations. Delineating mechanisms of probiotics, prebiotics and diet with anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity present opportunities for discovery of microbial therapeutics to prevent and treat COVID-19.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(8): 2632-2645, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606525

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic associated with metabolic disorders and intestinal microbiota alterations. Polysaccharides have been considered to be beneficial to the prevention and alleviation of T2D. In the present study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple-time-of-flight-based metabolomics and proteomics and 16S rRNA sequencing methods were employed to evaluate the effects of glucomannans from Dendrobium officinale stem, konjac, and Aloe vera leaves on host metabolism and intestinal microbiota regulation in type 2 diabetic rats and potential mechanisms. The metabolism of amino acids was significantly disturbed in the type 2 diabetic rats, especially the upregulated branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. Host-derived BCAA metabolism was significantly decreased in type 2 diabetic rats. However, the levels of BCAAs in host circulation and gene abundance of BCAA biosynthesis in gut microbiota were significantly increased in diabetic rats, which suggested that the disturbed intestinal microbiota might be responsible for the increased circulation of BCAAs in T2D. Glucomannan treatment decreased the abundance of microbial BCAA biosynthesis-related genes and ameliorated the host BCAA metabolism. Also, glucomannan with a higher molecular weight and a lower ratio of mannose/glucose possessed better antidiabetic effects. In summary, the antidiabetic effects of glucomannans might be associated with the amelioration of BCAA metabolism by modulating intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Metabólicas , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Mananas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos
12.
Food Funct ; 12(6): 2617-2630, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634806

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by overweight resulting from fat accumulation, along with disturbance of metabolism and gut microbiota. Fermentation, as a green processing method, is beneficial for improving the nutrition capacity of food components. Polysaccharides are considered as one of the important components in food and are also potential supplements for anti-obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of polysaccharides from fermented and non-fermented Momordica charantia L. with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (FP and NFP) on obese rats by serum metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis. Metabolomics results revealed that abnormal lipid metabolism was formed due to obesity. The supplement of FP and NFP improved the glycerophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, and amino acid metabolism of the obese rats, which alleviated the hypercholesterolemia and overweight in rats. Furthermore, the disorder of gut microbiota was ameliorated by FP and NFP. FP promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria, such as phylum Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and genera Anaerostipes, Coprococcus, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. FP also reduced several harmful bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria and genera Helicobacter. The positive correlation of the weight loss and lowering of serum lipids with the increased beneficial bacteria further elucidated that the anti-obesity effect of FP in obese rats is associated with the regulation of gut microbiota and serum metabolites. The results of this study could provide information for developing probiotic products in the future that may have beneficial effects on the prevention or treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum , Momordica charantia/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-23, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591236

RESUMO

Food nutrients plays a crucial role in human health, especially in gastrointestinal (GI) health. The effect of food nutrients on human health mainly depends on the digestion and fermentation process in the GI tract. In vitro GI digestion and fermentation models had the advantages of reproducibility, simplicity, universality, and could integrally simulate the in vivo conditions to mimic oral, gastric, small intestinal and large intestinal digestive processes. They could not only predict the relationship among material composition, structure and digestive characteristics, but also evaluate the bioavailability of material components and the impact of digestive metabolites on GI health. This review systematicly summarized the current state of the in vitro simulation models, and made detailed descriptions for their applications, advantages and disadvantages, and specially their applications in food carbohydrates. In addition, it also provided the suggestions for the improvement of in vitro models and firstly proposed to establish a set of standardized methods of in vitro dynamic digestion and fermentation conditions for food carbohydrates, which were in order to further evaluate more effects of the nutrients on human health in future.

14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(1): 117-132, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562054

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a serious threat to human health. Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C.paliurus) is one of the traditional herbal medicine and food in China for treating type 2 diabetes, and the C. paliurus polysaccharides (CP) were found to be one of its major functional constituents. This research aimed at investigating the hypoglycemic mechanism for CP. It was found that CP markedly attenuated the symptoms of diabetes, and inhibited the protein expression of Bax, improved the expression of Bcl-2 in pancreas of diabetic rats, normalized hormones secretion and controlled the inflammation which contributed to the regeneration of pancreatic ß-cell and insulin resistance. CP treatment increased the beneficial bacteria genus Ruminococcaceae UCG-005 which was reported to be a key genus for protecting against diabetes, and the fecal short-chain fatty acids levels were elevated. Uric metabolites analysis showed that CP treatment helped to protect with the diabetes by seven significantly improved pathways closely with the nutrition metabolism (amino acids and purine) and energy metabolism (TCA cycle), which could help to build up the intestinal epithelial cell defense for the inflammation associated with the diabetes. Our study highlights the specific mechanism of prebiotics to attenuate diabetes through multi-path of gut microbiota and host metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Juglandaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(37): 10015-10028, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811143

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a serious threat to human health. Tea is cultivated around the world, and its polysaccharide components are reported to be an effective approach for managing type 2 diabetes with fewer adverse effects than medication. To examine the therapeutic effect of tea polysaccharides on diabetes, a type 2 diabetic rat model was generated. We showed that tea polysaccharides remarkably decreased fasting blood glucose and the levels of total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and free fatty acid of type 2 diabetic rats. 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomics were used to investigate the variation of gut microbiota and the metabolites profiles of diabetic rats after intervention of tea polysaccharides. We found that tea polysaccharides maintained the diversity of gut microbiota and restored the relative abundance of some bacterial genera (Lachnospira, Victivallis, Roseburia, and Fluviicola) which was reduced by diabetes. According to metabolomics analysis, we found that amino acid and other related metabolites was influenced by tea polysaccharides intervention. Correlation analysis among metabolites, gut microbiota, and parameters of hypoglycemic indicated that tea polysaccharides had hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect on type 2 diabetes via the modulation of gut microbiota and the improvement of host metabolism.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 2886-2897, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186298

RESUMO

This work investigated the physiochemical characteristics and preventive effects of purified pectin (H121, L13 and L102) with different esterification degrees on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Three doses of each type of pectin were administered to C57BL/6J mice for 7 days before the DSS treatment, with dextran and mesalazine as positive controls. Results showed that pathological factors including the body weight, the disease activity index (DAI), the colonic weight/length ratio and the organ index of the spleen were improved with pre-intervention of a high dose of L13 or L102. Further studies showed that administration of a low dose of L13, low dose and medium dose of L102 or dextran improved intestinal permeability and tight junction function in colitis mice. Treatments of L13 of all doses and L102 of a high dose downregulated the oxidative stress-associated factors, while L102 of a low dose and H121 ameliorated the inflammatory cytokine production in serum and the colon. The above results suggested that pectin could attenuate DSS-induced intestinal epithelial injury, inflammation and oxidative stress. Specifically, compared to high esterified pectin, low esterified pectin displayed better protective effects in acute colitis mice.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/prevenção & controle , Alimento Funcional , Pectinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Dextranos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
17.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 29(1): 17-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976123

RESUMO

There is growing interest in the antioxidants and antibacterial activity from natural substances. The purpose of the research was to gain and distinguish phenolic substances and organic acids in the Camellia oleifera cake, and to study their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The extraction and purification of them were achieved by solvent extraction and column separation, respectively. The conclusions displayed that purity of the phenolic substances was 94.1 ± 0.5% w/w and that of organic acid was 96.0 ± 0.3% w/w; Fifteen phenolic substances were certificated using HPLC-ESI-MS technology; oxalic, citric, acetic, malic, and succinic acids are discovered to be main organic acids. In addition, the phenolic substances and organic acids both have good antioxidant activity and obvious inhibition against six species of bacteria. These conclusions can be useful in the reuse of the waste of Camellia oleifera oil industry in the future.

18.
Food Chem ; 314: 126037, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954941

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU137 on the nutritional, sensory and stability properties of Coix (Coix lachryma-jobi L.) seed. The nutritional compounds, including free amino acid, free fatty acid, soluble dietary fiber and organic acids of fermented coix seed were significantly (p < 0.05) increased than those of non-fermented coix seed. The fermented coix seed exhibiting a special flavor, due to the production of acids, the decreased level of aldehydes and ketones, and the increased level of alcohols in the volatile compounds, whereas the amount of hazardous substance 2-pentylfuran was reduced and natural antiseptic hexanoic acid was produced. The increased viscosity together with the larger particle size and the reduced absolute ζ potential contribute to the stability of the fermented coix seed paste system. Therefore, fermentation with L. plantarum NCU137 could improve the nutritional, sensory and stability properties of coix seed.


Assuntos
Coix/química , Coix/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia , Álcoois/análise , Álcoois/metabolismo , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Coix/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Furanos/metabolismo , Cetonas/análise , Cetonas/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
19.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 11: 205-233, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951486

RESUMO

Obesity is a major public health concern that has almost reached the level of pandemic and is rapidly progressing. The gut microbiota has emerged as a crucial regulator involved in the etiology of obesity, and the manipulation of it by dietary intervention has been widely used for reducing the risk of obesity. Nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) are attracting increasing interests as prebiotics, as the indigestible ingredients can induce compositional or metabolic improvement to the gut microbiota, thereby improving gut health and giving rise to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to elicit metabolic effects on obesity. In this review, the role NDOs play in obesity intervention via modification of the gut microecology, as well as the physicochemical and physiological properties and industrial manufacture of NDOs, is discussed. Our goal is to provide a critical assessment of and stimulate comprehensive research into NDO use in obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Oligossacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Prebióticos
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110937, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682932

RESUMO

Large prospective cohort studies suggested an important role of cereal insoluble fiber in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, which challenge the traditional view that viscosity and solubility are the main driving factors for these beneficial effects of dietary fiber. To evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of insoluble- (BIF) and soluble fibers (BSF) enzymatically isolated from barley, a conventional rat model and a type 2 diabetes rat model were used. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of BIF or BSF effectively reduced FBG in the diabetic condition, with caecal level of propionic acid and minor SCFAs increased by BIF and that of butyric acid and insulin sensitivity improved by BSF, respectively. The two treatments further ameliorated liver function, judged by the recovered serum level of ALT, albumin and total protein levels. BIF and BSF also increased HDL-C and decreased serum MDA. In normal rats, BIF and BSF showed a hypolipidaemic effect in triglycerides and LDL-C, reduced body weight and enhanced the caecal production of minor SCFAs. Furthermore, the two treatments reduced the caecal level of butyric acid while BSF increased that of propionic acid. In conclusion, BIF could exert anti-diabetic effects that might via a different mechanism from BSF.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade
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