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1.
Food Funct ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186298

RESUMO

This work investigated the physiochemical characteristics and preventive effects of purified pectin (H121, L13 and L102) with different esterification degrees on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Three doses of each type of pectin were administered to C57BL/6J mice for 7 days before the DSS treatment, with dextran and mesalazine as positive controls. Results showed that pathological factors including the body weight, the disease activity index (DAI), the colonic weight/length ratio and the organ index of the spleen were improved with pre-intervention of a high dose of L13 or L102. Further studies showed that administration of a low dose of L13, low dose and medium dose of L102 or dextran improved intestinal permeability and tight junction function in colitis mice. Treatments of L13 of all doses and L102 of a high dose downregulated the oxidative stress-associated factors, while L102 of a low dose and H121 ameliorated the inflammatory cytokine production in serum and the colon. The above results suggested that pectin could attenuate DSS-induced intestinal epithelial injury, inflammation and oxidative stress. Specifically, compared to high esterified pectin, low esterified pectin displayed better protective effects in acute colitis mice.

2.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 11: 205-233, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951486

RESUMO

Obesity is a major public health concern that has almost reached the level of pandemic and is rapidly progressing. The gut microbiota has emerged as a crucial regulator involved in the etiology of obesity, and the manipulation of it by dietary intervention has been widely used for reducing the risk of obesity. Nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) are attracting increasing interests as prebiotics, as the indigestible ingredients can induce compositional or metabolic improvement to the gut microbiota, thereby improving gut health and giving rise to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to elicit metabolic effects on obesity. In this review, the role NDOs play in obesity intervention via modification of the gut microecology, as well as the physicochemical and physiological properties and industrial manufacture of NDOs, is discussed. Our goal is to provide a critical assessment of and stimulate comprehensive research into NDO use in obesity.

3.
Food Chem ; 314: 126037, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954941

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU137 on the nutritional, sensory and stability properties of Coix (Coix lachryma-jobi L.) seed. The nutritional compounds, including free amino acid, free fatty acid, soluble dietary fiber and organic acids of fermented coix seed were significantly (p < 0.05) increased than those of non-fermented coix seed. The fermented coix seed exhibiting a special flavor, due to the production of acids, the decreased level of aldehydes and ketones, and the increased level of alcohols in the volatile compounds, whereas the amount of hazardous substance 2-pentylfuran was reduced and natural antiseptic hexanoic acid was produced. The increased viscosity together with the larger particle size and the reduced absolute ζ potential contribute to the stability of the fermented coix seed paste system. Therefore, fermentation with L. plantarum NCU137 could improve the nutritional, sensory and stability properties of coix seed.

4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110937, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682932

RESUMO

Large prospective cohort studies suggested an important role of cereal insoluble fiber in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, which challenge the traditional view that viscosity and solubility are the main driving factors for these beneficial effects of dietary fiber. To evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of insoluble- (BIF) and soluble fibers (BSF) enzymatically isolated from barley, a conventional rat model and a type 2 diabetes rat model were used. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of BIF or BSF effectively reduced FBG in the diabetic condition, with caecal level of propionic acid and minor SCFAs increased by BIF and that of butyric acid and insulin sensitivity improved by BSF, respectively. The two treatments further ameliorated liver function, judged by the recovered serum level of ALT, albumin and total protein levels. BIF and BSF also increased HDL-C and decreased serum MDA. In normal rats, BIF and BSF showed a hypolipidaemic effect in triglycerides and LDL-C, reduced body weight and enhanced the caecal production of minor SCFAs. Furthermore, the two treatments reduced the caecal level of butyric acid while BSF increased that of propionic acid. In conclusion, BIF could exert anti-diabetic effects that might via a different mechanism from BSF.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10614-10623, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483658

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a pandemic disease chiefly characterized by hyperglycemia. In this study, the combination of serum lipidomic and metabolomic approach was employed to investigate the effect of arabinoxylan on type 2 diabetic rats and identify the critical biomarkers of T2D. Metabolomics analysis revealed that branched-chain amino acids, 12α-hydroxylated bile acids, ketone bodies, and several short- and long-chain acylcarnitines were significantly increased in T2D, whereas lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) were significantly decreased. Lipidomics analysis indicated T2D-related dyslipidemia was mainly associated with the increased levels of acetylcarnitine, free fatty acids (FFA), diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters and the decreased levels of some unsaturated phosphatidylcholines (less than 22 carbons). These variations indicated the disturbed amino acid and lipid metabolism in T2D, and the accumulation of incompletely oxidized lipid species might eventually contribute to impaired insulin action and glucose homeostasis. Arabinoxylan treatment decreased the concentrations of 12α-hydroxylated bile acids, carnitines, and FFAs and increased the levels of LPCs. The improved bile acid and lipid metabolism by arabinoxylan might be involved in the alleviation of hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia in T2D.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Xilanos/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Carnitina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Metabolômica , Ratos
6.
Food Res Int ; 121: 367-378, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108759

RESUMO

The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation on the anti-diabetic functionality of Momordica charantia was examined using a high-fat-diet and low-dose streptozocin-induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Fermented Momordica charantia juice (FMCJ) administration mitigated the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats more favorably than the non-fermented counterpart. Treatments with FMCJ improved ergosterols and lysomonomethyl-phosphatidylethanolamines metabolisms more effectively. Supplement of FMCJ regulated the composition of the gut microbiota, such as increased the abundance of Bacteroides caecigallinarum, Oscillibacter ruminantium, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella loescheii, Prevotella oralis, and Prevotella melaninogenica, in diabetic rats compared with untreated diabetic rats. Moreover, FMCJ-treated diabetic rats exhibited higher concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, total short-chain fatty acids and lower pH values in colonic contents than that in non-fermented juice-treated rats. These results demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation enhanced the anti-diabetic property of MC juice by favoring the regulation of gut microbiota and the production of SCFAs.

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(18): 5278-5288, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964673

RESUMO

Diabetes and its complications are one of the most concerned metabolic diseases worldwide and threaten human health severely. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of glucomannan extracted from konjac on high-fat diet and streptozocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats were evaluated in this study. Administration of konjac glucomannan significantly decreased the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glycated serum protein. The concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acid, were notably reduced by konjac glucomannan treatment. In addition, antioxidant capacity, pancreatic injury, and adipose cell hypertrophy were ameliorated by konjac glucomannan administration in type 2 diabetic rats. Besides, ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based lipidomics analysis was used to explore the improvement of lipid metabolic by konjac glucomannan treatment. The disturbance of glycerolipid (diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol), fatty acyl (acylcarnitine and hydroxyl fatty acid), sphingolipid (ceramide and sphingomyelin), and glycerophospholipid (phosphatidylcholine) metabolism were attenuated by the glucomannan treatment. This study provided new insights for investigating the anti-diabetic effects of konjac glucomannan and suggests that konjac glucomannan may be a promising nutraceutical for treating type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Amorphophallus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Mananas/química , Mananas/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(12): e1801008, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901508

RESUMO

SCOPE: This study is aimed to investigate the kidney protective effects of glucomannans from Dendrobium officinale stem, konjac, and Aloe vera leaves on type 2 diabetic rats and explore its potential mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pathological and metabolomics analysis methods are adopted in this study. Compared with the model group, lower levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and glycated serum protein are observed in glucomannan-treated groups. Concentrations of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and nonesterified fatty acid are significantly decreased by glucomannan treatment. Furthermore, glucomannan treatment significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, creatinine, urea in serum, and glycosuria, ketone body, and protein in the urine. Histopathological analysis showed that glucomannan treatment normalized the architecture of glomerulus. Metabolomic analysis indicated glucomannan treatment could improve urea cycle, metabolism of lipid, glucose, and amino acids on diabetes. In particular, the konjac glucomannan treatment is more effective in lipid and glucose regulation. Glucomannan from D. officinale is more effective in balancing the urea cycle and amino acid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The disturbance of lipid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism is closely associated with the advancement of diabetic kidney disease, and glucomannan treatment could be efficient in the management of diabetic kidney disease.

9.
Food Funct ; 10(1): 448-457, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628614

RESUMO

Momordica charantia (M. charantia) has been widely used to treat obesity due to its bioactive ingredients. This research aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effect of polysaccharides (FP) from fermented M. charantia with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on high-fat induced obese rats. We found that FP could effectively lower the body weight gain, Lee's index, insulin resistance and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in obese rats compared with polysaccharides from non-fermented M. charantia (NFP). FP treatments decreased the total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leptin, whereas they elevated the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, significantly in the serum of obese rats. Furthermore, administrations of FP notably improved oxidative balance in obese rats. Lipidomics results indicated that 24 potential biomarkers have been identified in serum. Additionally, 21 lipids were considerably altered by FP and NFP intakes, such as fatty acyls, glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids and glycerophospholipids. The anti-obesity properties of FP were revealed via relieving insulin resistance and fat accumulation of obese rats, which was associated with the regulation of lipid metabolism. Overall, FP exerted more favourable impacts on the anti-obesity effect than NFP, which may be attributed to fermentation.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Momordica charantia/química , Momordica charantia/microbiologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fermentação , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Momordica charantia/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 59(6): 848-863, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569745

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications are major public health concerns which strongly influence the quality of humans' life. Modification of gut microbiota has been widely used for the management of diabetes. In this review, the relationship between diabetes and gut microbiota, as well as the effects of different dietary components and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on gut microflora are summarized. Dietary compounds and TCM possessing bioactive components (fiber and phytochemicals) first change the composition of gut microbiota (inhibiting pathogens and promoting the beneficial bacteria growth) and then influence the production of their metabolites, which would further modify the intestinal environment through inhibiting the production of detrimental compounds (such as lipopolysaccharide, hydrogen sulfide, indol, etc.). Importantly, metabolites (short chain fatty acids and other bioactive components) fermented/degraded by gut microbiota can target multiple pathways in intestine, liver, pancreas, etc., resulting in the improvement of gut health, glycemic control, lipids profile, insulin resistance and inflammation. Furthermore, understanding the interaction between different dietary components and gut microbiota, as well as underlying mechanisms would help design different diet formula for the management of diabetes. Further researches could focus on the combination of different dietary components for preventing and treating diabetes, based on the principle of "multiple components against multiple targets" from the perspective of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 201: 624-633, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241862

RESUMO

The influence of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation on the structure and anti-diabetic effects of Momordica charantia polysaccharides were evaluated. High-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats were administrated with polysaccharides from fermented and non-fermented Momordica charantia (FP and NFP) for 4 weeks. Fermentation affected the physicochemical characterization, monosaccharide composition, molecular weight, and viscosity of Momordica charantia polysaccharides. Treatment with FP significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats compared with NFP. Moreover, the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota (Lactococcus laudensis and Prevotella loescheii) in diabetic rats were notably increased by treatment with FP in comparison to NFP. Meanwhile, FP-treated diabetic rats exhibited more colonic short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lower pH values than that in NFP-treated rats. Overall, Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation could enhance the anti-diabetes effects of Momordica charantia polysaccharides in rats by modifying the structure of polysaccharides to optimize gut microbiota and heighten the production of SCFAs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Momordica charantia/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(20): e1800222, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211972

RESUMO

SCOPE: Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic and endocrine disorder worldwide, which causes severe health and economic problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which arabinoxylan from Plantago asiatica L. attenuates type 2 diabetes from the perspective of urine metabolomics. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats are treated with arabinoxylan, then the urine samples are collected for untargeted metabolomics analysis by UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS. Diabetes causes significant increases in the levels of acetone, glucose, 2-oxoglutarate, and leucine, and significant decreases in the concentrations of creatine, histidine, lysine, l-tryptophan, hippurate, l-cysteine, kynurenine, and arabitol as compared with normal rats (p < 0.01). And these 12 metabolites (with VIP cut-off value > 1) can be used as biomarkers in type 2 diabetes. A total of 21 urinary metabolites are significantly improved by arabinoxylan administration in diabetic rats, and these metabolites are mainly involved in TCA cycle, and metabolism of lipid and ketone body, taurine and hypotaurine, tryptophan, and branched chain amino acids. CONCLUSION: Arabinoxylan administration improves carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats, which provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes as well as the effects of arabinoxylan.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilanos/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Food Chem ; 260: 317-326, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29699675

RESUMO

Twenty-nine legumes were assessed for their nutritional and phytochemical compositions. Soybean and black soybean had the highest protein contents (34.05-42.65 g/100 g DW, dry weight of legumes), particularly being a rich source of lysine (1.78-2.23 g/100 g DW. Soybean and black soybean had the highest fat contents (14.13-22.19 g/100 g DW). Broad beans had the highest unsaturated fatty acids (83.57-89.01 g/100 g fatty acid), particularly rich in α-linolenic and linoleic acid. The highest and the lowest dietary fiber were found in red kidney beans (35.36 g/100 g DW) and mung beans (22.77 g/100 g DW), respectively. Except for soybean and white kidney bean, 6 major anthocyanins in the legumes samples were identified. The soybean contained the highest total tocopherols content (90.40-120.96 µg/g dry weight of beans), followed by black soybean (66.13-100.76 µg/g DW). The highest carotenoids were found in lentils (4.53-21.34 µg/g DW) and red kidney beans (8.29-20.95 µg/g DW).


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Fabaceae/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Antocianinas/química , Carotenoides/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Lens (Planta)/química , Soja/química , Tocoferóis/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(19): 4781-4786, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671596

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide concern and obviously influences the quality of life of humans. Dietary polysaccharides were mainly from natural sources, namely, plants, fungi, algae, etc. They were resistant to human digestion and absorption, with complete or partial fermentation in the large bowel, and have shown antidiabetic ability. In this perspective, a literature search was conducted to provide information on the antidiabetic mechanism of dietary polysaccharides based on the whole gastrointestinal process, which was a new angle of view for understanding their antidiabetic mechanism. Further studies could take efforts on the mechanisms of the polysaccharide action through host-microbiota interactions targeting diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 114: 1049-1055, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626602

RESUMO

In vivo an ecological network of polysaccharides utilization by gut microbiota is not only an intense competition but also an impressive cooperation pattern. The present study evaluated the in vivo protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP) from Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma atrum on colon immune dysfunction, induced by 150mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CP). The results showed that C. sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) significantly promoted microbial-derived butyrate to improve histone h3 acetylation mediating regulatory T (Treg) cell specific Foxp3, as well as significantly restored CP-induced elevation of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-21. Additionally, G. atrum polysaccharides (PSG) significantly down-regulated MyD88, as well as significantly increased IL-10 and TGF-ß3. Furthermore, CFP balanced the disequilibrium of cytokines secretion and Foxp3/RORγt ratio related Treg/T helper 17 (Th17) balance, as well as down-regulated the TLR-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway and promoted secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) secretion to suppress colonic inflammation. Therefore, our results typically contribute to understand the in vivo immunoregulatory function of fungal polysaccharides compounds, involving microbial-associated inflammatory signals and specific metabolic products.


Assuntos
Colo/imunologia , Doenças do Colo/prevenção & controle , Cordyceps/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos , Ganoderma/química , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/prevenção & controle , Animais , Colo/patologia , Doenças do Colo/imunologia , Doenças do Colo/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(2)2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419740

RESUMO

The imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis can lead to tumor progression, causing oncogenic transformation, abnormal cell proliferation and cell apoptosis suppression. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is the major bioactive component in green tea, it has showed antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. In this study, the chemoprophylaxis effects of TPS on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis, especially the cell apoptosis activation and inhibition effects on cell proliferation and invasion were analyzed. The azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) was used to induce the colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Results showed that the tumor incidence was reduced in TPS-treated AOM/DSS mice compared to AOM/DSS mice. TUNEL staining and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry staining showed that the TPS treatment increased significantly the cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation among AOM/DSS mice. Furthermore, TPS reduced the expression levels of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. In addition, in vitro studies showed that TPS, suppressed the proliferation and invasion of the mouse colon cancer cells. Overall, our findings demonstrated that TPS could be a potential agent in the treatment and/or prevention of colon tumor, which promoted the apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation and invasion of the mouse colon cancer cells via arresting cell cycle progression.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/genética , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Expressão Gênica , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos
17.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1398(1): 20-29, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28543531

RESUMO

Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja, a well-known edible and medicinal plant, has been widely used in China as a traditional medicine for treating hypertension and diabetes. C. paliurus possesses various bioactivities, such as antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, anticancer, antifatigue, antioxidation, antimicrobial, colon health-promoting, and immunological activities. Polysaccharides, as natural macromolecules with various biological activities, are considered to be the main effective components in C. paliurus. Here, we summarize studies of polysaccharides from C. paliurus over the past 20 years, including extraction and purification processes, structure, and bioactivities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , China , Humanos , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Juglandaceae/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(5): 1459-1466, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27384605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. RESULTS: A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. CONCLUSIONS: The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Esterilização/métodos , Cor , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus
19.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 57(11): 2432-2454, 2017 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26558495

RESUMO

Phyto-estrogens are plant-derived compounds that can exert various estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects, and are usually used as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement due to their health benefits, including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms. Phyto-estrogens are also considered as endocrine disruptors due to their structure similar to human female hormone 17-ß oestradiol. However, the issue of whether phyto-estrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unknown, as this may depend on the dose, form, level and duration of administration of phyto-estrogens, and influence by genetics, metabolism, gut physiology, age, diet, and the health status of individuals. Clarification on this issue is necessary for the sake of their two-side effects on human health and rapidly increasing global consumption of phyto-estrogens. This review mainly includes the metabolism of phyto-estrogens and weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phyto-estrogens.


Assuntos
Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Fitoestrógenos/metabolismo , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/administração & dosagem , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Estrogênios/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fitoestrógenos/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 108(Pt B): 467-477, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27613272

RESUMO

Detailed characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant activities of 26 kidney beans was performed. The kidney beans contained high levels of dietary fiber (29.32-46.77%), resistant starch (9.16-18.09%) and protein (22.06-32.63%) but low levels of lipid (1.05-2.83%) and sugars (1.55-9.07%). The monosaccharide composition of soluble fiber was dominated by arabinose, galactose, mannose and galacturonic acid. The ratio of essential amino acid to the total amino acid was ranged from 0.29 to 0.36. The predominant fatty acid was polyunsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 47.54-67.26% of total fatty acids. The total tocopherol content was in the range of 12.83-68.35 µg/g, predominantly γ-tocopherol, followed by δ-tocopherol. In addition, certain levels of total phenolics and flavonoids with respective values of 0.25-3.79 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 0.19-7.05 mg rutin equivalent/g dry weight resulted in significant antioxidant activities. And a good correlation was observed between TPC and FRAP values (R2 = 0.8030). The results indicated that kidney beans are excellent sources of health-promoting compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Monossacarídeos/química , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Picratos , Tocoferóis
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