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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346753

RESUMO

In-plane anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials possess unique in-plane anisotropic physical properties arising from their low crystal lattice symmetry. Among these low-symmetry 2D materials, anisotropic Ge-based binary materials have the advantages of simple binary and earth-abundant compositions, good stability, highly anisotropic physical properties along two principle axes, and wide coverage of bandgaps, enabling use in broadband photodetection from the infrared to ultraviolet region. Here, we review recent progress in in-plane anisotropic 2D Ge-based binary materials, focusing on their anisotropic structural, electrical and optical properties. We then discuss demonstrations of optoelectronic applications related to those anisotropic properties including polarization-sensitive photodetection and polarization-based all-optical switches. Finally, we provide further possible opportunities for this relatively new, but quickly expanding family of materials.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174357

RESUMO

Tin halide perovskites are rising as promising materials for lead-free perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the crystallization rate of tin halide perovskites is much faster than the lead-based analogs, leading to more rampant trap states and lower efficiency. Here, we disclose a key finding to modulate the crystallization kinetics of FASnI3 through a non-classical nucleation mechanism based on pre-nucleation clusters (PNCs). By introducing piperazine dihydriodide to tune the colloidal chemistry of the FASnI3 perovskite precursor solution, stable clusters could be readily formed in the solution before nucleation. These pre-nucleation clusters act as intermediate phase and thus can reduce the energy barrier for the perovskite nucleation, resulting in a high-quality perovskite film with lower defect density. This PNCs-based method has led to a conspicuous photovoltaic performance improvement for FASnI3 -based PSCs, delivering an impressive efficiency of 11.39 % plus improved stability.

3.
Acc Chem Res ; 53(6): 1111-1123, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466638

RESUMO

ConspectusHydrogen is an ideal energy carrier and plays a critical role in the future energy transition. Distinct from steam reforming, electrochemical water splitting, especially powered by renewables, has been considered as a promising technique for scalable production of high-purity hydrogen with no carbon emission. Its commercialization relies on the reduction of electricity consumption and thus hydrogen cost, calling for highly efficient and cost-effective electrocatalysts with the capability of steadily working at high hydrogen output. This requires the electrocatalysts to feature (1) highly active intrinsic sites, (2) abundant accessible active sites, (3) effective electron and mass transfer, (4) high chemical and structural durability, and (5) low-cost and scalable synthesis. It should be noted that all these requirements should be fulfilled together for a practicable electrocatalyst. Much effort has been devoted to addressing one or a few aspects, especially improving the electrocatalytic activity by electronic modulation of active sites, while few reviews have focused on the synergistic modulation of these aspects together although it is essential for advanced electrochemical water splitting.In this Account, we will present recent innovative strategies with an emphasis on our solutions for synergistically modulating intrinsic active sites, electron transportation, mass transfer, and gas evolution, as well as mechanical and chemical durability, of non-precious-metal electrocatalysts, aiming for cost-effective and highly efficient water splitting. The following approaches for coupling these aspects are summarized for both cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). (1) Synergistic electronic modulations. The electronic structure of a catalytic site determines the adsorption/desorption of reactive intermediates and thus intrinsic activity. It can be tuned by heterogeneous doping, strain effect, spin polarization, etc. Coupling these effects to optimize the reaction pathways or target simultaneously the activity and stability would advance electrocatalytic performance. (2) Synergistic electronic and crystalline modulation. The crystallinity, crystalline phase, crystalline facets, crystalline defects, etc. affect both activity and stability. Coupling these effects with electronic modulation would enhance the activity together with stability. (3) Synergistic electronic and morphological modulation. It will focus on concurrently modulating electronic structure for improving the intrinsic activity and morphology for increasing accessible active sites, especially through single action or processing. The mass transfer and gas evolution properties can also be enhanced by morphological modulation to enable water splitting at large output. (4) Synergistic modulation of elementary reactions. Electrocatalytic reaction generally consists of a couple of elementary reactions. Each one may need a specific active site. Designing and combining various components targeting every elementary step on a space-limited catalyst surface will balance the intermediates and these steps for accelerating the overall reaction. (5) Integrated electrocatalyst design. Taking all these strategies together into account is necessary to integrate all above essential features into one electrocatalyst for enabling high-output water electrolysis. Beyond the progress made to date, the remaining challenges and opportunities is also discussed. With these insights, hopefully, this Account will shed light on the rational design of practical water-splitting electrocatalysts for the cost-effective and scalable production of hydrogen.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285080

RESUMO

Fe-doped Co3O4 polycrystalline nanosheets vertically grown on carbon cloth were developed as self-standing efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution, enabling high-performance Zn-air batteries with a power density of 268.6 mW cm-2 and superior cycling stability.

5.
Small ; : e2001171, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329197

RESUMO

Highly efficient and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution are essential for aqueous rechargeable Zn-air batteries, which require highly active sites as well as delicate structural design for increasing effective active sites and facilitating mass/electron transfer. Herein, a scalable and facile self-catalyzed growth strategy is developed to integrate highly active Co-N-C sites with 3D brush-like nanostructure, achieving Co-N-C nanobrushes with Co,N-codoped carbon nanotube branches grown on Co,N-codoped nanoparticle assembled nanowire backbones. Systematic investigations suggest that nanobrushes deliver significantly improved electrocatalytic activity compared with nanowire or nanotube counterparts and the longer nanotube branches give the better performance. Benefiting from the increase of accessible highly active sites and enhanced mass transfer and electron transportation, the present Co-N-C nanobrush exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity and durability when used as a bifunctional oxygen catalyst. It enables a rechargeable Zn-air battery with a high peak power density of 246 mW cm-2 and excellent cycling stability. These results suggest that the reported synthetic strategy may open up possibilities for exploring efficient electrocatalysts for diverse applications.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196325

RESUMO

Creating high-density durable bifunctional active sites in an air electrode is essential but still challenging for a long-life rechargeable zinc-air battery with appealing power density. Herein, we discover a general strategy mediated by metastable rock salt oxides for achieving high-density well-defined transition-metal nanocrystals encapsulated in N-doped carbon shells (M@NC) which are anchored on a substrate by a porous carbon network as highly active and durable bifunctional catalytic sites. Small-size (15 ± 5 nm) well-dispersed Co2Fe1@NC in a high density (metal loading up to 54.0 wt %) offers the zinc-air battery a record power density of 423.7 mW cm-2. The dual protection from the complete graphitic carbon shells and the anchoring of the outer carbon network make Co2Fe1@NC chemically and mechanically durable, giving the battery a long cycling life. Systematic in-situ temperature-dependent characterizations as well as DFT modeling rationalize the rock salt oxide-mediated process and its indispensable role in achieving high-density nanosized M@NC. These findings open up opportunities for designing efficient electrocatalysts for high-performance Zn-air batteries and diverse energy devices.

7.
Nanoscale ; 12(14): 7759-7765, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211703

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials have caught significant attention in photovoltaics and photoelectronics for their outstanding photovoltaic properties. However, their instability to various environment, such as illumination, temperature, moisture and oxygen, hinders their way to commercialization. To figure out the interaction mechanism between H2O and CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3), extensive theoretical studies have been carried out; however, the experimental results are insufficient and inconsistent. Here, we systematically investigate and compare the influence of H2O on MAPbI3 perovskite films with or without DMF) post-annealing in dark or light condition. The interaction between H2O and the surface of pristine MAPbI3 leads to the fusion of grain boundaries thus grain growth into micron level in short-time moisture exposure. While the penetration of H2O into MAPbI3 results in swelled crystalline whisker, cracking into smaller grains in long-time exposure upon the release of H2O. However, no degradation occurs in dark condition. As the DMF post-annealing treatment changes the surface states of MAPbI3, the interactions between the external H2O and internal MAPbI3 significantly varies from the pristine MAPbI3. Three different surface states with different topographies have influence on the interaction process and mechanism with H2O, leading to different decomposition rates, the striped surface that is the most rough among the three and experiencing the minimum change in surface potential with exposure to 80% humidity decomposes into PbI2 fastest. However, the addition of light will once again affect the aforementioned process. It is found that even ambient light could severely speed up the moisture-induced decomposition of MAPbI3, while the N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) post-annealing treatment significantly improves the stability of MAPbI3 films upon exposure to humidity and illumination, benefiting from the MAI-deficient thus H2O resistant surface.

8.
Adv Mater ; : e1906015, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027058

RESUMO

Developing low-cost, highly efficient, and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for the practical application of electrochemical water splitting. Herein, it is discovered that organic small molecule (hexabromobenzene, HBB) can activate commercial transition metal (Ni, Fe, and NiFe) foam by directly evolving metal nanomeshes embedded in graphene-like films (M-NM@G) through a facile Br-induced solid-phase migration process. Systematic investigations indicate that HBB can conformally generate graphene-like network on bulk metal foam substrate via the cleavage of CBr bonds and the formation of CC linkage. Simultaneously, the cleaved CBr fragments can efficiently extract metal atoms from bulk substrate, in situ producing transition metal nanomeshes embedded in the graphene-like films. As a result, such functional nanostructure can serve as an efficient OER electrocatalyst with a low overpotential and excellent long-term stability. Specifically, the overpotential at 100 mA cm-2 is only 208 mV for NiFe-NM@G, ranking the top-tier OER electrocatalysts. This work demonstrates an intriguing general strategy for directly transforming bulk transition metals into nanostructured functional electrocatalysts via the interaction with organic small molecules, opening up opportunities for bridging the application of organic small molecules in energy technologies.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943656

RESUMO

Nitrogen-doped carbon materials (N-Cmat ) are emerging as low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for the electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR), although the activities are still unsatisfactory and the genuine active site is still under debate. We demonstrate that the CO2 RR to CO preferentially takes place on pyridinic N rather than pyrrolic N using phthalocyanine (Pc) and porphyrin with well-defined N-Cmat configurations as molecular model catalysts. Systematic experiments and theoretic calculations further reveal that the CO2 RR performance on pyridinic N can be significantly boosted by electronic modulation from in-situ-generated metallic Co nanoparticles. By introducing Co nanoparticles, Co@Pc/C can achieve a Faradaic efficiency of 84 % and CO current density of 28 mA cm-2 at -0.9 V, which are 18 and 47 times higher than Pc/C without Co, respectively. These findings provide new insights into the CO2 RR on N-Cmat , which may guide the exploration of cost-effective electrocatalysts for efficient CO2 reduction.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(2): 914-918, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845940

RESUMO

As a representative in-plane anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) material, germanium monoselenide (GeSe) has attracted considerable attention recently due to its various in-plane anisotropic material properties originating from the low symmetry of a puckered honeycomb structure. Although there have been plenty of reports on the in-plane anisotropic vibrational, electrical and optical properties of GeSe, the strain effect on those appealing anisotropies is still under exploration. Here we report a systematic first-principles computational investigation of strain-engineering of the anisotropic electronic properties of GeSe monolayers. We found that the anisotropic ratio of the effective mass and mobility of charge carriers (electrons and holes) of GeSe along two principle axes can be controlled by using simple strain conditions. Notably, the preferred conducting direction of GeSe can be even rotated by 90° under an appropriate uniaxial strain (>5%). Such effective strain modulation of the electronic anisotropy of GeSe monolayers provides them abundant opportunities for future mechanical-electronic devices.

11.
Small ; 15(49): e1903057, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701640

RESUMO

Electroless deposition via a spontaneous redox reaction between the metal precursor and support is believed to be a promising approach for the syntheses of supported metal nanoparticles (SMNPs). However, its widespread applications are significantly prohibited by the low reductivity and high cost of support. To overcome these shortcomings, a porous carbon (PC) is herein developed as a promising matrix for the electroless deposition of metal NPs. Benefiting from abundant oxygen-based surface functional groups, the PC shows stronger reducibility (low redox potential) than conventional carbon substrate such as carbon nanotubes or graphene oxide, enabling a facile electroless deposition of Ir, Rh, and Ru NPs on its surface. These SMNPs exhibit an impressive electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) or hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). For example, the Rh NP/PC can deliver an HER current density of 10 mA cm-2 with a small overpotential of 21 mV in 0.5 m H2 SO4 , while the Ru NP/PC exhibits excellent HOR activity in 0.1 m KOH in terms of high mass and surface specific exchange current density of 263 A g-1 Ru and 0.227 mA cm-2 Ru . The present strategy may open up opportunities for mass production of efficient supported NPs for diverse applications.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(45): 18075-18082, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638806

RESUMO

Defect passivation using oxygen has been identified as an efficient and convenient approach to suppress nonradiative recombination and improve the photovoltaic performance of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites (HHPs). However, oxygen can seriously undermine the chemical stability of HHPs due to the reaction of superoxide with protonated organic cations such as CH3NH3+ and [(NH2)2CH]+, thus hindering the deep understanding of how oxygen affects their defect properties. Here we substitute free-proton inorganic Cs+ for organic moiety to avoid the negative effect of oxygen and then systematically investigate the oxygen passivation mechanism in all-inorganic halide perovskites (IHPs) from theory to experiment. We find that, in contrast to conventional oxygen molecule passivation just through physisorption on the surface of perovskites, the oxygen atom can provide a better passivation effect due to its stronger interaction with perovskites. The key point to achieve O-passivated perovskites rather than O2 is the dry-air processing condition, which can dissociate the O2 into O during the annealing process. O-passivated IHP solar cells exhibit enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) and better air stability than O2-passivated cells. These results not only provide deep insights into the passivation effect of oxygen on perovskites but also demonstrate the great potential of IHPs for high photovoltaic performance with simplified ambient processing.

13.
Acta Haematol ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detect the expression of long noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 18 (SNHG18) andsemaphorin 5A (SEMA5A) genes in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and to explore the correlation of the expression of these genes with the clinical characteristics and prognosis of MM patients. METHODS: Forty-seven newly diagnosed MM, 18 complete remission MM, 13 refractory/relapse MM, and 22 iron deficiency anemia (serving as control) samples were extracted at the Department of Hematology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xian Jiaotong University between January 2015 and December 2016. The clinical features of the MM patients are summarized. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to analyze the relative expression levels of the SNHG18 and SEMA5Agenes. The clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) of the MM patients were statistically analyzed while measuring different levels of SNHG18 and SEMA5Agene expression. At the same time, the correlation between the expression of SNHG18 and SEMA5A was also analyzed. RESULTS: The analysis confirmed that SNHG18 and its possible target gene SEMA5A were both highly expressed in newly diagnosed MM patients. After analyzing the clinical significance of SNHG18 and SEMA5A in MM patients, we found that the expression of SNHG18 and SEMA5A was related to the Durie-Salmon (DS), International Staging System (ISS), and Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) classification systems, and the Mayo Clinic Risk Stratification for Multiple Myeloma (mSMART; p < 0.05). Moreover, we observed a significant difference in OS between the SNHG18/SEMA5A high expression group and the low expression group. We found a positive correlation between SNHG18 and SEMA5A expression (r = 0.709, p < 0.01). Surprisingly, the expected median OS times of both the SNHG18 and SEMA5Ahigh expression groups were significantly decreased, which was in contrast to those of both the SNHG18 and SEMA5Alow expression groups and the single-gene high expression group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High expression of both SNHG18 and SEMA5A is associated with poor prognosis in patients with MM.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(27): 24247-24253, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246410

RESUMO

In-plane anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially black phosphorus and ReS2, have attracted significant interest recently as they can provide one more dimension to manipulate their physical properties when compared with isotropic 2D materials. As a representative anisotropic 2D material, germanium monosulfide (GeS) has emerged as a new research hot topic in this field because of its unique in-plane anisotropic physical properties. Despite the rapid growing progress in the study of GeS, many of their fundamental optical anisotropies are still absent. Here, we report the three-dimensional (3D) optical anisotropy of GeS from theory to experiment. The 3D optical anisotropic properties including extinction, refraction, absorption, and reflection were systematically investigated through density functional calculations. The anisotropic refraction and reflection of GeS were experimentally verified by polarization-resolved optical microscopy and azimuth-dependent reflectance difference microscopy, respectively. Finally, a GeS-based linear dichroic photodetector was demonstrated with a dichroic ratio of 1.45 because of its polarization sensitive absorption. Our results provide deep insights into the optical anisotropy of GeS, which is important for the further development of GeS-based optoelectronic and optical devices.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(24): 21627-21633, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136145

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials are emerging as a new class of photoelectric materials for its low cost, easy preparation, and, especially, outstanding optoelectronic properties. Although tremendous efforts have been made on the regulation and optimization of perovskite materials and their microscopic electrical properties for high-efficiency solar cells, few reports focus on the evolution of electrical properties with temperature changes, especially at the microscopic scale, which will directly affect the device performances at varying temperatures. Here, we map the contact potential difference and photocurrent distribution of MAPbI3 at different temperatures in situ by Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy, emphasizing the different influences of variable temperature and phase transition on the photoelectric properties of grains and grain boundaries (GBs). It is discovered that both the Fermi level and photocurrent decrease as the sample is heated from 30 to 80 °C gradually because of the variation of effective carrier concentration and the degradation of carrier mobility implicated by lattice vibration scattering. The difference between the Fermi level at GBs and that on the grains ascends first and then descends, peaking at 50 °C, near which MAPbI3 transforms from a tetragonal phase to a cubic phase. This peak is speculated as a comprehensive consequence of the increasing difference of the Fermi level of semiconductors with different doping concentrations and the converging properties of grains and GBs with the temperature rising because the lower ion activation energy of the cubic phase at higher temperatures facilitates greatly the ions' movement between grains and GB. The variation trend of the difference of the photocurrent is the same. These findings advance the knowledge on the temperature-induced variations of microscopic photoelectrical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials, which may guide the development of strategies for improving their thermal stability.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(28): 9414-9418, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041835

RESUMO

Interfacial charge collection efficiency has demonstrated significant effects on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, crystalline phase-dependent charge collection is investigated by using rutile and anatase TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) to fabricate PSCs. The results show that rutile TiO2 ETL enhances the extraction and transportation of electrons to FTO and reduces the recombination, thanks to its better conductivity and improved interface with the CH3 NH3 PbI3 (MAPbI3 ) layer. Moreover, this may be also attributed to the fact that rutile TiO2 has better match with perovskite grains, and less trap density. As a result, comparing with anatase TiO2 ETL, MAPbI3 PSCs with rutile TiO2 ETL delivers significantly enhanced performance with a champion PCE of 20.9 % and a large open circuit voltage (VOC ) of 1.17 V.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(43): 6134, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073586

RESUMO

Correction for 'NiS2 nanodotted carnation-like CoS2 for enhanced electrocatalytic water splitting' by Weili Xin et al., Chem. Commun., 2019, 55, 3781-3784.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(17): 7005-7013, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933480

RESUMO

Ni or Co is commonly required in efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although Fe is much more abundant and cheaper, full-Fe or Fe-rich catalysts suffer from insufficient activity. Herein, we discover that Se-doping can drastically promote OER on FeOOH and develop a facile on-site electrochemical activation strategy for achieving such a Se-doped FeOOH electrode via an FeSe precatalyst. Theoretical analysis and systematic experiments prove that Se-doping enables FeOOH as an efficient and low-cost OER electrocatalyst. By optimizing the electrode structure, an industrial-level OER current output of 500 mA cm-2 is secured at a low overpotential of 348 mV. The application of such an Fe-rich OER electrode in a practical solar-driven water splitting system demonstrates a high and stable solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 18.55%, making the strategy promising for exploring new cost-effective and highly active electrocatalysts for clean hydrogen production.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1278, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894539

RESUMO

Although single-atomically dispersed metal-Nx on carbon support (M-NC) has great potential in heterogeneous catalysis, the scalable synthesis of such single-atom catalysts (SACs) with high-loading metal-Nx is greatly challenging since the loading and single-atomic dispersion have to be balanced at high temperature for forming metal-Nx. Herein, we develop a general cascade anchoring strategy for the mass production of a series of M-NC SACs with a metal loading up to 12.1 wt%. Systematic investigation reveals that the chelation of metal ions, physical isolation of chelate complex upon high loading, and the binding with N-species at elevated temperature are essential to achieving high-loading M-NC SACs. As a demonstration, high-loading Fe-NC SAC shows superior electrocatalytic performance for O2 reduction and Ni-NC SAC exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction. The strategy paves a universal way to produce stable M-NC SAC with high-density metal-Nx sites for diverse high-performance applications.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(26): 3781-3784, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864580

RESUMO

Combining ultrasmall NiS2 nanodots with three-dimensional carnation-like CoS2 microstructures is demonstrated to be able to enhance the electrocatalytic activities for both the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, leading to efficient overall alkaline water splitting.

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