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1.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533347

RESUMO

Urgent demand for the prevention and diagnosis of physiological diseases is driving the development of biomarkers and physiological temperature fluorometric sensors. In this paper, a rare trinuclear lanthanide metal-organic framework (MOF), [(CH3)2NH2][Eu3(µ3-OH)(2,6-NDC)3(HCOO)3]·(solv)x (Eu(2,6-NDC), where 2,6-H2NDC = 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid) was synthesized using reticular chemistry via reducing the symmetry of the organic ligand from axisymmetric 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (1,4-H2NDC) to non-axisymmetric 2,6-H2NDC. Eu(2,6-NDC) shows exceptional chemical and thermal stability in acid-base solutions, PBS solution, and boiling water, and even under an air atmosphere up to 300 °C. As-synthesized Eu(2,6-NDC) exhibits ratiometric detection abilities for P1,P5-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A), for use as a biomarker of dry eye disease, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.031 µM, as well as excellent anti-interference properties. As far as is known, it is the first Ap5A sensor based on MOFs. In addition, the results show that the ratiometric parameters of co-doped Eu0.001Gd0.999(2,6-NDC) deliver a good linear luminescence response to physiological temperatures (20-60 °C) with high sensitivity.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570674

RESUMO

Dydrogesterone (DDG) acts on the reproduction but also affects the functioning of non-reproductive system. So far, the knowledge about other effects of DDG remains limited. Here we investigated the effects of DDG on the transcription of genes in innate immune and coagulation cascade in zebrafish embryos. The zebrafish embryos were exposed to DDG at 49.0, 527 and 5890 ng L- 1 for 144 hour post fertilization (hpf). The results showed that DDG significantly decreased the transcription of marker genes (e.g. tnfa, il8 and cc-chem) involved in the innate immune response at environmental concentrations. Moreover, DDG also down-regulated the transcription of genes in coagulation cascade (e.g. fga, fgb, fgg and f2). These results indicated that DDG had potential effects on the innate immune and coagulation cascade functions in the early life zebrafish, thus further affecting fish growth and health.

3.
Head Neck ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minor salivary gland cancer (MiSGC) is a group of tumors with varied disease course in the head and neck. We evaluated the risk of a second primary malignancy (SPM) in MiSGC patients and identified possible prognostic factors for survival using a large population database. METHODS: We used the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to evaluate the risk and prognosis of SPM in patients diagnosed with MiSGC. RESULTS: The risk of SPM increased in MiSGC patients compared with the endemic rate. The risk of SPM was slightly greater in female patients and who underwent radiotherapy. Age at primary diagnosis, sex, race, year of diagnosis, SEER stage, radiotherapy, SPM, histology, and tumor site were significant survival prognostic indicators of MiSGC patients. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and female sex were risk factors for SPM after MiSGC. Long-term surveillance for SPM was important in MiSGC patients.

4.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928714, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to assess the impact of a group music intervention on anxiety and depression of elderly male veterans with dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS In total, 50 elderly men with Alzheimer disease were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group attended a 60-minute group music session that used percussion instruments with familiar music in the morning once a week for 12 weeks, whereas those in the control group received a rest and reading session at the same intervals and under the same conditions. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Scale were used to assess anxiety and depression at baseline, week 6, and week 12. The Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) was used to assess musical aptitude at the baseline. RESULTS A significant reduction in the anxiety level following the 12-week music sessions was observed in the intervention group (P<.001), but there was no significant change in the control group. However, the change in depressive symptoms between the 2 groups was nonsignificant. In the intervention group, when stratifying patients based on music aptitude determined through PMMA assessment, patients with high PMMA scores had significantly reduced anxiety symptoms over time compared with those with low scores. CONCLUSIONS For elderly male veterans with dementia, participating in a group music intervention reduced anxiety symptoms. In patients with high musical aptitude, the treatment effects on anxiety reduction were satisfactory. Measures of music aptitude may provide valuable information regarding patients' response to music intervention.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615385

RESUMO

Social misalignment occurs when a person's attitudes and opinions deviate from those of others. We investigated how individuals react to social misalignment in risky (outcome probabilities are known) or ambiguous (outcome probabilities are unknown) decision contexts. During each trial, participants played a forced-choice gamble, and they observed the decisions of four other players after they made a tentative decision, followed by an opportunity to keep or change their initial decision. Behavioral and event-related potential data were collected. Behaviorally, the stronger the participants' initial preference, the less likely they were to switch their decisions; whereas the more their decisions were misaligned with the majority, the more likely they were to switch. Electrophysiological results showed a hierarchical processing pattern of social misalignment. Misalignment was first detected binarily (i.e., match/mismatch) at an early stage, as indexed by the N1 component. During the second stage, participants became sensitive to low levels of misalignment, which were indexed by the feedback-related negativity. The degree of social misalignment was processed in greater detail, as indexed by the P3 component. Moreover, such hierarchical neural sensitivity is generalizable across different decision contexts (i.e., risky and ambiguous). These findings demonstrate a fine-grained neural sensitivity to social misalignment during decision-making under uncertainty.

6.
Neuroimage ; : 117892, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617992

RESUMO

The brain and the spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). The functions of the human brain have been the focus of neuroscience research for a long time. However, the spinal cord is largely ignored, and the functional interaction of these two parts of the CNS is only partly understood. This study developed a novel method to simultaneously record spinal cord electrophysiology (SCE) and electroencephalography (EEG) signals and validated its performance using a classical resting-state study design with two experimental conditions: eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO). We recruited nine postherpetic neuralgia patients implanted with a spinal cord stimulator, which was modified to record SCE signals simultaneously with EEG signals. For both EEG and SCE, similar differences were found in delta- and alpha-band oscillations between the EC and EO conditions, and the spectral power of these frequency bands was able to predict EC/EO behaviors. Moreover, causal connectivity analysis suggested a top-down regulation in delta-band oscillations from the brain to the spinal cord. Altogether, this study demonstrates the validity of simultaneous SCE-EEG recording and shows that the novel method is a valuable tool to investigate the brain-spinal interaction. With this method, we can better unite knowledge about the brain and the spinal cord for a deeper understanding of the functions of the whole CNS.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 142365, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601665

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests associations between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exposure and asthma, but the findings are inconsistent. The current study sought to investigate whether perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) could contribute to asthma exacerbation and to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms. The objectives are a) to determine whether PFOS or PFOA could aggravate the mouse asthma and pulmonary inflammation b) to investigate whether PFOS and PFOA regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and aggravated asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthmatic mice were exposed to PFOS or PFOA by gavage. PFOS and PFOA serum level and toxicity in organs were assessed; and the impacts on respiratory symptoms, lung tissue pathology, T helper cell (Th2) response, and STAT6 pathway activity were also evaluated. In vitro Jurkat cells were used to study the mechanisms of PFOS and PFOA mediated Th1 and Th2 responses. Both PFOS and PFOA exacerbated lung tissue inflammation (greater number of eosinophils and mucus hyperproduction), upregulated Th2 cytokine production (IL-4 and IL-13), and promoted Th2 cells and STAT6 activation. Furthermore, PFOS and PFOA enhanced the Th2 response in Jurkat cells via STAT6 activation; and the effect of PFOS exposure on GATA-3, IL-4 and IFN-γ was blocked after the expression of STAT6 was suppressed in Jurkat cells, however, the effects of PFOA exposure were only partially blocked. PFOS and PFOA aggravated inflammation among OVA-induced asthmatic mice, by promoting the Th2 response in lymphocytes and disturbing the balance of Th1/Th2 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Asma , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1322, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446726

RESUMO

Pain perception is a subjective experience and highly variable across time. Brain responses evoked by nociceptive stimuli are highly associated with pain perception and also showed considerable variability. To date, the test-retest reliability of laser-evoked pain perception and its associated brain responses across sessions remain unclear. Here, an experiment with a within-subject repeated-measures design was performed in 22 healthy volunteers. Radiant-heat laser stimuli were delivered on subjects' left-hand dorsum in two sessions separated by 1-5 days. We observed that laser-evoked pain perception was significantly declined across sessions, coupled with decreased brain responses in the bilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), right primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and middle cingulate cortex. Intraclass correlation coefficients between the two sessions showed "fair" to "moderate" test-retest reliability for pain perception and brain responses. Additionally, we observed lower resting-state brain activity in the right S1 and lower resting-state functional connectivity between right S1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the second session than the first session. Altogether, being possibly influenced by changes of baseline mental state, laser-evoked pain perception and brain responses showed considerable across-session variability. This phenomenon should be considered when designing experiments for laboratory studies and evaluating pain abnormalities in clinical practice.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465322

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Posttranscriptional modifications are implicated in vascular remodeling of pulmonary hypertension (PH). N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant RNA modification that is involved in various biological processes. Whether m6A RNA modification and m6A effector proteins play a role in pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH have not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether m6A modification and m6A effectors contribute to the pathogenesis of PH. METHODS: m6A modification and YTHDF1 expression were measured in human and experimental PH samples. RIP analysis and m6A-sequencing were employed to screen m6A-marked transcripts. Genetic approaches were employed to assess the respective roles of YTHDF1 and MAGED1 in PH. Primary cells isolation and cultivation were utilized for function analysis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Elevated m6A levels and increased YTHDF1 protein expression were found in human and rodent PH samples as well as in hypoxic PASMCs. Deletion of YTHDF1 ameliorated PASMCs proliferation, phenotype switch and PH development both in vivo and in vitro. m6A RIP analysis identified MAGED1 as an m6A-regulated gene in PH and genetic ablation of MAGED1 improved vascular remodeling and hemodynamic parameters in SU5416/Hypoxia mice. YTHDF1 recognized and promoted translation of MAGED1 in an m6A dependent manner which was absent in METTL3 deficient PASMCs. In addition, MAGED1 silencing inhibited hypoxia-induced proliferation of PASMCs through downregulating PCNA. CONCLUSIONS: YTHDF1 promotes PASMCs proliferation and PH by enhancing MAGED1 translation. This study identifies the m6A RNA modification as a novel mediator of pathological changes in PASMCs and PH.

11.
Soft Matter ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480935

RESUMO

We report the results of an experimental and theoretical study of structure formation in mixtures of phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) with high boiling octane based solvent additives 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT), 1,8-dibromooctane, and 1,8-diiodooctane obtained by evaporation of a host-solvent (chlorobenzene). Experimental studies by DSC, SAXS and WAXS methods found evidence of crystallization of fullerenes in the presence of the high boiling additives in the mixtures. A molecular dynamics simulation of a PC71BM/ODT mixture revealed the self-assembly of fullerenes into sponge-like network structures.

12.
Neurotox Res ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443645

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease lacking effective clinical therapies. It is reported that astrocyte-associated neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathological mechanism of PD. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of febuxostat against 1 methyl 4 phenyl pyridine (MPP+)-induced injury on primary astrocytes to highlight the potential therapeutic property of febuxostat in PD.MPP+ was used to induce an in vitro PD model in primary rat astrocytes. The levels of ROS and intracellularly reduced GSH were determined using DCFH-DA assay and a commercial GSH kit, respectively. MTT and LDH release assays were utilized to evaluate the cell viability of astrocytes. The expressions of IL-8, IL-1ß, TNF-α, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in the astrocytes were detected using qRT-PCR and ELISA assays. QRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine the expression levels of GFAP in astrocytes. The expression of p-JNK and nuclear levels of NF-κB p65 were evaluated using Western blot analysis. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB was measured using the luciferase activity assay.Firstly, the elevated levels of ROS and decreased levels of intracellularly reduced GSH in primary astrocytes induced by MPP+ were significantly ameliorated by febuxostat. Secondly, treatment with febuxostat rescued MPP+-induced reduction in cell viability and increased LDH release. Thirdly, febuxostat alleviated MPP+-induced inflammatory responses in astrocytes by reducing the expressions of IL-8, IL-1ß, TNF-α, GFAP, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Importantly, we found that febuxostat mitigated activation of the JNK/NF-κB signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65.Febuxostat attenuated MPP+-induced inflammatory response by suppressing the JNK/NF-κB signaling pathway in astrocytes.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111629, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396149

RESUMO

As an alternative to volatile organic solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) are known as "green solvents", and widely used in industrial applications. However, due to their high solubility and stability, ILs have tendency to persist in the water environment, thus having potential negative impacts on the aquatic ecosystem. For assessing the environmental risks of ILs, a fundamental understanding of the toxic effects and mechanisms of ILs is needed. Here we evaluated the cytotoxicity of 1-methyl-3-decylimidazolium chloride ([C10mim]Cl) and elucidated the main toxic mechanism of [C10mim]Cl in human cervical carcinoma (Hela) cells. Microstructural analysis revealed that [C10mim]Cl exposure caused the cell membrane breakage, swollen and vacuolated mitochondria, and spherical cytoskeletal structure. Cytotoxicity assays found that [C10mim]Cl exposure increased ROS production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These results indicated that [C10mim]Cl could induce damage to cellular membrane structure, affect the integrity of cell ultrastructure, cause the oxidative damage and ultimately lead to the inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, alterations of biochemical information including the increased ratios of unsaturated fatty acid and carbonyl groups to lipid, and lipid to protein, and the decreased ratios of Amide I to Amide II, and α-helix to ß-sheet were observed in [C10mim]Cl treated cells, suggesting that [C10mim]Cl could affect the structure of membrane lipid alkyl chain and cell membrane fluidity, promote the lipid peroxidation and alter the protein secondary structure. The findings from this work demonstrated that membrane structure is the key target, and membrane damage is involved in [C10mim]Cl induced cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imidazolinas/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Solventes
14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 174-180, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493946

RESUMO

Abnormalities of neuroinflammatory process and serotonergic system have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, most previous studies were performed in recurrent MDD and only a few studies explored the interaction of the two systems. This study examined both systems concurrently and their clinical relevance in first-episode drug-naive MDD. Thirty-four MDD patients and 34 age and gender matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Plasma concentrations of the cytokines of interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, including IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2) were measured using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assays. The serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in midbrain, thalamus, caudate, and putamen was examined by single-photon emission computed tomography with 123I-ADAM. There were significantly lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory IL-1ß and its inhibitor, IL-1R2 in MDD than HC. The SERT availability was at the same level between groups. A negative association between IL-1Ra concentration and the SERT availability in midbrain was observed in MDD but not in HC. Both IL-1ß concentration and the SERT availability in caudate negatively correlated with depression severity and the effect of IL-1ß was not moderated or mediated by the SERT. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the involvement of IL-1 family in the early stage of MDD, especially for IL-1ß. SERT was not the main central target of altered IL-1ß and these two systems might contribute to MDD by different mechanisms. The pathophysiology might be varied between early and recurrent MDD and tuning treatment strategies at different clinical stages might be needed.

15.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410859

RESUMO

In this review, the development context and scientific research results of chiral surface plasmons (SPs) in recent years are classified and described in detail. First, the principle of chiral SPs is introduced through classical and quantum theory. Following this, the classification and properties of different chiral structures, as well as the superchiral near-field, are introduced in detail. Second, we describe the excitation and propagation properties of chiral SPs, which lays a good foundation for the application of chiral SPs and their chiral spectra in various fields. After that, we have summarized the recent research results of chiral SPs and their applications in the areas of biology, two-dimensional materials, topological materials, analytical chemistry, chiral sensing, chiral optical force, and chiral light detection. Chiral SPs are a new type of optical phenomenon that have useful application potential in many fields and are worth exploring.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 174, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420030

RESUMO

The immunosuppressive microenvironment that is shaped by hepatic metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is essential for tumor cell evasion of immune destruction. Neutrophils are important components of the metastatic tumor microenvironment and exhibit heterogeneity. However, the specific phenotypes, functions and regulatory mechanisms of neutrophils in PDAC liver metastases remain unknown. Here, we show that a subset of P2RX1-negative neutrophils accumulate in clinical and murine PDAC liver metastases. RNA sequencing of murine PDAC liver metastasis-infiltrated neutrophils show that P2RX1-deficient neutrophils express increased levels of immunosuppressive molecules, including PD-L1, and have enhanced mitochondrial metabolism. Mechanistically, the transcription factor Nrf2 is upregulated in P2RX1-deficient neutrophils and associated with PD-L1 expression and metabolic reprogramming. An anti-PD-1 neutralizing antibody is sufficient to compromise the immunosuppressive effects of P2RX1-deficient neutrophils on OVA-activated OT1 CD8+ T cells. Therefore, our study uncovers a mechanism by which metastatic PDAC tumors evade antitumor immunity by accumulating a subset of immunosuppressive P2RX1-negative neutrophils.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Pâncreas/imunologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X/imunologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X/metabolismo
17.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(1): 107-118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390837

RESUMO

Aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect, is emerged as a hallmark of most cancer cells. Increased aerobic glycolysis is closely associated with tumor aggressiveness and predicts a poor prognosis. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by prominent genomic aberrations and increased glycolytic phenotype. However, the detailed molecular events implicated in aerobic glycolysis of PDAC are not well understood. In this study, we performed a comprehensive molecular characterization using multidimensional ''omic'' data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Detailed analysis of 89 informative PDAC tumors identified substantial copy number variations (MYC, GATA6, FGFR1, IDO1, and SMAD4) and mutations (KRAS, SMAD4, and RNF43) related to aerobic glycolysis. Moreover, integrated analysis of transcriptional profiles revealed many differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs involved in PDAC aerobic glycolysis. Loss-of-function studies showed that LINC01559 and UNC5B-AS1 knockdown significantly inhibited the glycolytic capacity of PDAC cells as revealed by reduced glucose uptake, lactate production, and extracellular acidification rate. Moreover, genetic silencing of LINC01559 and UNC5B-AS1 suppressed tumor growth and resulted in alterations in several signaling pathways, such as TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and transcriptional misregulation in cancer. Notably, high expression of LINC01559 and UNC5B-AS1 predicted poor patient prognosis and correlated with the maximum standard uptakevalue (SUVmax) in PDAC patients who received preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT. Taken together, our results decipher the glycolysis-associated copy number variations, mutations, and lncRNA landscapes in PDAC. These findings improve our knowledge of the molecular mechanism of PDAC aerobic glycolysis and may have practical implications for precision cancer therapy.

18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1578, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate and confirm the association between 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms of four susceptibility genes (NBS1, TP53, PTEN, and BRIP1) and the susceptibility of breast cancer. METHODS: The genome DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and tumor tissues from one hundred and seventeen core families. 15 SNPs were detected by PCR. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) are used to verify the association between these SNPs and breast cancer. Further correlation between SNPs and certain pathological features of the tumor, including tumor size, location of lymph nodes, pathologic classification, and the stage and subtype of breast cancer, are analyzed by the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Based on TDTs, two SNPs of rs7220719 and rs11871753 in BRIP1 showed a significant association with breast cancer, while the other 13 selected SNPs did not. However, further statistical analysis demonstrated no obvious differentiation in the clinical characteristics of breast cancer between 37 patients with rs7220719 and 80 patients with wild types. Similar results were also found for rs11871753. CONCLUSIONS: The data provided the evidence for the association between two SNPs of BRIP1 and breast cancer, but did not affect certain clinical phenotypes.

19.
Acta Parasitol ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392956

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulex irritans are vectors of various zoonotic pathogens. However, molecular studies on P. irritans and flea-borne diseases are limited due to the lack of molecular data. This study aimed to conduct transcriptome sequencing, functional annotation, and pathogen analysis of P. irritans. METHODS: Fleas collected from a dog were identified morphologically and molecularly. RNA was extracted for transcriptome sequencing and functional annotation. Open reading frames (ORFs) of unigenes were confirmed by employing bioinformatics strategies, and maximum likelihood (ML) trees were reconstructed based on the highly expressed genes of ejaculation globulin-specific 3-like protein, salivary protein, and actin for phylogenetic relationship analysis. RESULTS: The obtained mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99.71% of similarity with P. irritans obtained from GenBank database. Transcriptome sequencing generated 74,412 unigenes, of which 53,211 were functionally annotated. A total of 195 unigenes were assigned to fleas, of which 69 contained complete ORFs. Phylogenetic trees of both ejaculatory globulin and salivary protein genes demonstrated that P. irritans first clustered with Pulicidae sp., indicating the reliability of transcriptome data. It is noteworthy that 1070 unigenes were assigned to Hymenolepis microstoma and Dipylidium caninum, of which 62 contained complete ORFs. The phylogenetic tree of the actin gene showed that the unigenes had closer relationships with Echinococcus sp., suggesting the role of P. irritans as intermediate hosts of tapeworms. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide the possibility for functional exploration of important genes and lay foundations for the prevention and control of P. irritans and flea-borne diseases.

20.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403387

RESUMO

In the skeletal system, blood vessels not only function as a conduit system for transporting gases, nutrients, metabolic waste, or cells but also provide multifunctional signal molecules regulating bone development, regeneration, and remodeling. Endothelial cells (ECs) in bone tissues, unlike in other organ tissues, are in direct contact with the pericytes of blood vessels, resulting in a closer connection with peripheral connective tissues. Close-contact ECs contribute to osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis by secreting various cytokines in the paracrine or juxtacrine pathways. An increasing number of studies have revealed that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from ECs can directly regulate maturation process of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The different pathways focus on targets at different distances, forming the basis of the intimate spatial and temporal link between bone tissue and blood vessels. Here, we provide a systematic review to elaborate on the function of ECs in bone biology and its underlying mechanisms based on three aspects: paracrine, EVs, and juxtacrine. This review proposes the possibility of a therapeutic strategy targeting blood vessels, as an adjuvant treatment for bone disorders.

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