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1.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112004, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greenness exposure may lower blood pressure. However, few studies of this relationship have been conducted with children and adolescents, especially in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children and adolescents across China. METHODS: We recruited 61,229 Chinese citizens aged 6-18 years from 94 schools in a nationwide cross-sectional study in seven Chinese provinces/province-level municipalities. Participants' blood pressures and hypertension were assessed with standardized protocols. Greenness levels within 500 m and 1,000 m of each school were estimated with three satellite-based indices: vegetation continuous fields (VCF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between greenness and blood pressure, greenness and prevalent hypertension, using coefficient and odds ratio respectively. Stratified analyses and mediation analyses were also performed. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in greenness was associated with a 17%-20% reduced prevalence of hypertension for all measures of greenness (odds ratios for VCF500m = 20% (95% CI:18%, 23%); for NDVI500m = 17% (95% CI:13%, 21%); and for SAVI500m = 17% (95% CI: 13%, 20%). Increases in greenness were also associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (0.48-0.58 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (0.26-0.52 mmHg). Older participants, boys, and urban dwellers showed stronger associations than their counterparts. No evidence of mediation was observed for air pollution (i.e., NO2 and PM2.5) and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Higher greenness around schools may lower blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension among Chinese children and adolescents, particularly in older subjects, boys, and those living in urban districts. Further studies, preferably longitudinal, are needed to examine causality.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26189, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative major complications after esophageal cancer resection vary and may significantly impact long-term outcomes. This study aimed to build an individualized nomogram to predict post-esophagectomy major morbidity. METHODS: This retrospective study included 599 consecutive patients treated at a single center between January 2017 and April 2019. Of them, 420 and 179 were assigned to the model development and validation cohorts, respectively. Major morbidity predictors were identified using multiple logistic regression. Model discrimination and calibration were evaluated by validation. Regarding clinical usefulness, we examined the net benefit using decision curve analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 64 years; 79% of the patients were male. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke history. The 30-day postoperative major morbidity rate was 24%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, smoking history, coronary heart disease, dysphagia, body mass index, operation time, and tumor size were independent risk factors for surgery-associated major morbidity. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of the development and validation groups were 0.775 (95% confidence interval, 0.721-0.829) and 0.792 (95% confidence interval, 0.709-0.874), respectively. In the validation cohort, the nomogram showed good calibration. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: Morbidity models and nomograms incorporating clinical and surgical data can be used to predict operative risk for esophagectomy and provide appropriate resources for the postoperative management of high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Nomogramas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Carga Tumoral
3.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438500

RESUMO

Limitations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) potentially contributed to the inconsistent findings of greenspace exposure and childhood asthma. The aim of this study was to use a novel greenness exposure assessment method, capable of overcoming the limitation of NDVI to determine the extent to which it was associated with asthma prevalence in Chinese children. During 2009-2013, a cross-sectional study of 59,754 children aged 2-17 years was conducted in northeast China. Tencent street view images surrounding participants' schools were segmented by a deep learning model, and streetscape greenness was extracted. The green view index (GVI) was used to assign exposure and higher value indicates more green coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds of asthma per interquartile range (IQR) increase of GVI for trees and grass. Participants were further stratified to investigate whether particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) was a modifier. An IQR increase in GVI800m for trees was associated with lower adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.72-0.80) and current asthma (OR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.75-0.89). An IQR increase in GVI800m for grass was associated with higher adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.00-1.08) and current asthma (OR: 1.08; 95%CI: 1.02-1.14). After stratification by PM2.5 exposure level, the negative association between trees and asthma, and the positive association between grass and asthma were observed only in low PM2.5 exposure levels (≤median: 56.23 µg/m3). Our results suggest that types of vegetation may play a role in the association between greenness exposure and childhood asthma. Exposure to trees may reduce the odds of childhood asthma, whereas exposure to grass may increase the odds. Additionally, PM2.5 may modify the associations of trees and grass with childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Aprendizado Profundo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poaceae , Prevalência , Árvores
4.
Environ Res ; 202: 111641, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health effects of greenness perceived by residents at eye level has received increasing attention. However, the associations between eye-level greenness and respiratory health are unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between exposure to eye-level greenness and lung function in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 6740 school children in seven cities in northeast China were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and maximum mid expiratory flow rate (MMEF) were measured to evaluate lung function and to define lung impairment. Eye-level greenness was extracted from segmented Tencent Map street view images, and a corresponding green view index (GVI) was calculated. Higher GVIs mean more greenness coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to estimate the health effects on lung impairment per interquartile range (IQR) increase in GVI. Linear regressions were used to estimate the associations between GVI and lung function. The health effects of ambient air pollutants were also assessed, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1.0 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10) as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). RESULTS: An increase of GVI800m was associated with lung impairment in FEV1, FVC, PEF and MMEF, with ORs ranging from 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.79) to 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.93). The associations between an IQR increase of GVI800m and FEV1 (48.15 ml, 95% CI: 30.33-65.97 ml), FVC (50.57 ml, 95% CI: 30.65-70.48 ml), PEF (149.59 ml/s, 95% CI: 109.79-189.38 ml/s), and MMEF (61.18 ml/s, 95% CI: 31.07-91.29 ml/s) were significant, and PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were found to be mediators of this relationship. CONCLUSION: More eye-level greenness was associated with better lung function and reduced impairment. However, eye-level greenness associations with lung function became non-significant once lower particulate matter air pollution exposures were considered.

5.
Environ Res ; 200: 111434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban greenness may protect against obesity, but very few studies have assessed 'street view' (SV) greenness metrics, which may better capture people's actual exposure to greenness compared to commonly-used satellite-derived metrics. We aimed to investigate these associations further in a Chinese adult study. METHODS: Our analysis included 24,845 adults in the 33 Chinese Community Health Study in 2009. SV images from Tencent Map, segmented by machine learning algorithms, were used to determine the average proportion of green vegetation in SV images at community level in 800m road network buffer. Sensitivity analyses were performed with an alternative buffer size. Overall greenness was assessed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in 800 m buffer. We used predicted PM2.5 and monitored NO2 as proxies of air pollution. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were regressed on SV greenness by generalized linear mixed models, with adjustment for covariates. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediation effects of air pollution. RESULTS: Each interquartile range (IQR = 3.6%) increase in street view greenness was associated with a 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.09) decrease in BMI and 0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.35, -0.11) reduction in HC, and was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight (OR = 0.93, 95% CI:0.90, 0.96) and 18% lower odds of obesity (OR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.76, 0.89). Similar effect estimation was observed compared with commonly-used NDVI measures. PM2.5 and NO2 mediated 15.5% and 6.1% of the effects of SV greenness with BMI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest beneficial associations between community-level SV greenness and lower body weight in Chinese adults. The effects were observed in women but not in men. Air pollution may partially mediate the association. These findings may have implications to support efforts to promote greening in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
6.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130486, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126693

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure has been linked to diabetes, but evidence on the association of isomers of PFAS with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains scant. This population based cross-sectional study aimed to investigate associations between serum PFAS isomers, glucose-homeostasis markers and T2D, adjusted for multiple potential confounders. We used data from "Isomers of C8 Health Project in China" from July 2015 to October 2016. A total of 10 PFAS including isomers of PFOS and PFOA were measured in serum of 1045 Chinese adults. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of insulin (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-ß) were considered as markers of glucose-homeostasis. We found significant positive associations between serum PFAS isomers and glucose-homeostasis markers, namely, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Per log-unit increase in branched (br)-PFOS concentration was associated with increased fasting blood glucose (ß = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.33), fasting insulin (ß = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.93) and HOMA-IR (ß = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.89). As compared to br-PFOS, linear (n)-PFOS and -PFOA showed lesser significant associations with glucose-homeostasis makers. Further, exposure to all PFAS including isomeric PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS increased the risk of T2D with br-PFOS exhibiting the highest risk (OR = 5.41, 95% CI: 3.68-7.96). The associations were stronger among women than men. In conclusion, chronic exposure to PFAS isomers was associated with impaired glucose-homeostasis and may increase the prevalence of T2D in Chinese adults. Given the ubiquity of PFAS in the environment and the public health burden of T2D, future studies are warranted to corroborate the findings.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Caprilatos , China , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(10): e019063, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942624

RESUMO

Background Although several studies have focused on the associations between particle size and constituents and blood pressure, results have been inconsistent. Methods and Results We conducted a panel study, between December 2017 and January 2018, in 88 healthy university students in Guangzhou, China. Weekly systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured for each participant for 5 consecutive weeks, resulting in a total of 440 visits. Mass concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤1.0 µm (PM1.0), ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5), ≤0.2 µm (PM0.2), and number concentrations of airborne particulates of diameter ≤0.1 µm were measured. Linear mixed-effect models were used to estimate the associations between blood pressure and particles and PM2.5 constituents 0 to 48 hours before blood pressure measurement. PM of all the fractions in the 0.2- to 2.5-µm range were positively associated with systolic blood pressure in the first 24 hours, with the percent changes of effect estimates ranging from 3.5% to 8.8% for an interquartile range increment of PM. PM0.2 was also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure, with an increase of 5.9% (95% CI, 1.0%-11.0%) for an interquartile range increment (5.8 µg/m3) at lag 0 to 24 hours. For PM2.5 constituents, we found positive associations between chloride and diastolic blood pressure (1.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%]), and negative associations between vanadium and diastolic blood pressure (-1.6% [95% CI, -3.0% to -0.1%]). Conclusions Both particle size and constituent exposure are significantly associated with blood pressure in the first 24 hours following exposure in healthy Chinese adults.

8.
Environ Int ; 155: 106596, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs), a group of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, can be widely observed in humans and environmental matrices. However, associations between exposure to Cl-PFESAs and serum lipid levels in adults are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships between Cl-PFESA levels and serum lipid levels in adults. METHODS: We analyzed 1238 adults from the Isomers of C8 Health Project, a cross-sectional study conducted in China from July 2015 to October 2016. The average age of the participants was 61.98 ± 14.40 years. We quantified two select legacy per- and perfluoroalkyl substances [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS] and their alternatives (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs). We also measured four serum lipids: low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). We used generalized linear models to estimate the associations between PFASs and serum lipids, with PFASs defined as either a categorical variable divided into quartiles or as a continuous variable. RESULTS: We found that 6:2 Cl-PFESA was positively associated with serum TC and LDL-C. For instance, LDL-C levels in the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA exposure (Q4) were significantly higher than those in the lowest quartile (Q1) [ß: 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08, 0.30]. Further analysis showed that one ln-ng/mL increase in 6:2 Cl-PFESA exposure corresponded to a 0.10 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16) LDL-C increase, and that exposure to 8:2 Cl-PFESA was negatively correlated with HDL-C (ß: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.05, -0.01). TC had a similar relationship with both 6:2 Cl-PFESA and legacy PFASs. Participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 exhibited a stronger association between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and TC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings make the novel suggestion that exposure to Cl-PFESAs are adversely associated with serum lipid levels, and that such associations are also observed in legacy PFASs. Increased investigation into the effects of Cl-PFESAs exposure on human health is warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110931, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014325

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between the exposure window (prenatal, early postnatal, and current period) of secondhand smoke (SHS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in children. Objective: To evaluate the associations of prenatal, early postnatal, or current SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 48 612 children aged 6 to 18 years from elementary and middle schools in Liaoning province, China, between April 2012 and January 2013 were eligible for participation. Data on SHS exposure and ADHD symptoms and subtypes for each child were collected via questionnaires administered to parents or guardians by school teachers. Data were analyzed from September 14 to December 2, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The ADHD symptoms and subtypes (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and combined) were measured based on a validated tool developed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Generalized linear mixed models were evaluated to estimate the association of SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes. Results: A total of 45 562 participants completed the questionnaires and were included in this study (22 905 girls [50.3%]; mean [SD] age, 11.0 [2.6] years; 2170 [4.8%] with ADHD symptoms). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children who were ever exposed (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36-1.66) or always exposed to SHS (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.55-3.25) from pregnancy to childhood had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.46 [95% CI, 1.31-1.62] to 2.94 [95% CI, 2.09-4.13]). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children with SHS exposure had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms when exposed in the prenatal period (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 2.07-2.51), early postnatal period (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.29-1.68), or current period (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children whose fathers smoked 10 or more cigarettes/d on both weekdays and weekends had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.48 [95% CI, 1.28-1.70] to 2.25 [95% CI, 1.29-3.93]). Conclusions and Relevance: Being exposed to SHS from pregnancy to childhood was associated with higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children, and the associations were somewhat stronger for SHS exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Our findings highlight the important public health implications of reducing SHS exposure, which may decrease the health and economic burdens of individuals with ADHD.

10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 133, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001160

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Among the many possible postoperative complications, anastomotic leakage (AL) is the most common and serious. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the ability of various inflammatory and nutritional markers to predict postoperative AL in patients after esophagectomy. METHODS: A total of 273 patients were retrospectively evaluated and enrolled into this study. Perioperative, surgery-related, tumor-related and laboratory tests data were extracted and analyzed. The discriminatory ability and optimal cut-off value was evaluated according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to access the potential risk factors for AL. RESULTS: The overall incidence of AL was 12.5% (34/273). C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CRP/ALB ratio) [AUC 0.943 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.911-0.976, p <  0.001)] and operation time [AUC 0.747 (95% CI = 0.679-0.815, p <  0.001)] had the greatest discrimination on AL prediction. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CRP/ALB ratio and operation time were two independent risk factors for AL, and CRP/ALB ratio (OR = 102.909, p <  0.001) had an advantage over operation time (OR = 9.363, p = 0.020; Table 3). CONCLUSION: Operation time and postoperative CRP/ALB ratio were two independent predictive indexes for AL. Postoperative CRP/ALB ratio greater than 3.00 indicated a high risk of AL. For patients with abnormal postoperative CRP/ALB ratio, early non-operative treatment or surgical intervention are needed to reduce the serious sequelae of AL.


Assuntos
Albuminas/análise , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Environ Int ; 153: 106548, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China. METHOD: This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutively recruited fetuses with CHD and healthy volunteers from 21 cities, Southern China, between January 2006 and December 2016. Residential address at delivery was linked to random forests models to estimate maternal exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm, and ≤10 µm as well as nitrogen dioxides, in three trimesters. The CHD cases were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia ultrasound. The CHD subtypes were coded using the International Classification Diseases. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between air pollutants and CHD and its subtypes. RESULTS: A total of 7055 isolated CHD and 6423 controls were included in the current analysis. Maternal air pollution exposures were consistently higher among cases than those among controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that maternal exposure to all air pollutants during the first trimester was associated with an increased odds of CHD (e.g., an interquartile range [13.3 µg/m3] increase in PM1 was associated with 1.09-fold ([95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18]) greater odds of CHD). No significant associations were observed for maternal air pollution exposures during the second trimester and the third trimester. The pattern of the associations between air pollutants and different CHD subtypes was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to greater levels of air pollutants during the pregnancy, especially the first trimester, is associated with higher odds of CHD in offspring. Further longitudinal well-designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
12.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 540-546, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy and prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated by long-term maintenance lenalidomide treatment. METHODS: A total of 97 patients diagnosed as MM in the Department of Hematology of First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine from 2012 to 2019 were selected, and the basic clinical characteristics and laboratory indicators of the patients were tested and evaluated. After long-term maintenance lenalidomide treatment for patients with MM, the short-term and long-term clinical efficacy and the incidence of adverse reactions were evaluated, and factors affecting the prognosis of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Before maintenance treatment, 47.42% of the patients (46/97) did not achieve complete remission (CR), among 52.58% (51/97) of CR patients, there were 20.62% of the patients showed minimal residual leukemia (MRD) negative. After lenalidomide maintenance treatment, the patients who did not achieve CR were reduced to 24.74% (24/97), among 75.26% (73/97) of the patients with CR, there were 47.42% of the patients showed MRD negative, the difference showed statistically significant (P<0.001). After maintenance treatment, the median pro-gression-free survival of the patients was 58 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 89.69%. The incidence of adverse reactions was 40.21% (39/97), including neutropenia (31/39, 79.49%), fatigue (21/39, 53.85%), thrombocytopenia (17/39, 43.59%) and gastrointestinal reaction (15/39, 38.46%) were the most common. The discontinuation rate was 24.74% (24/97), and the median time for discontinuation was 21 months. The main reasons for discontinuation were neutropenia (12/24, 50.00%) , thrombocytopenia (8/24, 33.33%) and gastrointestinal reactions accounted for 8.33% (2/24). Old age and positive MRD were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of the patients. The adjusted OR was 1.43 (95% CI 1.03-1.76, P=0.034) and 3.78 (95% CI 2.56-9.56, P=0.037), respectively. CONCLUSION: The long-term maintenance lenalidomide treatment shows a good clinical effect on patients with MM, and MRD detection can assist the cilinical judge the prognosis of the patients. During maintenance treatment, the clinical symptoms, especially blood system damage of the patients should be take care, so as to avoid serious adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in critically ill patients. The modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill (mNUTRIC) score has been introduced to evaluate the nutritional risk of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). The mNUTRIC score is a predictive factor of mortality for patients in a medical or mixed ICU, whereas the relationship between mNUTRIC and prognosis of patients in a cardiothoracic surgery recovery unit (CSRU) is unclear and related researches are limited. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective cohort study to explore the value of mNUTRIC score in CSRU patients. We identified totally 4059 patients from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off value of mNUTRIC score was 4 and a total of 1498 (36.9%) patients were considered to be at high nutritional risk (mNUTRIC ≥ 4). A multivariate logistic regression model indicated that patients at high nutritional risk have higher hospital mortality compared to those at low nutritional risk (odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-4.70, p = 0.005]. Furthermore, a Cox regression model was established adjusted for age, white blood cell and body mass index. The Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that patients at high nutritional risk have poorer 365-days [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.30-2.37, p < 0.001] and 1000-days (HR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.87-2.83, p < 0.001) overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The mNUTRIC score could not only predict hospital mortality, but also be an independent prognostic factor for long-term survival in CSRU patients. More well-designed clinical trials are needed to verify and update our findings.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 142365, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601665

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests associations between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exposure and asthma, but the findings are inconsistent. The current study sought to investigate whether perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) could contribute to asthma exacerbation and to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms. The objectives are a) to determine whether PFOS or PFOA could aggravate the mouse asthma and pulmonary inflammation b) to investigate whether PFOS and PFOA regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and aggravated asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthmatic mice were exposed to PFOS or PFOA by gavage. PFOS and PFOA serum level and toxicity in organs were assessed; and the impacts on respiratory symptoms, lung tissue pathology, T helper cell (Th2) response, and STAT6 pathway activity were also evaluated. In vitro Jurkat cells were used to study the mechanisms of PFOS and PFOA mediated Th1 and Th2 responses. Both PFOS and PFOA exacerbated lung tissue inflammation (greater number of eosinophils and mucus hyperproduction), upregulated Th2 cytokine production (IL-4 and IL-13), and promoted Th2 cells and STAT6 activation. Furthermore, PFOS and PFOA enhanced the Th2 response in Jurkat cells via STAT6 activation; and the effect of PFOS exposure on GATA-3, IL-4 and IFN-γ was blocked after the expression of STAT6 was suppressed in Jurkat cells, however, the effects of PFOA exposure were only partially blocked. PFOS and PFOA aggravated inflammation among OVA-induced asthmatic mice, by promoting the Th2 response in lymphocytes and disturbing the balance of Th1/Th2 through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Asma , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124750, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341569

RESUMO

Evidence concerning exposure to air pollution and visual impairment is scarce. We evaluated the associations of ambient air pollution with visual impairment and visual acuity levels in Chinese schoolchildren. We recruited 61,995 children from 7 provinces/municipalities across China. Concentrations of air pollutants (i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 1.0 µm [PM1], ≤ 2.5 µm [PM2.5], and 10 µm [PM10] as well as nitrogen dioxides [NO2]) were measured using machine learning methods. Visual acuity levels were measured using standard protocols. We used SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC to assess the association between air pollution and visual impairment. An interquartile range increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was associated with a 1.133- (95% CI, 1.035-1.240), 1.267- (95% CI, 1.082-1.484), 1.142- (95% CI, 1.019-1.281), and 1.276-fold (95% CI, 1.173-1.388) increased odds of visual impairment, and the associations were stronger in children being boys, older, living in rural areas, and born to parents who had a lower educational level or smoked, compared to their counterparts. These results suggest that exposure to air pollution were positively associated with the odds of visual impairment, and the association may be modified by children's age, sex, and residential area as well as parental education level and cigarette smoking.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116211, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348139

RESUMO

Evidence concerning effects of ambient air pollution on homocysteine (HCY) metabolism is scarce. We aimed to explore the associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure and the HCY metabolism markers and to evaluate effect modifications by folate, vitamin B12, and methylenetetrahyfrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism. Between December 1, 2017 and January 5, 2018, we conducted a panel study in 88 young college students in Guangzhou, China, and received 5 rounds of health examinations. Real-time concentrations of PMs with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5), ≤1.0 (PM1.0), and ≤0.1 (PM0.1) were monitored, and the serum HCY metabolism markers (i.e., HCY, S-Adenosylhomocysteine [SAH], and S-Adenosylmethionine [SAM]) were repeatedly measured. We applied linear mixed effect models combined with a distributed lag model to evaluate the associations of PMs with the HCY metabolism markers. We also explored effect modifications of folate, vitamin B12, and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on the associations. We observed that higher concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 were associated with higher serum levels of HCY, SAH, SAM, and SAM/SAH ratio (e.g., a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 during lag 0 day and lag 5 day was significantly associated with 1.3-19.4%, 1.3-28.2%, 6.2-64.4%, and 4.8-28.2% increase in HCY, SAH, SAM, and SAM/SAH ratio, respectively). In addition, we observed that the associations of PM2.5 with the HCY metabolism markers were stronger in participants with lower B vitamins levels. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM1.0 was deleteriously associated with the HCY metabolism markers, especially in people with lower B vitamins levels.


Assuntos
Complexo Vitamínico B , China , Homocisteína , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Oxirredutases , Material Particulado , Polimorfismo Genético
17.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 5580-5592, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209391

RESUMO

Background: Current preoperative staging for lymph nodal status remains inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to build an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict pathologic nodal involvement in clinical stage I-II esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients and then validated the performance of the model. Methods: A total of 523 patients (training set: 350; test set: 173) with clinical staging I-II ESCC who underwent esophagectomy and reconstruction were enrolled in this study. Their post-surgical pathological results were assessed and analysed. An ANN model was established for predicting pathologic nodal positive patients in the training set, which was validated in the test set. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also created to illustrate the performance of the predictive model. Results: Of the enrolled 523 patients with ESCC, 41.3% of the patients were confirmed pathologic nodal positive (216/523). The ANN staging system identified the tumour invasion depth, tumour length, dysphagia, tumour differentiation and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) as predictors for pathologic lymph node metastases. The C-index for the ANN model verified in the test set was 0.852, which demonstrated that the ANN model had a good predictive performance. Conclusions: The ANN model presented good performance for predicting pathologic lymph node metastasis and added indicators not included in current staging criteria and might help improve the staging strategies.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115443, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892008

RESUMO

It is unknown whether giving birth via caesarean section (c-section) is a modifier for the association between air pollution and asthma. From 2012 to 2013, 59,754 children between the ages of 2 and 17 were randomly selected from 94 middle schools, elementary schools and kindergartens in seven Chinese cities for a cross-sectional study. The children's parents or guardians completed questionnaires, from which data on asthma as well as asthma-related symptoms were obtained. Participants' exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using random forest models. We used mixed effects logistic regression models and added an interaction term between mode of delivery and ambient air pollution into the model to estimate effect modification from c-sections after appropriate adjustments for potential confounding variables. Among children delivered by c-section, the adjusted ORs for asthma and its symptoms per interquartile range (IQR) increase of PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 (1.20 95% CI: 1.07-1.34 to 2.04 95% CI: 1.87-2.24) were significantly higher than those of children delivered vaginally (1.05 95% CI: 0.92-1.19 to 1.33 95%CI: 1.21-1.47). The interactions between c-sections and ambient air pollution were statistically significant for all studied respiratory disorders, except current wheeze. Delivery via c-section may increase the risks of air pollution on asthma and its symptoms in Chinese children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Cesárea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2017507, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955574

RESUMO

Importance: Living in areas with more vegetation (referred to as residential greenness) may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little data are available from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, it remains unclear whether the presence of cardiometabolic disorders modifies or mediates the association between residential greenness and CVD. Objective: To evaluate the associations between residential greenness, cardiometabolic disorders, and CVD prevalence among adults in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis was performed as part of the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, a large population-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in 33 communities (ranging from 0.25-0.64 km2) in 3 cities within the Liaoning province of northeastern China between April 1 and December 31, 2009. Participants included adults aged 18 to 74 years who had resided in the study area for 5 years or more. Greenness levels surrounding each participant's residential community were assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index and the soil-adjusted vegetation index from 2010. Lifetime CVD status (including myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary heart disease, cerebral thrombosis, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral embolism, and subarachnoid hemorrhage) was defined as a self-report of a physician diagnosis of CVD at the time of the survey. Cardiometabolic disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and overweight or obese status, were measured and defined clinically. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the association between residential greenness levels and CVD prevalence. A 3-way decomposition method was used to explore whether the presence of cardiometabolic disorders mediated or modified the association between residential greenness and CVD. Data were analyzed from October 10 to May 30, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime CVD status, the presence of cardiometabolic disorders, and residential greenness level. Results: Among 24 845 participants, the mean (SD) age was 45.6 (13.3) years, and 12 661 participants (51.0%) were men. A total of 1006 participants (4.1%) reported having a diagnosis of CVD. An interquartile range (1-IQR) increase in the normalized difference vegetation index within 500 m of a community was associated with a 27% lower likelihood (odds ratio [OR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.65-0.83; P < .001) of CVD prevalence, and an IQR increase in the soil-adjusted vegetation index within 500 m of a community was associated with a 26% lower likelihood (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.66-0.84; P < .001) of CVD prevalence. The presence of cardiometabolic disorders was found to mediate the association between residential greenness and CVD, with mediation effects of 4.5% for hypertension, 4.1% for type 2 diabetes, 3.1% for overweight or obese status, 12.7% for hypercholesterolemia, 8.7% for hypertriglyceridemia, and 11.1% for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, higher residential greenness levels were associated with lower CVD prevalence, and this association may be partially mediated by the presence of cardiometabolic disorders. Further studies, preferably longitudinal, are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Política Pública
20.
Environ Int ; 145: 106092, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916413

RESUMO

Experimental data suggests that PM1 is more toxic than PM2.5 although the epidemiologic evidence suggests that the health associations are similar. However, few objective exposure data are available to compare the associations of PM1 and PM2.5 with children lung function. Our objectives are a) to evaluate associations between long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5 and children's lung function, and b) to compare the associations between PM1 and PM2.5. From 2012 to 2013, we enrolled 6,740 children (7-14 years), randomly recruited from primary and middle schools located in seven cities in northeast China. We measured lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) utilizing two portable electronic spirometers. We dichotomized continuous lung function measures according the expected values for gender and age. The spatial resolution at which PM1 and PM2.5 estimated were estimated using a machine learning method and the temporal average concentrations were averaged from 2009 to 2012. A multilevel regression model was used to estimate the associations of PM1, PM2.5 exposure and lung function measures, adjusted for confounding factors. Associations with lower lung function were consistently larger for PM1 than for PM2.5. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) per interquartile range greater PM1 ranged from 1.53 for MMEF (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.96) to 2.14 for FEV1 (95% CI: 1.66-2.76) and ORs for PM2.5 ranged from 1.36 for MMEF (95%CI: 1.12-1.66) to 1.82 for FEV1 (95%CI: 1.49-2.22), respectively. PM1 and PM2.5 had significant associations with FVC and FEV1 in primary school children, and on PEF and MMEF in middle school children. Long-term PM1 and PM2.5 exposure can lead to decreased lung function in children, and the associations of PM1 are stronger than PM2.5. Therefore, PM1 may be more hazardous to children's respiratory health than PM2.5 exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Material Particulado/análise
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