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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 15, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Double-endobutton technique, as a widely accepted strategy for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation, is undergoing constant improvement. This study aims to assess the clinical effect of a modified single-endobutton combined with the nice knot in the fixation of Rockwood type III or V acromioclavicular joint dislocation. METHODS: From January 2016 to June 2019, 16 adult patients (13 males and 3 females) with Rockwood type III or V acromioclavicular joint dislocation were treated with a modified single-endobutton technique combined with the nice knot in our department. The age ranged from 18 to 64 years old with an average of 32.8 years old. Operative time, intraoperative blood loss, post-operative clinical outcomes and radiographic results were recorded and analyzed. Preoperative and last follow-up scores in the Constant-Murley Scale, Neer score, Rating Scale of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and VAS scale and complications such as infection, re-dislocation, implant loosening, medical origin fracture and hardware pain were recorded and evaluated. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were followed up for 6 to 18 months with an average of 10.3 months. The operative time was 50-90 min with an average of (62.5 ± 3.10) min. The intraoperative blood loss was 30-100 ml, with an average of (55.0 ± 4.28) ml. The complications, such as wound infection, internal fixation failure and fractures, were not found in these cases. According to Karlsson criteria, there were excellent in 14 cases, good in 2 cases at the final follow-up. The mean VAS score of the patients was 5.88 ± 0.26 preoperatively, compared with 0.19 ± 0.14 at the final follow-up evaluation. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean Constant score was 45.5 ± 2.0 preoperatively, compared to 94.0 ± 0.73 at the final follow-up evaluation. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Patients had statistically significant preoperative and postoperative AC (acromioclavicular distance) and CC (coracoclavicular distance) distances (P < 0.05); 6 months postoperatively the AC(P = 0.412) and CC(P = 0.324) distances were not statistically significant compared to the healthy side. CONCLUSION: Nice knot provides a reliable fixation for the single-endobutton technique in the treatment of acromioclavicular dislocations. The modified single-endobutton technique combined with the nice knot can achieve good clinical outcomes in the treatment of Rockwood type III or V acromioclavicular joint dislocation.


Assuntos
Articulação Acromioclavicular , Luxações Articulares , Luxação do Ombro , Articulação Acromioclavicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Acromioclavicular/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxações Articulares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Luxação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação do Ombro/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Gene ; 807: 145961, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530088

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus produces two types of IV pili: mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin type IV pili (MSHA) and chitin-regulated pili (ChiRP). Both of them are required for biofilm formation and the pathogen persistence in hosts. However, there are few reports on the regulation of their expression. In the present study, we showed that the master quorum sensing (QS) regulators AphA and OpaR oppositely regulated the transcription of mshA1 encoding the pilin of MSHA pilus in V. parahaemolyticus. At low cell density (LCD), AphA indirectly repressed mshA1 transcription. In contrast, at high cell density (HCD), OpaR bound to the regulatory DNA region of mshA1 to activate its transcription. Oppositely regulation of mshA1 by AphA and OpaR led to a gradual increase in the expression level of mshA1 from LCD to HCD. Thus, regulation of type IV pili production was one of the mechanisms that V. parahaemolyticus adopted to control biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Percepção de Quorum/genética , Vibrio/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Células , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vibrio/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/metabolismo
3.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878798

RESUMO

The mechanism and origin of ligand effects on stereoinversion of Pd-catalyzed synthesis of tetrasubstituted olefins were investigated using DFT calculations and the approach of energy decomposition analysis (EDA). The results reveal that the stereoselectivity-determining steps are different when employing different phosphine ligands. This is mainly due to the steric properties of ligands. With the bulkier Xantphos ligand, the syn/anti-to-Pd 1,2-migrations determine the stereoselectivity. While using the less hindered P(o-tol)3 ligand, the 1,3-migration is the stereoselectivity-determining step. The EDA results demonstrate that Pauli repulsion and polarization are the dominant factors for controlling the stereochemistry in 1,2- and 1,3-migrations, respectively. The origins of differences of Pauli repulsion and polarization between the two stereoselective transition states are further identified.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 709012, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925249

RESUMO

Root-microbiome interactions are of central importance for plant performance and yield. A distinctive feature of legumes is that they engage in symbiosis with N2-fixing rhizobia. If and how the rhizobial symbiotic capacity modulates root-associated microbiomes are still not yet well understood. We determined root-associated microbiomes of soybean inoculated with wild type (WT) or a noeI mutant of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110 by amplicon sequencing. UPLC-MS/MS was used to analyze root exudates. The noeI gene is responsible for fucose-methylation of Nod factor secreted by USDA 110 WT strain. Soybean roots inoculated with the noeI mutant showed a significant decrease in nodulation and root-flavonoid exudation compared to roots inoculated with WT strain. The noeI mutant-inoculated roots exhibited strong changes in microbiome assembly in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane, including reduced diversity, changed co-occurrence interactions and a substantial depletion of root microbes. Root exudates and soil physiochemical properties were significantly correlated with microbial community shift in the rhizosphere between different rhizobial treatments. These results illustrate that rhizobial symbiotic capacity dramatically alters root-associated microbiomes, in which root exudation and edaphic patterns play a vital role. This study has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant-microbiome interactions.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830062

RESUMO

Many plant proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domains play an important role in plant immunity. However, the role of one class of eLRR plant proteins-the simple eLRR proteins-in plant defenses against herbivores remains largely unknown. Here, we found that a simple eLRR protein OsI-BAK1 in rice localizes to the plasma membrane. Its expression was induced by mechanical wounding, the infestation of gravid females of brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens or white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera and treatment with methyl jasmonate or abscisic acid. Silencing OsI-BAK1 (ir-ibak1) in rice enhanced the BPH-induced transcript levels of three defense-related WRKY genes (OsWRKY24, OsWRKY53 and OsWRKY70) but decreased the induced levels of ethylene. Bioassays revealed that the hatching rate was significantly lower in BPH eggs laid on ir-ibak1 plants than wild-type (WT) plants; moreover, gravid BPH females preferred to oviposit on WT plants over ir-ibak1 plants. The exogenous application of ethephon on ir-ibak1 plants eliminated the BPH oviposition preference between WT and ir-ibak1 plants but had no effect on the hatching rate of BPH eggs. These findings suggest that OsI-BAK1 acts as a negative modulator of defense responses in rice to BPH and that BPH might exploit this modulator for its own benefit.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(42)2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625471

RESUMO

Cellular ionic concentrations are a central factor orchestrating host innate immunity, but no pathogenic mechanism that perturbs host innate immunity by directly targeting metal ions has yet been described. Here, we report a unique virulence strategy of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) involving modulation of the availability of Mn2+, an immunostimulatory metal ion in host cells. We showed that the Yptb type VI secretion system (T6SS) delivered a micropeptide, TssS, into host cells to enhance its virulence. The mutant strain lacking TssS (ΔtssS) showed substantially reduced virulence but induced a significantly stronger host innate immune response, indicating an antagonistic role of this effector in host antimicrobial immunity. Subsequent studies revealed that TssS is a Mn2+-chelating protein and that its Mn2+-chelating ability is essential for the disruption of host innate immunity. Moreover, we showed that Mn2+ enhances the host innate immune response to Yptb infection by activating the stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-mediated immune response. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TssS counteracted the cytoplasmic Mn2+ increase to inhibit the STING-mediated innate immune response by sequestering Mn2+ Finally, TssS-mediated STING inhibition sabotaged bacterial clearance in vivo. These results reveal a previously unrecognized bacterial immune evasion strategy involving modulation of the bioavailability of intracellular metal ions and provide a perspective on the role of the T6SS in pathogenesis.

7.
Elife ; 102021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632981

RESUMO

Gut enzymes can metabolize plant defense compounds and thereby affect the growth and fitness of insect herbivores. Whether these enzymes also influence feeding preference is largely unknown. We studied the metabolization of taraxinic acid ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G), a sesquiterpene lactone of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) that deters its major root herbivore, the common cockchafer larva (Melolontha melolontha). We have demonstrated that TA-G is rapidly deglucosylated and conjugated to glutathione in the insect gut. A broad-spectrum M. melolontha ß-glucosidase, Mm_bGlc17, is sufficient and necessary for TA-G deglucosylation. Using cross-species RNA interference, we have shown that Mm_bGlc17 reduces TA-G toxicity. Furthermore, Mm_bGlc17 is required for the preference of M. melolontha larvae for TA-G-deficient plants. Thus, herbivore metabolism modulates both the toxicity and deterrence of a plant defense compound. Our work illustrates the multifaceted roles of insect digestive enzymes as mediators of plant-herbivore interactions.


Assuntos
Besouros/enzimologia , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Taraxacum/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo , Animais , Besouros/embriologia , Besouros/genética , Digestão , Glucosídeos/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Inativação Metabólica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Lactonas/toxicidade , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade , Taraxacum/toxicidade , beta-Galactosidase/genética
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675080

RESUMO

Plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites mediate important interactions in both the rhizosphere and the phyllosphere. If and how such compartmentalized functions interact to determine plant-environment interactions is not well understood. Here, we investigated how the dual role of maize benzoxazinoids as leaf defenses and root siderophores shapes the interaction between maize and a major global insect pest, the fall armyworm. We find that benzoxazinoids suppress fall armyworm growth when plants are grown in soils with very low available iron but enhance growth in soils with higher available iron. Manipulation experiments confirm that benzoxazinoids suppress herbivore growth under iron-deficient conditions and in the presence of chelated iron but enhance herbivore growth in the presence of free iron in the growth medium. This reversal of the protective effect of benzoxazinoids is not associated with major changes in plant primary metabolism. Plant defense activation is modulated by the interplay between soil iron and benzoxazinoids but does not explain fall armyworm performance. Instead, increased iron supply to the fall armyworm by benzoxazinoids in the presence of free iron enhances larval performance. This work identifies soil chemistry as a decisive factor for the impact of plant secondary metabolites on herbivore growth. It also demonstrates how the multifunctionality of plant secondary metabolites drives interactions between abiotic and biotic factors, with potential consequences for plant resistance in variable environments.

10.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(12): 3502-3514, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505297

RESUMO

Plant-soil feedbacks refer to effects on plants that are mediated by soil modifications caused by the previous plant generation. Maize conditions the surrounding soil by secretion of root exudates including benzoxazinoids (BXs), a class of bioactive secondary metabolites. Previous work found that a BX-conditioned soil microbiota enhances insect resistance while reducing biomass in the next generation of maize plants. Whether these BX-mediated and microbially driven feedbacks are conserved across different soils and response species is unknown. We found the BX-feedbacks on maize growth and insect resistance conserved between two arable soils, but absent in a more fertile grassland soil, suggesting a soil-type dependence of BX feedbacks. We demonstrated that wheat also responded to BX-feedbacks. While the negative growth response to BX-conditioning was conserved in both cereals, insect resistance showed opposite patterns, with an increase in maize and a decrease in wheat. Wheat pathogen resistance was not affected. Finally and consistent with maize, we found the BX-feedbacks to be cultivar-specific. Taken together, BX-feedbacks affected cereal growth and resistance in a soil and genotype-dependent manner. Cultivar-specificity of BX-feedbacks is a key finding, as it hides the potential to optimize crops that avoid negative plant-soil feedbacks in rotations.

11.
New Phytol ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506634

RESUMO

The ability to predict future risks is essential for many organisms, including plants. Plants can gather information about potential future herbivory by detecting volatiles that are emitted by herbivore-attacked neighbors. Several individual volatiles have been identified as active danger cues. Recent work has also shown that plants may integrate multiple volatiles into their defense responses. Here, I discuss how the integration of multiple volatiles can increase the capacity of plants to predict future herbivore attack. I propose that integration of multiple volatile cues does not occur at the perception stage, but may through downstream early defense signaling and then be further consolidated by hormonal crosstalk. Exploring plant volatile cue integration can facilitate our understanding and utilization of chemical information transfer.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 720967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484162

RESUMO

Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is the causative agent of "visceral white spot disease" in cultured fish and has resulted in serious economic losses. tonB gene plays a crucial role in the uptake of nutrients from the outer membranes in Gram-negative bacteria. The previous results of our lab showed that the expression of tonB gene of P. plecoglossicida was significantly upregulated in the spleens of infected Epinephelus coioides. To explore the effect of tonB gene on the virulence of P. plecoglossicida and the immune response of E. coioides, tonB gene of P. plecoglossicida was knocked down by RNAi; and the differences between the wild-type strain and the tonB-RNAi strain of P. plecoglossicida were investigated. The results showed that all of the four mutants of P. plecoglossicida exhibited significant decreases in mRNA of tonB gene, and the best knockdown efficiency was 94.0%; the survival rate of E. coioides infected with the tonB-RNAi strain was 20% higher than of the counterpart infected with the wild strain of P. plecoglossicida. Meanwhile, the E. coioides infected with the tonB-RNAi strain of P. plecoglossicida carried less pathogens in the spleen and less white spots on the surface of the spleen; compared with the wild-type strain, the motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, and biofilm formation of the tonB-RNAi strain were significantly attenuated; the transcriptome data of E. coioides infected with the tonB-RNAi strain were different from the counterpart infected with the wild strain of P. plecoglossicida; the antigen processing and presentation pathway and the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were the most enriched immune pathways. The results indicated that tonB was a virulence gene of P. plecoglossicida; tonB gene was involved in the regulation of motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, and biofilm formation; tonB gene affected the immune response of E. coioides to P. plecoglossicida infection.

13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 3471-3483, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377003

RESUMO

Aim: In the present study, we performed bioinformatics studies and in vitro functional assays to explore the underlying role of serpin family H member 1 (SERPINH1) in the diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between diabetic retinal tissues and normal retinal tissues were analyzed using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The proliferation and migration of human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) was evaluated by MTS, EdU and wound healing assays, respectively; the miRNA and mRNAs expression levels of hub genes in HRECs were determined using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Protein levels were determined using a Western blot assay. Results: A total of 189 common DEGs were screened between two GEO datasets (GSE60436 and GSE94019), and ten potential hub genes that may link to the progression of diabetic retinopathy were detected. The qRT-PCR results showed that collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), Collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) and serpin family H member 1 (SERPINH1) mRNA expression levels were up-regulated in the HRECs after being exposed to high glucose for 48 h. Silence of SERPINH1 repressed the high glucose-induced increase in proliferation and migration of HRECs. SERPINH1 was a target of miR-29b and was suppressed by miR-29 in HRECs. SERPINH1 overexpression promoted HREC proliferation and migration. Furthermore, miR-29b suppressed HREC proliferation and migration under high-glucose stimulation, which was significantly attenuated by enforced expression of SERPINH1. Conclusion: In conclusion, by performing the integrated bioinformatics analysis, the present study suggested that 3 hub genes (COL1A1, COL1A2 and SERPINH1) may be associated with diabetic retinopathy pathophysiology. Further mechanistic studies indicated that miR-29b/SERPINH1 signaling participated in high glucose-induced enhancement in the proliferation and migration of HRECs.

14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 690799, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211858

RESUMO

In this study, a detailed genetic dissection of the huge and complex bla NDM-carrying genetic elements and their related mobile genetic elements was performed in Enterobacteriaceae. An extensive comparison was applied to 12 chromosomal genetic elements, including six sequenced in this study and the other six from GenBank. These 12 genetic elements were divided into five groups: a novel IME Tn6588; two related IMEs Tn6523 (SGI1) and Tn6589; four related ICEs Tn6512 (R391), Tn6575 (ICEPvuChnBC22), Tn6576, and Tn6577; Tn7 and its derivatives Tn6726 and 40.7-kb Tn7-related element; and two related IMEs Tn6591 (GIsul2) and Tn6590. At least 51 resistance genes, involved in resistance to 18 different categories of antibiotics and heavy metals, were found in these 12 genetic elements. Notably, Tn6576 carried another ICE Tn6582. In particular, the six bla NDM-carrying genetic elements Tn6588, Tn6589, Tn6575, Tn6576, Tn6726, and 40.7-kb Tn7-related element contained large accessory multidrug resistance (MDR) regions, each of which had a very complex mosaic structure that comprised intact or residual mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences, unit or composite transposons, integrons, and putative resistance units. Core bla NDM genetic environments manifested as four different Tn125 derivatives and, notably, two or more copies of relevant Tn125 derivatives were found in each of Tn6576, Tn6588, Tn6589, and 40.7-kb Tn7-related element. The huge and complex bla NDM-carrying genetic elements were assembled from complex transposition and homolog recombination. Firstly identified were eight novel mobile elements, including three ICEs Tn6576, Tn6577, and Tn6582, two IMEs, Tn6588 and Tn6589, two composite transposons Tn6580a and Tn6580b, and one integron In1718.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Humanos , Integrons/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
15.
J Microbiol ; 59(7): 651-657, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061340

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two types of flagella: a single polar flagellum (Pof) for swimming and the peritrichous lateral flagella (Laf) for swarming. Expression of Laf genes has previously been reported to be regulated by the quorum sensing (QS) regulators AphA and OpaR. In the present study, we showed that OpaR, the QS regulator at high cell density (HCD), acted as a negative regulator of swimming motility and the transcription of Pof genes in V. parahaemolyticus. OpaR bound to the promoter-proximal DNA regions of flgAMN, flgMN, and flgBCDEFGHIJ within the Pof gene loci to repress their transcription, whereas it negatively regulates the transcription of flgKL-flaC in an indirect manner. Thus, this work investigated how QS regulated the swimming motility via direct action of its master regulator OpaR on the transcription of Pof genes in V. parahaemolyticus.


Assuntos
Flagelos/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Percepção de Quorum , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Movimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Transcrição Genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(52): 6412-6415, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086023

RESUMO

The mechanism and origin of stereoselectivity of silver-catalyzed hydroalkylation of alkynes were computationally investigated at the B3LYP-D3BJ/6-311+G(d,p)-SDD//B3LYP/6-31G(d)-LANL2DZ level. The complex of alkynyl trialkylboronate with cationic silver is a key intermediate, which triggers the rate- and stereoselectivity-determining 1,2-migration step. Energy decomposition analysis indicates that the difference of Pauli repulsion dominates the stereoselectivity.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 676436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163453

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the leading cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis worldwide, has a strong ability to form biofilms on surfaces. Quorum sensing (QS) is a process widely used by bacteria to communicate with each other and control gene expression via the secretion and detection of autoinducers. OpaR is the master QS regulator of V. parahaemolyticus operating under high cell density (HCD). OpaR regulation of V. parahaemolyticus biofilm formation has been reported, but the regulatory mechanisms are still not fully understood. bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is an omnipresent intracellular second messenger that regulates diverse behaviors of bacteria including activation of biofilm formation. In this work, we showed that OpaR repressed biofilm formation and decreased the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP in V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633. The OpaR box-like sequences were detected within the regulatory DNA regions of scrA, scrG, VP0117, VPA0198, VPA1176, VP0699, and VP2979, encoding a group of GGDEF and/or EAL-type proteins. The results of qPCR, LacZ fusion, EMSA, and DNase I footprinting assays demonstrated that OpaR bound to the upstream DNA regions of scrA, VP0117, VPA0198, VPA1176, and VP0699 to repress their transcription, whereas it positively and directly regulated the transcription of scrG and VP2979. Thus, transcriptional regulation of these genes by OpaR led directly to changes in the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. The direct association between QS and c-di-GMP metabolism in V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 would be conducive to precise control of gene transcription and bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation.

18.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 87, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158496

RESUMO

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by Clostridium botulinum, is generally known to be the most poisonous of all biological toxins. In this study, we evaluate the protection conferred by intratracheal (i.t.) inoculation immunization with recombinant Hc subunit (AHc) vaccines against aerosolized BoNT/A intoxication. Three AHc vaccine formulations, i.e., conventional liquid, dry powder produced by spray freeze drying, and AHc dry powder reconstituted in water are prepared, and mice are immunized via i.t. inoculation or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Compared with s.c.-AHc-immunized mice, i.t.-AHc-immunized mice exhibit a slightly stronger protection against a challenge with 30,000× LD50 aerosolized BoNT/A. Of note, only i.t.-AHc induces a significantly higher level of toxin-neutralizing mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) production in the bronchoalveolar lavage of mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the immune protection conferred by the three formulations of AHc is comparable, while i.t. immunization of AHc is superior to s.c. immunization against aerosolized BoNT/A intoxication.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(47): 5806-5809, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999984

RESUMO

We predicted the stable alkaline earth complexes M(Cp)3- (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; Cp = cyclopentadienyl), where the M centers were in their stable +2 oxidation state and mimicked the bonding behaviour of transition metals by participating in bonding with the π orbitals of Cp ligands using their d orbitals.

20.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(6): 662, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968192

RESUMO

Particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) has a complex composition and has been associated with the incidence of cardiopulmonary disease and premature death in humans. However, whether pure particulate fractions of PM2.5 (PPP2.5), which are composed primarily of carbon, are responsible for the toxicity caused by ambient particulate matter (original PM2.5 particles, OPP2.5) is currently unclear. The present study assessed the acute toxic effects of OPP2.5 sampled in Beijing, China and of its PPP2.5 fraction in male BALB/c mice. The mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose of aerosolized OPP2.5 or PPP2.5. Blood, lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected after 24 h for histopathology, flow cytometry and the measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and other biochemical factors. Both OPP2.5 and PPP2.5 caused acute toxicity, particularly inflammatory responses, including an increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an accumulation of numerous immune cells in the lungs. OPP2.5 induced a stronger inflammatory response than PPP2.5. The complex components adsorbed into the solid core granules of OPP2.5 and the granules themselves contributed to the toxic effects.

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