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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3482-3493, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212675

RESUMO

As the problem of global warming becomes increasingly serious, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction measures of constructed wetlands (CWs) have drawn significant attention. Ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis exhibits an excellent effect on wastewater purification as well as the potential to reduce GHG emissions. Therefore, to explore the impact of ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis on GHG emissions from intermittent aeration constructed wetlands, four kinds of different wetlands with different fillers were constructed. The four fillers were ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis filler+gravel (CW-Ⅰ), ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis filler+zeolite (CW-Ⅱ), zeolite (CW-Ⅲ), and gravel (CW-Ⅳ). Intermittent aeration technology was used to aerate the wetland systems. The results show that ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis significantly improved the nitrogen removal efficiency of the intermittent aeration constructed wetlands and reduced GHG emissions. Compared with CW-Ⅳ, the CH4 fluxes of CW-Ⅰ, CW-Ⅱ, and CW-Ⅲ decreased by 32.81% (P<0.05), 52.66% (P<0.05), and 54.50% (P<0.05), respectively. Among them, zeolite exhibited a stronger reduction effect on CH4 emissions in both the aeration and non-aeration sections. The ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis substantially reduced N2O emissions. In comparison with CW-Ⅳ, CW-, and CW-Ⅱ achieved N2O emission reduction by 30.29%-60.63% (P<0.05) and 43.10%-73.87% (P<0.05), respectively. During a typical hydraulic retention period, the comprehensive GWP caused by CH4 and N2O emitted by each group of wetland system are (85.21±6.48), (49.24±3.52), (127.97±11.44), and (137.13±11.45) g·m-2, respectively. The combined use of ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis and zeolite effectively reduces GHG emissions in constructed wetlands. Overall, ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis combined with zeolite (CW-Ⅱ) can be regarded as one of the valuable filler combination methods for constructed wetlands, which can ensure high removal efficiency of pollutants and effective GHG emission reduction in constructed wetlands.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Eletrólise , Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Áreas Alagadas
2.
Cell Metab ; 33(8): 1640-1654.e8, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107313

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by the excessive accumulation of the white adipose tissue (WAT), but healthy expansion of WAT via adipocyte hyperplasia can offset the negative metabolic effects of obesity. Thus, identification of novel adipogenesis regulators that promote hyperplasia may lead to effective therapies for obesity-induced metabolic disorders. Using transcriptomic approaches, we identified transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing 1 (TMBIM1) as an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Gain or loss of function of TMBIM1 in preadipocytes inhibited or promoted adipogenesis, respectively. In vivo, in response to caloric excess, adipocyte precursor (AP)-specific Tmbim1 knockout (KO) mice displayed WAT hyperplasia and improved systemic metabolic health, while overexpression of Tmbim1 in transgenic mice showed the opposite effects. Moreover, mature adipocyte-specific Tmbim1 KO did not affect WAT cellularity or nutrient homeostasis. Mechanistically, TMBIM1 binds to and promotes the autoubiquitination and degradation of NEDD4, which is an E3 ligase that stabilizes PPARγ. Our data show that TMBIM1 is a potent repressor of adipogenesis and a potential therapeutic target for obesity-related metabolic disease.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1559-1568, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742953

RESUMO

Investigate the effects of plastic film mulching on CH4 and N2O emissions from a vegetable field, a one-year in situ field observation was conducted using a static opaque chamber in a pepper-radish cropping system at the Key Field Station for Monitoring of Eco-Environment of Purple Soil of the Ministry of Agriculture of China at Southwest University, Chongqing. Two treatments (conventional and film mulching) were used to study the influence of film mulching on CH4 and N2O emissions. The results showed that mulching significantly increased the annual average soil pH (P<0.01), annual surface and subsurface (5 cm) temperature (P<0.05), and soil moisture content during the radish-growing season (P<0.05). The mulching also significantly reduced CH4 emissions in the field ridges (P<0.05); the average CH4 flux from ridges during the pepper-growing season was 0.110 mg·(m2·h)-1 and 0.028 mg·(m2·h)-1, and 0.011 mg·(m2·h)-1 and -0.019 mg·(m2·h)-1 during the radish-growing season, under the conventional and film mulching treatments, respectively. However, across the entire experiment, CH4 flux from field furrows was not significantly different between the two mulching treatments (P>0.05), with mean flux values during the pepper-growing season of 0.058 mg·(m2·h)-1 and 0.057 mg·(m2·h)-1, and 0.083 mg·(m2·h)-1 and 0.092 mg·(m2·h)-1 during the radish-growing season, for conventional and plastic film mulching, respectively. Except for the conventional treatment during the pepper-growing season, CH4 emissions from ridges were significantly higher than from furrows, but for other treatments, including conventional and film mulching treatments during radish-growing season and film mulching treatment during the pepper-growing season, the CH4 emissions from furrows were all significantly higher than those from ridges. This was related to the stable anoxic environment created in furrows under high rainfall conditions in Southwest China. The N2O emission flux from the ridges during the pepper-growing season was 65.41 µg·(m2·h)-1 and 68.39 µg·(m2·h)-1 under the conventional and film mulching treatments, respectively, and the N2O emission flux during the radish-growing season was 78.43 µg·(m2·h)-1 and 66.19 µg·(m2·h)-1, respectively. The N2O flux between conventional treatment and film mulching treatment in ridges or furrows were not significantly different (P>0.05), while the N2O emissions from the ridges were significantly higher than that from the furrows. CH4 emission flux was significantly positively correlated with surface and subsurface temperature, while N2O emission flux was only significantly positively correlated with alkaline nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content.

4.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(8): 1410-1419, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278326

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of miR-135b in high glucose-induced oxidative stress of renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, in vivo experiments found that compared to the control group, miR-135b expression was significantly up-regulated in the diabetes group, whereas BMP7 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated. In high glucose-treated renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) in vitro, oxidative stress was induced, which up-regulated miR-135b expression. In addition, the regulation of miR-135b on BMP7 expression was confirmed in HK-2 cells. Under high glucose conditions, oxidative stress promoted the apoptosis of HK-2 cells through the up-regulation of miR-135b expression. In vivo experiments indicated that interference with miR-135b improved renal function in mice with diabetic nephropathy. In conclusion, these results indicated that the up-regulation of miR-135b expression induced by oxidative stress promotes the apoptosis of HK-2 cells under high glucose conditions.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 146, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an aquatic plant with important agronomic, horticulture, art and religion values. It was the basal eudicot species occupying a critical phylogenetic position in flowering plants. After the domestication for thousands of years, lotus has differentiated into three cultivated types -flower lotus, seed lotus and rhizome lotus. Although the phenotypic and genetic differentiations based on molecular markers have been reported, the variation on whole-genome level among the different lotus types is still ambiguous. RESULTS: In order to reveal the evolution and domestication characteristics of lotus, a total of 69 lotus accessions were selected, including 45 cultivated accessions, 22 wild sacred lotus accessions, and 2 wild American lotus accessions. With Illumina technology, the genomes of these lotus accessions were resequenced to > 13× raw data coverage. On the basis of these genomic data, 25 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in lotus. Population analysis showed that the rhizome and seed lotus were monophyletic and genetically homogeneous, whereas the flower lotus was biphyletic and genetically heterogeneous. Using population SNP data, we identified 1214 selected regions in seed lotus, 95 in rhizome lotus, and 37 in flower lotus. Some of the genes in these regions contributed to the essential domestication traits of lotus. The selected genes of seed lotus mainly affected lotus seed weight, size and nutritional quality. While the selected genes were responsible for insect resistance, antibacterial immunity and freezing and heat stress resistance in flower lotus, and improved the size of rhizome in rhizome lotus, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The genome differentiation and a set of domestication genes were identified from three types of cultivated lotus- flower lotus, seed lotus and rhizome lotus, respectively. Among cultivated lotus, flower lotus showed the greatest variation. The domestication genes may show agronomic importance via enhancing insect resistance, improving seed weight and size, or regulating lotus rhizome size. The domestication history of lotus enhances our knowledge of perennial aquatic crop evolution, and the obtained dataset provides a basis for future genomics-enabled breeding.


Assuntos
Nelumbo/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Nelumbo/anatomia & histologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(24): 2927-2933, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere has been shown to be related to insulin resistance-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This cross-sectional study investigated the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with NAFLD in T2DM patients. METHODS: Clinical features were collected and LTL was measured by Southern blot-based terminal restriction fragment length analysis in 120 T2DM patients without NAFLD and 120 age-matched T2DM patients with NAFLD. NAFLD was clinically defined by manifestations of ultrasonography. The correlation between LTL and clinical and biochemical parameters were analyzed by Pearson correlation or Spearman correlation analysis. Factors for NAFLD in T2DM patients were identified using multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: LTL in T2DM patients with NAFLD were significantly longer than those without NAFLD (6400.2 ±â€Š71.8 base pairs [bp] vs. 6023.7 ±â€Š49.5 bp, P < 0.001), especially when diabetes duration was less than 2 years. Meanwhile, the trend of shorter LTL was associated with the increased diabetes duration in T2DM patient with NAFLD, but not in T2DM patients without NAFLD. Finally, LTL (odds ratio [OR]: 1.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.000-1.002, P = 0.001), as well as body mass index (OR: 1.314, 95% CI: 1.169-1.477, P < 0.001) and triglycerides (OR: 1.984, 95% CI: 1.432-2.747, P < 0.001), had a significant association with NAFLD status in T2DM patients. CONCLUSIONS: T2DM patients with NAFLD had a significantly longer LTL than those without NAFLD. The longer LTL was especially evident in the early stage of T2DM, indicating that longer LTL may be used as a biomarker for NAFLD in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Telômero , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804746

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate whether cervical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) could prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and retinal dysfunction after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods: First, rats were randomly divided into sham group (n = 4) and VNS group (n = 12). Activation of the nodose ganglia (NOG), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), superior salivatory nucleus (SSN), and pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) neural circuit were evaluated by c-fos expression at 0 h after sham VNS and at 0 h (n = 4), 6 h (n = 4), 72 h (n = 4) after VNS. Secondly, rats were randomly assigned to I/R group (pressure-induced retinal ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 1 h in the right eye, n = 16) and I/R+VNS group (right cervical VNS for 2 h during the I/R period, n = 16). The left eye of each rat served as a control. Electroretinogram (ERG), RGC numbers, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) levels in retina were determined. Additionally, the level of VIP in PPG was evaluated. Results: In the first part of the study, compared with the sham group, the VNS group exhibited significantly increased expression of c-fos in NOG, NTS, SSN, and PPG tissues at 0, 6, and 72 h. In the second part of the study, compared with left eyes, retinal function in right eyes (as assessed by the a-wave, b-wave and the oscillatory potential amplitudes of ERG and RGC data) was significantly decreased by I/R. The decreased retinal function was attenuated by VNS. In addition, I/R induced an increase in inflammation, which was reflected by elevated TNF-α expression in the retina. VNS significantly attenuated the increase in I/R-induced inflammation. Moreover, VIP expression in the retina and PPG, which may contribute to the inhibition of the inflammatory response, was significantly increased after VNS. Conclusion: VNS could protect against retinal I/R injury by downregulating TNF-α. Upregulation of VIP expression due to activation of the NOG-NTS-SSN-PPG neural circuit may underlie to the protective effects of VNS.

8.
Neurosci Lett ; 692: 16-22, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366013

RESUMO

cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine monophosphate), one of the most highly studied second messengers, is regulated by a family of adenylyl cyclase (AC) enzymes. Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (abbreviated as AC3), a subtype of adenylyl cyclase, is reported to be expressed in cilia in the olfactory and central nervous system and plays an important role in many physiological functions such as olfaction, development. However, expression of AC3 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is not reported. In the present study, using immunohistochemical method, we discovered that AC3 immunoreactivity (IR) is predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm of small to medium sized DRG neurons. Double labelling revealed that the majority of AC3 IR are colocalized with CGRP (a peptidergic nociceptor marker), rarely with NF200 (a myelinated neuronal marker) or IB4 (a nonpeptidergic nociceptor marker). Furthermore, dense AC3 IR exists in the superficial dorsal horn, especially in laminaⅠand dorsal part of lamina II, where CGRP-positive DRG neurons terminate. The expression pattern of AC3 is similar between C57/BL6 J mouse and Sprague Dawley rat. For instance, AC3 is primarily expressed in the cell bodies of small to medium sized DRG neurons and the majority of AC3 IR is also in CGRP-containing neurons in rat. Taken together, our data suggest that AC3 is primarily expressed in the small to medium sized cell bodies and central terminals of CGRP-positive DRG neurons, implying AC3 enzyme might potentially function in nociception.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/análise , Gânglios Espinais/enzimologia , Neurônios Aferentes/enzimologia , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/enzimologia , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 51, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311654

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that T cells and glia participate in the process of neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the involvement of T cells or the interaction between glia and T cells at the molecular level. Here we investigated the phenotype of T cell infiltration into the spinal cord in inflammatory pain and explored potential crosstalk between glia and T cells. The establishment of monoarthritis produced T cell infiltration and astrocyte activation, exhibiting similar kinetics in the spinal cord. T-cell-deficient (Rag1-/-) mice significantly attenuated MA-induced mechanical allodynia and GFAP upregulation. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that CD3 mainly colocalized with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Western blot and flow cytometry showed that multiple intrathecal administrations of astrocytic inhibitor fluorocitrate decreased IFN-γ-production without decreasing T cell number in the spinal cord. Spinal IFN-γ blockade reduced MA-induced mechanical allodynia and astroglial activation. In contrast, treatment with rIFN-γ directly elicited persistent mechanical allodynia and upregulation of GFAP and pJNK1/2 in naïve rats. Furthermore, rIFN-γ upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in cultured astrocytes vitro and spinal dorsal horn vivo. The results suggest that Th1 cells and astrocytes maintain inflammatory pain and imply that there may be a positive feedback loop between these cells via IFN-γ.


Assuntos
Artrite/complicações , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Medula Espinal/imunologia , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(1)2017 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295561

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) can relieve various pains. However, its mechanism in terms of the transcriptome is still not well-known. To explore the full profile of EA-induced molecular modification in the central nerve system, three twins of goats were selected for a match-paired experiment: EA stimulation (60 Hz, 30 min) and none-EA (control). Goats in the EA group showed an increased (p < 0.05) nociceptive threshold compared with the control goats. Experimental goats were sacrificed at 4 h of the experiment, and the periaqueductal grays were harvested for RNA sequencing. As a result, 2651 differentially expressed genes (1803 up-regulated and 848 down-regulated genes) were found and enriched in 30 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways and 149 gene ontology terms. EA-regulated five neuropeptide genes (proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, preprodynorphin, diazepam-binding inhibitor and proprotein convertase 1 inhibitor) were validated with quantitative PCR. Furthermore, up-regulated glutamate receptors, glutamate transporters, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, GABA transporters, synaptotagmins or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes might contribute to EA-induced analgesia through regulating the glutamatergic synapse, GABAergic synapse, MAPKs, ribosome or ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Our findings reveal a full profile of molecular modification in response to EA and provide a solid experimental framework for exploring the mechanisms underlying EA-induced analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Eletroacupuntura , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genoma , Cabras , Nociceptividade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358970

RESUMO

The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially p38MAPK, play a pivotal role in chronic pain. Electroacupuncture (EA) relieves inflammatory pain underlying the descending pathway, that is, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH). However, whether EA antagonizes inflammatory pain through regulation of p38MAPK in this descending facilitatory pathway is unclear. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected into the hind paw of rats to establish inflammatory pain model. EA was administrated for 30 min at Zusanli and Kunlun acupoints at 0.5, 24.5, 48.5, and 72.5 h, respectively. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), paw edema, and Phosphor-p38MAPK-Immunoreactivity (p-p38MAPK-IR) cells were measured before (0 h) and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 25, and 73 h after CFA or saline injection. EA increased PWT at 1, 3, 25, and 73 h and inhibited paw edema at 25 and 73 h after CFA injection. Moreover, the increasing number of p-p38MAPK-IR cells which was induced by CFA was suppressed by EA stimulation in PAG and RVM at 3 and 5 h and in SCDH at 5, 7, 25, and 73 h. These results suggest that EA suppresses inflammation-induced hyperalgesia probably through inhibiting p38MAPK activation in the descending facilitatory pathway.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27429635

RESUMO

To investigate analgesic neural circuits activated by electroacupuncture (EA) at different sets of acupoints in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints or set of Housanli acupoints for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos were determined with Streptavidin-Biotin Complex immunohistochemistry. The results showed pain threshold induced by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints was 44.74% ± 4.56% higher than that by EA at set of Housanli acupoints (32.64% ± 5.04%). Compared with blank control, EA at two sets of acupoints increased c-Fos expression in the medial septal nucleus (MSN), the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the nucleus amygdala basalis (AB), the lateral habenula nucleus (HL), the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG), the locus coeruleus (LC), the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the pituitary gland, and spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH). Compared with EA at set of Housanli points, EA at set of Baihui-Santai points induced increased c-Fos expression in AB but decrease in MSN, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, HL, and SDH. It suggests that ARC-PAG-NRM/LC-SDH and the hypothalamus-pituitary may be the common activated neural pathways taking part in EA-induced analgesia at the two sets of acupoints.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26491460

RESUMO

To investigate patterns of c-Fos and c-Jun expression induced by different frequencies of electroacupuncture (EA) in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA of 0, 2, 60, or 100 Hz at a set of "Baihui, Santai, Ergen, and Sanyangluo" points for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were determined with Streptavidin-Biotin Complex immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the pain threshold induced by 60 Hz was 82.2% higher (P < 0.01) than that by 0, 2, or 100 Hz (6.5%, 35.2%, or 40.9%). EA induced increased c-Fos and c-Jun expression in most analgesia-related nuclei and areas in the brain. Sixty Hz EA increased more c-Fos or c-Jun expression than 2 Hz or 100 Hz EA in all the measured nuclei and areas except for the nucleus accumbens, the area septalis lateralis, the caudate nucleus, the nucleus amygdala basalis, and the locus coeruleus, in which c-Fos or c-Jun expressions induced by 60 Hz EA did not differ from those by 2 Hz or 100 Hz EA. It was suggested that 60 Hz EA activated more extensive neural circuits in goats, which may contribute to optimal analgesic effects.

14.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci ; 35(5): 623-628, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489612

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of tacrolimus (TAC) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) in the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) were compared in Chinese adult patients using a meta- analysis of the available literatures. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of the treatment of primary IMN with TAC or CTX combined with corticosteroids in the English databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane, as well as Chinese databases, were searched. Qualified studies were subjected to quality assessment and meta-analysis. A total of 8 RCTs, including 359 Chinese patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The complete remission rate and overall remission rate in the TAC treatment group after 6 months of treatment were higher than those in the CTX treatment group. No significant difference in remission rate was found after 12 months of treatment. There was no significant difference in the adverse reaction between the two groups at the 6th or 12th months. TAC-based treatment was associated with a faster response than CTX at the 6th month, but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 12th month in Chinese adults. Further study is needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Membrana Basal Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Basal Glomerular/imunologia , Membrana Basal Glomerular/patologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/etnologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23762113

RESUMO

In order to investigate the dynamic processes of mRNA levels of proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, prodynorphin, and opioid receptors (δ-, µ-, and κ-receptor) induced by electroacupuncture (EA) in the central nerve system, goats were stimulated by EA of 60 Hz for 0.5 h at a set of Baihui, Santai, Ergen, and Sanyangluo points. The pain threshold was measured using the method of potassium iontophoresis. The mRNA levels of the three opioid peptide precursors and three opioid receptors were determined with quantitative real-time PCR and the levels of Met-enkephalin with SABC immunohistochemistry at 0.5 h before and at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h after EA. The results showed that the pain threshold correlated (P < 0.01) with Met-enkephalin immunoactivities in the measured nuclei and areas of goats. The analgesic aftereffect lasted for 12 h at least. The mRNA levels of the three opioid peptide precursors and three opioid receptors began to increase at 0 h, reached the peak during the time from 4 h to 6 h or at 12 h, and remained higher at 24 h after EA was discontinued. These results suggested that the initiation of gene expression of opioid peptides and the three receptors may be associated with EA-induced analgesic aftereffect.

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