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1.
Bioanalysis ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427483

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally since its first report and become a worldwide pandemic. In response to the outbreak of COVID-19, Center for Medical Device Evaluation, NMPA (CMDE) initiated emergency review and approval procedures to accelerate the process of reviewing emergent medical products and issued the Key Points of Technical Review for the Registration of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen/Antibody Tests (Key Points) to provide the requirements on the technical review of the tests. With uncontrolled spread and evolution of COVID-19 in the world, continuous prevention and measurements are necessary for fighting this pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 antigen/antibody tests are still urgently needed. This article is an attempt to expand clarification of the Key Points to wider audiences based on current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 antigen/antibody tests.

3.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129580, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460904

RESUMO

In this paper, two level III fugacity models are developed and applied using an environmental system containing six compartments, including air, aerosols, soil, water, suspended particulate matters (SPMs), and sediments, as a "unit world". The first model, assumes equilibrium between air and aerosols and between water and SPMs. These assumptions lead to a four-fugacity model. The second model removes these two assumptions leading to a six-fugacity model. The two models, compared using four PBDE congeners, BDE-28, -99, -153, and -209, with a steady flux of gaseous congeners entering the air, lead to the following conclusions. 1. When the octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) is less than 1011.4, the two models produce similar results; when KOA > 1011.4, and especially when KOA > 1012.5, the model results diverge significantly. 2. Chemicals are in an imposed equilibrium in the four-fugacity model, but in a steady state and not necessary an equilibrium in the six-fugacity model, between air and aerosols. 3. The results from the six-fugacity model indicate an internally consistent system with chemicals in steady state in all six compartments, whereas the four-fugacity model presents an internally inconsistent system where chemicals are in equilibrium but not a steady state between air and aerosols. 4. Chemicals are mass balanced in air and aerosols predicted by the six-fugacity model but not by the four-fugacity model. If the mass balance in air and aerosols is achieved in the four-fugacity model, the condition of equilibrium between air and aerosols will be no longer valid.

4.
Org Lett ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439025

RESUMO

Catalyzed by silver salt, the unactivated C(sp3)-H heteroarylation of free alcohol at the δ position is realized under gentle thermal conditions in water through a radical procedure. Both protonic acids and Lewis acids are found to be efficient for activating pyridines for this Minisci-type reaction. The reaction enjoys a good functional group tolerance and substrate scope. Terminal secondary and tertiary alcohols are suitable substrates. With either electron-donating or -withdrawing groups, the electron-deficient heteroarene substrates generate the target products in moderate to good yields. A gram-scale experiment can be successfully operated. A radical blocking experiment and a radical clock experiment are studied to support the radical mechanism.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 322: 124539, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340951

RESUMO

Developing a cost-effective and high-efficiency biochar is critical in various environmental applications. Lignin-based materials are natural and abundant adsorbents to heavy metals benefited from their special polyphenol structure and physicochemical properties. In this study, adsorption capacities to Pb(II) by alkali lignin (AL) and its biochar derivative (ALB) were comparatively discussed, and the latter exhibited superior adsorption performance, with a maximum adsorption capacity almost twice that of the former, and a much faster absorption rate. The qm value of ALB was significantly superior to that of other reported biochar materials. Pb(II) was mainly adsorbed into ALB in three forms: mineral precipitation, ion exchange, and surface complexation, with complexation and mineral precipitation being the dominant mechanisms of adsorption. This study demonstrates that alkali-lignin derived biochar is a promising material for the remediation of polluted by Pb(II).


Assuntos
Chumbo , Lignina , Adsorção , Álcalis , Carvão Vegetal
6.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(1): E37-E47, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991511

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective data analysis was performed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the significant prognostic factors and propose new nomograms to facilitate clinical decision-making. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chordoma is a rare bone tumor. The clinical features and optimal therapeutic strategies are still uncertain. METHODS: Chordoma patients treated in four medical centers of mainland China before January 2015 were included. The predictors for local relapse-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) were identified by the Lasso regression and Cox proportional hazards regression model. Then the nomograms were developed. Their discrimination, calibration, and accuracy were evaluated by the C-index, calibration curve, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), respectively. RESULTS: A total of 341 patients were identified and full prognostic variable data were available for 276 patients. A total of 179 patients (64.9%) experienced recurrence and 122 patients (44.2%) died of all causes with a median follow-up time of 57.5 (range, 1-325) months. We identified recurrence-relevant factors of tumor size, tumor location, histology subtype and resection method, and death-relevant factors of tumor size, tumor location, resection method, complication, and postoperative recurrence. The constructed LRFS and OS nomograms showed good calibration and discriminative ability (C index 0.79 and 0.76, respectively). The ROCs suggested decent prediction ability with the 5-year area under curve (AUC) value of 0.868 and 0.786, respectively. CONCLUSION: Based on the multicenter case series of chordoma with a relative long follow-up, we proposed two nomograms to predict the prognosis on the basis of recurrence- and death-relevant factors. These findings could be referenced in the clinical decision-making process and provide additional prognostic information for risk stratification. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111107, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341059

RESUMO

The immune system plays a pivotal role in defending against infection and cancer immunosurveillance during the onset and procession of malignant disease. Cancer patients are frequently immunocompromised and subject to refractory infection and relapse of leukemia, due to the cytotoxic agents and immunosuppressive glucocorticoids in the chemotherapy regimens. Bu Shen Hui Yang Fang (BSHY), a traditional Chinese compound, was widely used in China to enhance the immune system of leukemia patients combined with chemotherapy and effectively lowered their risk of infection, with specific mechanism unknown yet. Thus, we investigated the effects of BSHY on the immune system using immunosuppressive mouse models. By analyzing the immune system of immunosuppressed BALB/C mice induced by hydrocortisone, we found an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the spleens of mice after BSHY treatment. Furthermore, we found the enhanced immune system in BSHY treated group was due to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of lymphocytes. Cytokine array analysis revealed that interleukin 4 (IL-4) was reduced in the plasma of immunosuppressed mice but returned to a normal level after BSHY treatment. Moreover, we found IL-4 was an adverse prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia patients and part of them could be elevated by BSHY. Mechanistically, we found BSHY enhances the proliferation of lymphocytes in a Stat6-dependent manner. In summary, our current study demonstrates that BSHY enhances the proliferation of lymphocytes in the immunosuppressed mice via upregulating IL-4 signaling.

8.
Heart Fail Clin ; 17(1): 9-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220890

RESUMO

Classification of heart failure is based on the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF): preserved EF, midrange EF, and reduced EF. There remains an unmet need for further heart failure phenotyping of ventricular structure-function relationships. Because of high spatiotemporal resolution, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) remains the reference modality for quantification of ventricular contractile function. The authors aim to highlight novel frameworks, including theranostic use of ferumoxytol, to enable more efficient evaluation of ventricular function in heart failure patients who are also frequently anemic, and to discuss emerging quantitative CMR approaches for evaluation of ventricular structure-function relationships in heart failure.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273949

RESUMO

Dosage is essential for studying the compatibility and effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine. Danggui and Chuanxiong are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for ailments and treatment of various disorders. 628 traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions containing Danggui and Chuanxiong were extracted from the self-built prescription database and screened for the three groups of prescriptions, i.e., irregular menstruation, sores, and stroke. We processed and tested the dosage of Danggui and Chuanxiong and selected the optimal copula function, Gumbel copula function, from the Archimedes function family and elliptical copula function family to establish the data model. To establish the presence of a correlation between the dose of Danggui and Chuanxiong, a graph of the joint distribution function of rank correlation coefficients, Kendall's rank correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, was used. Our results suggest that the model using the Gumbel copula function better reflects the correlation between the dose of Danggui and Chuanxiong. For irregular menstruation, sores, and strokes, Kendall's rank correlation coefficients were 0.6724, 0.5930, and 0.7757, respectively, and Spearman's correlation coefficients were 0.8536, 0.7812, and 0.9285, respectively. In all three prescription groups, the dose of Danggui and Chuanxiong was positively correlated, implying that, as the dosage of one drug increases, the dosage of the other increases as well. From the perspective of data mining and mathematical statistics, the use of the copula function model to evaluate the correlation between the prescribed dosage of the two drugs was innovative and provided a new model for the scientific interpretation of the compatibility of traditional drugs. This might also serve to guide the clinical use of traditional Chinese medicine.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 591619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281789

RESUMO

Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes rice stripe disease, which is one of the most serious rice diseases in eastern Asian countries. It has been shown that overexpression of RSV coat protein (CP) in rice plants enhances resistance against virus infection. However, the detailed mechanism underlying RSV CP-mediated virus resistance remains to be determined. In this study, we show that both translatable and non-translatable RSV CP transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited immunity to virus infection. By using deep sequencing analysis, transgene-derived small interfering RNAs (t-siRNAs) from non-translatable CP transgenic plants and virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) mapping in the CP region from RSV-infected wild-type plants showed similar sequence distribution patterns, except for a significant increase in the abundance of t-siRNA reads compared with that of CP-derived vsiRNAs. To further test the correlation of t-siRNAs with RSV immunity, we developed RSV CP transgenic Arabidopsis plants in an siRNA-deficient dcl2/3/4 mutant background, and these CP transgenic plants showed the same sensitivity to RSV infection as non-transgenic plants. Together, our data indicate that the expression of RSV CP protein from a transgene is not a prerequisite for virus resistance and RSV CP-mediated resistance is mostly associated with the RNA silencing mechanism in Arabidopsis plants.

11.
Bioanalysis ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326307

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing an important supplement to nucleic acid testing. In the process of emergency approval, the Center for Medical Device Evaluation of the China National Medical Products Administration released The Key Points of Technical Review for the Registration of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen/Antibody Detection Reagents. The Clinical Study Requirement section of the Key Point has put forward requirements in terms of reference methods and subject enrolment among others, which can ensure that the test results can meet the clinical needs. This article draws on the experience of the China NMPA in evaluating diagnostic reagents used to supplement the gold standard test method in the early stage of an epidemic of an infectious disease, as well as to serve as reference for clinicians and regulators.

13.
NMR Biomed ; : e4458, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300182

RESUMO

Sampling k-space asymmetrically (ie, partial Fourier sampling) in the readout direction is a common way to reduce the echo time (TE) during magnetic resonance image acquisitions. This technique requires overlap around the center of k-space to provide a calibration region for reconstruction, which limits the minimum fractional echo to ~60% before artifacts are observed. The present study describes a method for reconstructing images from exact half echoes using two separate acquisitions with reversed readout polarity, effectively providing a full line of k-space without additional data around central k-space. This approach can benefit sequences or applications that prioritize short TE, short inter-echo spacing or short repetition time. An example of the latter is demonstrated to reduce banding artifacts in balanced steady-state free precession.

14.
Science ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273064

RESUMO

Quantum computers promises to perform certain tasks that are believed to be intractable to classical computers. Boson sampling is such a task and is considered as a strong candidate to demonstrate the quantum computational advantage. We perform Gaussian boson sampling by sending 50 indistinguishable single-mode squeezed states into a 100-mode ultralow-loss interferometer with full connectivity and random matrix-the whole optical setup is phase-locked-and sampling the output using 100 high-efficiency single-photon detectors. The obtained samples are validated against plausible hypotheses exploiting thermal states, distinguishable photons, and uniform distribution. The photonic quantum computer generates up to 76 output photon clicks, which yields an output state-space dimension of 1030 and a sampling rate that is ~1014 faster than using the state-of-the-art simulation strategy and supercomputers.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143668, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261882

RESUMO

Agricultural water use is increasing quickly with the rapid socioeconomic development observed in the Wuyuer River basin. Water withdrawal for agriculture over the past decade have seriously depleted the ecological water requirements in the basin and damaged the channel and downstream wetland ecosystems. Achieving sustainable development in the basin will require a balance between agricultural water exploitation and ecological water demands. In this paper, a reservoir and diversion engineering module was integrated with a dualistic distributed hydrological model (WEP model) to investigate the effects of agricultural water use on river discharge. Agricultural water shortages and yearly minimum river discharges between 2020 and 2050 under six agricultural water exploitation scenarios and one natural scenario were estimated based on the proposed model. The results showed that the dualistic hydrological process model was more suitable for basins with agricultural water resource exploitation and that the river discharge was significantly less than the natural discharge due to irrigation and reservoir filling, especially in drought years. Under the scenarios of high, middle and low water resource exploitation without ecological operations, agricultural development was unsustainable because of agricultural water shortages and ecological water scarcity. The evaluation of the guaranteed rates for the agricultural water supply and environmental flows showed that the low water resource exploitation scenario with ecological operations was the best option and that sustainable development could be achieved in the basin under this exploitation scenario in the future. However, implementing water management practices in the basin could result in certain economic losses. These losses could be offset by ecological protection funds for downstream wetlands. Overall, the model results could help to inform planning and investment decisions within the basin to improve the sustainable management of water resources.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261147

RESUMO

Fibrillar aggregates and soluble oligomers of both Amyloid-ß peptides (Aßs) and hyperphosphorylated Tau proteins (p-Tau-es), as well as a chronic neuroinflammation are the main drivers causing progressive neuronal losses and dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still much disputed. Several endogenous neurotoxic ligands, including Aßs, and/or p-Tau-es activate innate immunity-related danger-sensing/pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) thereby advancing AD's neuroinflammation and progression. The major PRR families involved include scavenger, Toll-like, NOD-like, AIM2-like, RIG-like, and CLEC-2 receptors, plus the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This quite intricate picture stresses the need to identify the pathogenetically topmost Aß-activated PRR, whose signaling would trigger AD's three main drivers and their intra-brain spread. In theory, the candidate might belong to any PRR family. However, results of preclinical studies using in vitro nontumorigenic human cortical neurons and astrocytes and in vivo AD-model animals have started converging on the CaSR as the pathogenetically upmost PRR candidate. In fact, the CaSR binds both Ca2+ and Aßs and promotes the spread of both Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and AD's three main drivers, causing a progressive neurons' death. Since CaSR's negative allosteric modulators block all these effects, CaSR's candidacy for topmost pathogenetic PRR has assumed a growing therapeutic potential worth clinical testing.

17.
Med Phys ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280128

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate two distortion correction techniques for diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging (DW-ssEPI) on a 0.35T MR-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) system. METHODS: The effects of sequence optimization through enabling parallel imaging (PI) and selecting appropriate bandwidth on spatial distortion were first evaluated on the 0.35T MRgRT system using a spatial integrity phantom. Field map (FM) and reversed gradient (RG) corrections were then performed on the optimized protocol to further reduce distortion. An open-source toolbox was used to quantify the spatial displacement before and after distortion correction. To evaluate ADC accuracy and repeatability of the optimized protocol, as well as impacts of distortion correction on ADC values, the optimized protocol was scanned twice on a diffusion phantom. The calculated ADC values were compared with reference ADCs using paired t-test. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the two repetitions, as well as between before and after FM/RG correction were calculated to evaluate ADC repeatability and effects of distortion correction. Six patients were recruited to assess the in-vivo performance. The optimal distortion correction technique was identified by visual assessment. To quantify distortion reduction, tumor and critical structures were contoured on the turbo spin echo (TSE) image (reference image), the DW-ssEPI image, and the distortion corrected images independently by two radiation oncologists. Mean distance to agreement (MDA) and DICE coefficient between contours on the reference images and the diffusion images were calculated. Tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the original DW-ssEPI images and the distortion corrected images were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: Sequence optimization played a vital role in improving the spatial integrity, and spatial distortion was proportional to the total readout time. Before the correction, distortion of the optimized protocol (PI and high bandwidth) was 1.50±0.89 mm in a 100 mm radius and 2.21±1.39 mm in a 175 mm radius for the central plane. FM corrections reduced the distortions to 0.42±0.27 mm and 0.67±0.49 mm respectively, and RG reduced distortion to 0.40±0.22 mm and 0.64±0.47 mm respectively. The optimized protocol provided accurate and repeatable ADC quantification on the diffusion phantom. The calculated ADC values were consistent before and after FM/RG correction. For the patient study, the FM correction was unable to reduce chemical shift artifacts whereas the RG method successfully mitigated the chemical shift. MDA reduced from 2.52±1.29 mm to 1.11±0.72 mm after the RG correction. The DICE coefficient increased from 0.80±0.13 to 0.91±0.06. A Bland-Altman plot showed that there was a good agreement between ADC measurements before and after application of the RG correction. CONCLUSION: Two distortion correction techniques were evaluated on a commercial low-field MRgRT system. Overall, the RG correction was able to drastically improve spatial distortion and preserve ADC accuracy.

18.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382176

RESUMO

Fractional myocardial blood volume (fMBV) estimated using ferumoxytol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (FE-MRI) has the potential to capture a hemodynamic response to myocardial hypoperfusion during contrast steady state without reliance on gadolinium chelates. Ferumoxytol has a long intravascular half-life and its use for steady-state MRI is off-label. The aim of this prospective study was to optimize and evaluate a two-compartment model for estimation of fMBV based on FE-MRI. Nine healthy swine and one swine with artificially induced single-vessel coronary stenosis underwent MRI on a 3.0 T clinical magnet. Myocardial longitudinal spin-lattice relaxation rate (R1) was measured using the 5(3)3 modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence before and at contrast steady state following seven ferumoxytol infusions (0.125-4.0 mg/kg). fMBV and water exchange were estimated using a two-compartment model. Model-fitted fMBV was compared to simple fast-exchange fMBV approximation and percent change in pre- and postferumoxytol R1. Dose undersampling schemes were investigated to reduce acquisition duration. Variation in fMBV was assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Fast-exchange fMBV and ferumoxytol dose undersampling were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. Healthy normal swine showed a mean mid-ventricular fMBV of 7.2 ± 1.4% and water exchange rate of 11.3 ± 5.1 s-1 . There was intersubject variation in fMBV (p < 0.05) without segmental variation (p = 0.387). fMBV derived from eight-dose and four-dose sampling schemes had no significant bias (mean difference = 0.07, p = 0.541, limits of agreement -1.04% [-1.45, -0.62%] to 1.18% [0.77, 1.59%]). Pixel-wise fMBV in one swine model with coronary artery stenosis showed elevated fMBV in ischemic segments (apical anterior: 11.90 ± 4.00%, apical septum: 16.10 ± 5.71%) relative to remote segments (apical inferior: 9.59 ± 3.35%, apical lateral: 9.38 ± 2.35%). A two-compartment model based on FE-MRI using the MOLLI sequence may enable estimation of fMBV in studies of ischemic heart disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2. TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.

19.
NMR Biomed ; : e4433, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258197

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a deep neural network for respiratory motion compensation in free-breathing cine MRI and evaluate its performance. An adversarial autoencoder network was trained using unpaired training data from healthy volunteers and patients who underwent clinically indicated cardiac MRI examinations. A U-net structure was used for the encoder and decoder parts of the network and the code space was regularized by an adversarial objective. The autoencoder learns the identity map for the free-breathing motion-corrupted images and preserves the structural content of the images, while the discriminator, which interacts with the output of the encoder, forces the encoder to remove motion artifacts. The network was first evaluated based on data that were artificially corrupted with simulated rigid motion with regard to motion-correction accuracy and the presence of any artificially created structures. Subsequently, to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in vivo, our network was trained on respiratory motion-corrupted images in an unpaired manner and was tested on volunteer and patient data. In the simulation study, mean structural similarity index scores for the synthesized motion-corrupted images and motion-corrected images were 0.76 and 0.93 (out of 1), respectively. The proposed method increased the Tenengrad focus measure of the motion-corrupted images by 12% in the simulation study and by 7% in the in vivo study. The average overall subjective image quality scores for the motion-corrupted images, motion-corrected images and breath-held images were 2.5, 3.5 and 4.1 (out of 5.0), respectively. Nonparametric-paired comparisons showed that there was significant difference between the image quality scores of the motion-corrupted and breath-held images (P < .05); however, after correction there was no significant difference between the image quality scores of the motion-corrected and breath-held images. This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of an adversarial autoencoder network for correcting respiratory motion-related image artifacts without requiring paired data.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5679, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173047

RESUMO

The remarkable advances in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled the wide usage of sequencing as a clinical tool. To promote the advance of precision oncology for breast cancer in China, here we report a large-scale prospective clinical sequencing program using the Fudan-BC panel, and comprehensively analyze the clinical and genomic characteristics of Chinese breast cancer. The mutational landscape of 1,134 breast cancers reveals that the most significant differences between Chinese and Western patients occurred in the hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer subtype. Mutations in p53 and Hippo signaling pathways are more prevalent, and 2 mutually exclusive and 9 co-occurring patterns exist among 9 oncogenic pathways in our cohort. Further preclinical investigation partially suggests that NF2 loss-of-function mutations can be sensitive to a Hippo-targeted strategy. We establish a public database (Fudan Portal) and a precision medicine knowledge base for data exchange and interpretation. Collectively, our study presents a leading approach to Chinese precision oncology treatment and reveals potentially actionable mutations in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , China , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neurofibromina 2/genética , Oncogenes , Medicina de Precisão , Estudos Prospectivos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
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