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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263512

RESUMO

A novel mesophilic, hydrogen- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain NW8NT, was collected from a sulfide chimney at the deep-sea hydrothermal vent on the Carlsberg Ridge of the Northwest Indian Ocean. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, motile, short rods with a single polar flagellum. The temperature, pH and salinity ranges for growth of strain NW8NT were 4-40 °C (optimum, 33 °C), pH 4.5-7.5 (optimum, pH 5.5) and 340-680 mM NaCl (optimum, 510 mM). The isolate was an obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of growth using hydrogen, thiosulfate, sulfide or elemental sulphur as the sole energy source, carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source and molecular oxygen as the sole electron acceptor. The major cellular fatty acids of strain NW8NT were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c). The total size of its genome was 2 093 492 bp and the genomic DNA G+C content was 36.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and core genes showed that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Sulfurimonas and was most closely related to Sulfurimonas paralvinellae GO25T (97.4 % sequence identity). The average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNAhybridization values between strain NW8NT and S. paralvinellae GO25T was 77.8 and 21.1 %, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic, genomic and phenotypic data presented here, strain NW8NT represents a novel species of the genus Sulfurimonas, for which the name Sulfurimonas indica sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain NW8NT (=MCCC 1A13988T=KTCC 15780T).

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2005625, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191506

RESUMO

Suspended single-hole transistors (SHTs) can also serve as nanoelectromechanical resonators, providing an ideal platform for investigating interactions between mechanical vibrations and charge carriers. Demonstrating such a device in silicon (Si) is of particular interest, due to the strong piezoresistive effect of Si and potential applications in Si-based quantum computation. Here, a suspended Si SHT also acting as a nanoelectromechanical beam resonator is demonstrated. The resonant frequency and zero-point motion of the device are ≈3 GHz and 0.2 pm, respectively, reaching the best level among similar devices demonstrated with Si-containing materials. The mechanical vibration is transduced to electrical readout by the SHT. The signal transduction mechanism is dominated by the piezoresistive effect. A giant apparent effective piezoresistive gauge factor with strong correlation to single-hole tunneling is extracted in this device. The results show the great potential of the device in interfacing charge carriers with mechanical vibrations, as well as investigating potential quantum behavior of the vibration phonon mode.

3.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974951

RESUMO

Sulfurimonas species (class Campylobacteria, phylum Campylobacterota) were globally distributed and especially predominant in deep-sea hydrothermal environments. They were previously identified as chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), whereas little is known about their potential in sulfur reduction. In this report, we found that the elemental sulfur reduction is quite common in different species of genus Sulfurimonas. To gain insights into the sulfur reduction mechanism, growth tests, morphology observation, as well as genomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed on a deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacterium Sulfurimonas sp. NW10. Scanning electron micrographs and dialysis tubing tests confirmed that elemental sulfur reduction occurred without direct contact of cells with sulfur particles while direct access strongly promoted bacterial growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that most species of Sulfurimonas probably employ both periplasmic and cytoplasmic polysulfide reductases, encoded by genes psrA1 B1 CDE and psrA2 B2 , respectively, to accomplish cyclooctasulfur reduction. This is the first report showing two different sulfur reduction pathways coupled to different energy conservations could coexist in one sulfur-reducing microorganism, and demonstrates that most bacteria of Sulfurimonas could employ both periplasmic and cytoplasmic polysulfide reductases to perform cyclooctasulfur reduction. The capability of sulfur reduction coupling with hydrogen oxidation may partially explain the prevalenceof Sulfurimonas in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(2): 1901001, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993278

RESUMO

Knowledge of interfacial interactions between analytes and functionalized sensor surfaces, from where the signal originates, is key to the development and application of electronic sensors. The present work explores the tunability of pH sensitivity by the synergy of surface charge and molecular dipole moment induced by interfacial proton interactions. This synergy is demonstrated on a silicon-nanoribbon field-effect transistor (SiNR-FET) by functionalizing the sensor surface with properly designed chromophore molecules. The chromophore molecules can interact with protons and lead to appreciable changes in interface dipole moment as well as in surface charge state. In addition, the dipole moment can be tuned not only by the substituent on the chromophore but also by the anion in the electrolyte interacting with the protonated chromophore. By designing surface molecules to enhance the surface dipole moment upon protonation, an above-Nernstian pH sensitivity is achieved on the SiNR-FET sensor. This finding may bring an innovative strategy for tailoring the sensitivity of the SiNR-FET-based pH sensor toward a wide range of applications.

5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 234-239, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613743

RESUMO

A new mesophilic bacterium, designated strain 13-15AT, was isolated from the deep-sea water from the Carlsberg Ridge, northwestern Indian Ocean. Cells were short rods and motile with a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed in the presence of 85-1700 mM NaCl (optimum 680 mM), at 10-45 °C (optimum, 28 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). The isolate was an obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of growth using thiosulfate, sulfide, elemental sulfur or tetrathionate as the sole energy source, carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source, and molecular oxygen as the sole electron acceptor. Molecular hydrogen did not support growth. The major fatty acids were C16 : 1 (45.0 %), C18 : 1 (22.5 %) and C16 : 0 (20.1 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41.6 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Thiomicrorhabdus and was most closely related to Thiomicrorhabdus hydrogeniphila MAS2T (94.8 % sequence similarity). On the basis of the taxonomic data obtained in this study, strain 13-15AT represents a novel species of the genus Thiomicrorhabdus, for which the name Thiomicrorhabdus indica sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 13-15AT (=MCCC 1A13986T=KCTC 15750T).


Assuntos
Fontes Hidrotermais/microbiologia , Filogenia , Piscirickettsiaceae/classificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Oceano Índico , Oxirredução , Piscirickettsiaceae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Enxofre , Tiossulfatos
6.
ACS Sens ; 4(2): 427-433, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632733

RESUMO

The sensitivity of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) based nanoscale sensors is ultimately limited by noise induced by carrier trapping/detrapping processes at the gate oxide/semiconductor interfaces. We have designed a Schottky junction gated silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-SJGFET) sensor, where the Schottky junction replaces the noisy oxide/semiconductor interface. Our sensor exhibits significantly reduced device noise, 2.1 × 10-9 V2 µm2/Hz at 1 Hz, compared to reference devices with the oxide/semiconductor interface operated at both inversion and depletion modes. Further improvement can be anticipated by wrapping the nanowire by such a Schottky junction, thereby eliminating all oxide/semiconductor interfaces. Hence, a combination of the low-noise SiNW-SJGFET device with a sensing surface of the Nernstian response limit holds promises for future high signal-to-noise ratio sensor applications.


Assuntos
Nanofios , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Silício/química , Transistores Eletrônicos , Desenho de Equipamento
7.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14503, 2017 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220847

RESUMO

The role of oxygen vacancies in carbon dioxide electroreduction remains somewhat unclear. Here we construct a model of oxygen vacancies confined in atomic layer, taking the synthetic oxygen-deficient cobalt oxide single-unit-cell layers as an example. Density functional theory calculations demonstrate the main defect is the oxygen(II) vacancy, while X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy reveals their distinct oxygen vacancy concentrations. Proton transfer is theoretically/experimentally demonstrated to be a rate-limiting step, while energy calculations unveil that the presence of oxygen(II) vacancies lower the rate-limiting activation barrier from 0.51 to 0.40 eV via stabilizing the formate anion radical intermediate, confirmed by the lowered onset potential from 0.81 to 0.78 V and decreased Tafel slope from 48 to 37 mV dec-1. Hence, vacancy-rich cobalt oxide single-unit-cell layers exhibit current densities of 2.7 mA cm-2 with ca. 85% formate selectivity during 40-h tests. This work establishes a clear atomic-level correlation between oxygen vacancies and carbon dioxide electroreduction.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(2): 698-702, 2016 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26783062

RESUMO

Electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons could contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming. However, conventional electrocatalysts usually suffer from low energetic efficiency and poor durability. Herein, atomic layers for transition-metal oxides are proposed to address these problems through offering an ultralarge fraction of active sites, high electronic conductivity, and superior structural stability. As a prototype, 1.72 and 3.51 nm thick Co3O4 layers were synthesized through a fast-heating strategy. The atomic thickness endowed Co3O4 with abundant active sites, ensuring a large CO2 adsorption amount. The increased and more dispersed charge density near Fermi level allowed for enhanced electronic conductivity. The 1.72 nm thick Co3O4 layers showed over 1.5 and 20 times higher electrocatalytic activity than 3.51 nm thick Co3O4 layers and bulk counterpart, respectively. Also, 1.72 nm thick Co3O4 layers showed formate Faradaic efficiency of over 60% in 20 h.

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