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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224033, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aims at examining the prevalence of awareness and current use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among middle and high school students from Zhejiang, China. Smoking-related factors associated with e-cigarettes use will also be explored. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on 2017 Zhejiang Youth Risk Behavior Survey. A total of 24,157 adolescents were recruited and relevant data of e-cigarettes and smoking-related factors were collected via a self-reported questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between e-cigarettes current use and the smoking-related factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. RESULTS: Overall, 70.61% of middle and high school students reported hearing of e-cigarettes, while only 2.15% reported using e-cigarettes in the past month. Among smoking-related factors, cigarette smoking (ever and current), use of other tobacco products, second hand smoke exposure and previous attempts to quit smoking were significantly associated with higher current e-cigarettes use in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: These results presented high awareness of e-cigarettes while relatively low use in Chinese adolescents. Smoking-related factors were significantly associated with increased e-cigarettes use.

2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 33(9): e23003, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541491

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify potential molecular targets for lung cancer intervention and diagnosis, we analyzed the differential miRNA expression of peripheral blood between lung cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Three pairs of cases' and controls' peripheral blood samples were evaluated for miRNA expression by microarray. 12 miRNAs were selected for RT-PCR validation and target genes prediction. In addition, 4 miRNAs were selected for future validation by RT-PCR in a large sample of 145 cases and 55 frequency-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: A total of 338 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened and identified by microarray. According to the fold changes, the top ten upregulated miRNAs were hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-379-5p, hsa-miR-3655, hsa-miR-450b-5p, hsa-miR-29a-5p, hsa-miR-200a-3p, hsa-miR-542-3p, hsa-miR-138-5p, hsa-miR-219a-2-3p, and hsa-miR-4701-3p, and the top ten downregulated miRNAs were hsa-miR-34c-5p, hsa-miR-135a-5p, hsa-miR-132-3p, hsa-miR-3178, hsa-miR-4449, hsa-miR-4999-3p, hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-4424, hsa-miR-1252-5p, and hsa-miR-24-2-5p. RT-PCR verification of the 12 miRNAs revealed that 5 of 8 upregulated miRNAs, 2 of 4 downregulated miRNAs showed a significant difference between the cases and controls (P < .05). A large number of target genes and their functional set showed overlapping among the 453 predicted target genes of the 12 miRNAs (P < .01). RT-PCR in the large sample confirmed the significant differential expression level of hsa-miR-29a-5p, hsa-miR-135a-5p, hsa-miR-542-3p, and hsa-miR-4491 between cases and controls (P < .05), and three of these microRNA, except hsa-miR-29a-5p, were significant after Bonferroni correction for adjustment of multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: There was a significant difference in miRNAs expression in the peripheral blood between lung cancer patients and healthy controls, and 4 miRNAs were validated by a large-size sample.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365039

RESUMO

Importance: Whether optimal cardiovascular health metrics may counteract the risk of cardiovascular events among patients with prediabetes or diabetes is unclear. Objective: To investigate the associations of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) with subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among participants with prediabetes or diabetes as compared with participants with normal glucose regulation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study was a nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study of 20 communities from various geographic regions in China. The study included 111 765 participants who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline. Data were analyzed between 2011 and 2016. Exposures: Prediabetes and diabetes were defined according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria. Seven ICVHMs were adapted from the American Heart Association recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The composite of incident fatal or nonfatal CVD, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalized or treated heart failure. Results: Of the 111 765 participants, 24 881 (22.3%) had normal glucose regulation, 61 024 (54.6%) had prediabetes, and 25 860 (23.1%) had diabetes. Mean (SD) age ranged from 52.9 (8.6) years to 59.4 (8.7) years. Compared with participants with normal glucose regulation, among participants with prediabetes, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for CVD was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.16-1.55) for participants who had 1 ICVHM or less and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.43-0.75) for participants who had at least 5 ICVHMs; among participants with diabetes, the hazard ratios for CVD were 2.05 (95% CI, 1.76-2.38) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.56-1.15) for participants who had 1 ICVHM or less and at least 5 ICVHMs, respectively. Such pattern of association between ICVHM and CVD was more prominent for participants younger than 55 years (prediabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.63; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.58, 95% CI, 1.13-2.21; diabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.44-2.26; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.71-3.54; compared with normal glucose regulation) than for participants 65 years or older (prediabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50-1.26; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.79-1.31; diabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.46-1.35; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.36-2.22, compared with normal glucose regulation; P values for interaction ≤.02). Additionally, the hazard ratio for CVD per additional ICVHM was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86) among participants with prediabetes and was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.89) among participants with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: Participants with prediabetes or diabetes who had 5 or more ICVHMs exhibited lower or no significant excess CVD risks compared with the participants with normal glucose regulation.

4.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2019: 1074286, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360693

RESUMO

Background: Few accurate up-to-date studies provide liver cancer mortality and survival information in Zhejiang province. This research aimed to depict the mortality and survival of liver cancer in Zhejiang province in China during 2005-2010. Methods: The data were collected from the Zhejiang Chronic Disease Surveillance Information and Management System, and the mortality rates of liver cancer were calculated by gender, age, and areas. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's world population were used for age-standardized mortality rate. The observed and relative survival rates of liver cancer patients were analyzed. Results: The crude mortality rate of liver cancer was 32.11/105. The age-standardized mortality rate was 17.39/105 and 23.07/105 by Chinese population (ASIRC) and Segi's world population (ASIRW), respectively. The crude liver cancer mortality rate and age-standardized rate in urban areas were lower than those of rural areas. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year observed survival (OS) rates of liver cancer patients were 38.61%, 21.65%, and 16.83%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival (RS) rates of liver cancer patients were 39.49%, 23.27%, and 19.09%, respectively. Survival rate decreased obviously within 1 to 5 years and then leveled off. It was shown that the male overall survival rate was higher than the female one and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: Both lower mortality and better survival rates were observed in urban areas, compared to rural areas. Relevant parties including government, public resource, and propaganda department should devote enough attention to rural areas.

5.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 19(1): 57, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although exercise seems to be beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, there is limited research elucidating the optimal accessible indices of adiposity and insulin resistance for identifying elderly T2DM patients with poor glycemic control, which could be improved by performing regular exercise. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with 918 Chinese elderly individuals with T2DM in Zhejiang. Relevant risk factors for poor glycemic control, as determined using glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) > 7%, were explored using logistic regression analyses and included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), the product of fasting triglycerides and glucose (TyG), visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), TyG-BMI, and TyG-WC. Comparisons of the risk factors' ability to discriminate poor glycemic control as well as their optimal cutoff values were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and then the extent of poor glycemic control risk reduction through regular exercise was examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The overall poor glycemic control rate was 49.3%. The factors associated with poor glycemic control included FBG > 3.869, TyG > 8.73, TyG-BMI > 222.45, and TyG-WC > 713.48 in logistic regression analyses. The optimal cutoff points of FBG, TyG, TyG-WC, and TyG-BMI in discriminating poor glycemic control were 7.38, 9.22, 813.33, and 227.77, and their corresponding areas under the ROC curves were 0.864(0.840-0.886), 0.684(0.653-0.714), 0.604(0.571-0.635), and 0.574(0.541-0.606), respectively. Occasional and regular exercise reduced the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of poor glycemic control to 0.187 (0.063-0.557) and 0.183 (0.059-0.571) for subjects with TyG-WC > 813.33 (p = 0.008), to 0.349 (0.156-0.782) and 0.284 (0.123-0.652) for subjects with TyG > 9.22 (p = 0.011), and to 0.390 (0.175-0.869) and 0.300(0.130-0.688) for subjects with TyG-BMI > 227.77 (p = 0.017), respectively, after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Among elderly individuals with T2DM, poor glycemic control risk might be identified using indices calculated from FBG, TG, BMI, and WC measurements, which are indicative of adiposity and insulin resistance. TyG-WC seems to be an accessible and useful indicator to identify which elderly T2DM patients would benefit from performing regular exercise to achieve good glycemic control.

6.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between birth weight and diabetes in a Chinese population, and the effects of body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors in later life on this association. METHODS: Data from 49 118 participants aged ≥40 years with recalled birth weight from the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study, a nationwide population-based cohort, were used. Diabetes diagnosis was based on oral glucose tolerance tests and HbA1c measurements. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of birth weight and risk of diabetes in later life. RESULTS: Increased risk of diabetes was associated with lower or higher birth weight. Compared with individuals with a birth weight of 2500 to 3499 g, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of diabetes for individuals with a birth weight of <2500, between 3500 and 3999, and ≥4000 g were 1.28 (1.11-1.47), 1.11 (1.04-1.19), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34), respectively. Significant associations were prominent in participants with a current BMI ≥24 kg/m2 , but not detected in those with a normal BMI (OR 1.20 [95% CI 0.96-1.49], 1.11 [95% CI 0.98-1.25], and 1.10 [95% CI 0.89-1.37], respectively). Moreover, there was no increased risk of diabetes in individuals with a low birth weight but with healthy dietary habits (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.68-1.29) or ideal physical activity (OR 1.41; 95% CI 0.97-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: A U-shaped association was observed between birth weight and the risk of diabetes. Healthy lifestyles (healthy dietary habits or ideal physical activity) may eliminate the negative effects of low birth weight in the development of diabetes, but not the effect of high birth weight.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1539-1548, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uncertainty remains regarding the predictive value of various glycemic measures as they relate to the risk of diabetes and its complications. Using the cutoffs recommended by the American Diabetes Association's 2010 criteria, we determined the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postload glucose (2h-PG), and HbA1c with the outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline medical history, FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c were obtained from a population-based cohort of 193,846 adults aged ≥40 years in China during 2011-2012. A follow-up visit was conducted during 2014-2016 in order to assess incident diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and mortality. RESULTS: We documented 8,063 cases of diabetes, 3,014 CVD-related events, 1,624 cases of cancer, and 2,409 deaths during up to 5 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CIs) of diabetes associated with prediabetes based on FPG of 100-125 mg/dL, 2h-PG of 140-199 mg/dL, or HbA1c of 5.7-6.4% (39-47 mmol/mol) were 1.60 (1.43-1.79), 2.72 (2.43-3.04), and 1.49 (1.36-1.62), respectively. Restricted cubic spline analyses suggested J-shaped associations of FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c levels with CVD, cancer, and mortality. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) associated with untreated diabetes based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL, 2h-PG ≥200 mg/dL, or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) were 1.18 (1.05-1.33), 1.31 (1.18-1.45), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34) for CVD; 1.10 (0.92-1.32), 1.44 (1.25-1.67), and 1.08 (0.92-1.28) for cancer; and 1.37 (1.20-1.57), 1.57 (1.41-1.76), and 1.33 (1.17-1.52) for mortality, respectively. 2h-PG remained significantly associated with outcomes in models including FPG and HbA1c as spline terms. Furthermore, 2h-PG significantly improved the ability of the C statistic to predict diabetes, CVD, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: 2h-PG remains independently predictive of outcomes in models including FPG and HbA1c. Therefore, in addition to FPG and HbA1c, routine testing of 2h-PG should be considered in order to better assess the risks of outcomes.

8.
Lancet ; 393(10183): 1831-1842, 2019 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate alcohol intake has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in many studies, in comparison with abstinence or with heavier drinking. Studies in east Asia can help determine whether these associations are causal, since two common genetic variants greatly affect alcohol drinking patterns. We used these two variants to assess the relationships between cardiovascular risk and genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake in men, contrasting the findings in men with those in women (few of whom drink). METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 715 adults between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008, from ten areas of China, recording alcohol use and other characteristics. It followed them for about 10 years (until Jan 1, 2017), monitoring cardiovascular disease (including ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, and myocardial infarction) by linkage with morbidity and mortality registries and electronic hospital records. 161 498 participants were genotyped for two variants that alter alcohol metabolism, ALDH2-rs671 and ADH1B-rs1229984. Adjusted Cox regression was used to obtain the relative risks associating disease incidence with self-reported drinking patterns (conventional epidemiology) or with genotype-predicted mean male alcohol intake (genetic epidemiology-ie, Mendelian randomisation), with stratification by study area to control for variation between areas in disease rates and in genotype-predicted intake. FINDINGS: 33% (69 897/210 205) of men reported drinking alcohol in most weeks, mainly as spirits, compared with only 2% (6245/302 510) of women. Among men, conventional epidemiology showed that self-reported alcohol intake had U-shaped associations with the incidence of ischaemic stroke (n=14 930), intracerebral haemorrhage (n=3496), and acute myocardial infarction (n=2958); men who reported drinking about 100 g of alcohol per week (one to two drinks per day) had lower risks of all three diseases than non-drinkers or heavier drinkers. In contrast, although genotype-predicted mean male alcohol intake varied widely (from 4 to 256 g per week-ie, near zero to about four drinks per day), it did not have any U-shaped associations with risk. For stroke, genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake had a continuously positive log-linear association with risk, which was stronger for intracerebral haemorrhage (relative risk [RR] per 280 g per week 1·58, 95% CI 1·36-1·84, p<0·0001) than for ischaemic stroke (1·27, 1·13-1·43, p=0·0001). For myocardial infarction, however, genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake was not significantly associated with risk (RR per 280 g per week 0·96, 95% CI 0·78-1·18, p=0·69). Usual alcohol intake in current drinkers and genotype-predicted alcohol intake in all men had similarly strong positive associations with systolic blood pressure (each p<0·0001). Among women, few drank and the studied genotypes did not predict high mean alcohol intake and were not positively associated with blood pressure, stroke, or myocardial infarction. INTERPRETATION: Genetic epidemiology shows that the apparently protective effects of moderate alcohol intake against stroke are largely non-causal. Alcohol consumption uniformly increases blood pressure and stroke risk, and appears in this one study to have little net effect on the risk of myocardial infarction. FUNDING: Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, Kadoorie Charitable Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, GlaxoSmithKline, Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
9.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(8): 745-749, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the current temporal trends of suicide in Zhejiang, China, from 2006 to 2016 to determine possible health disparities in order to establish priorities for intervention. METHODS: We collected mortality surveillance data from 2006 to 2016 from the Zhejiang Chronic Disease Surveillance Information and Management System from the Zhejiang Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. We estimated region-specific and gender-specific suicide rates using joinpoint regression analyses to determine the average annual percentage change (AAPC) and its 95% CI. RESULTS: The crude suicide rate declined from 9.64 per 100 000 people in 2006 to 4.86 per 100 000 in 2016, and the age-adjusted suicide rate decreased from 9.74 per 100 000 in 2006 to 4.14 per 100 000 in 2016. During 2006-2013, rural males had the highest suicide rate, followed by rural females, urban males, and urban females, while after 2013, urban males suicide rates surpassed rural female suicide rates, and became the second highest suicide rate subgroup. The rate of suicide declined in all region-specific and/or gender-specific subgroups except among urban males between 20 and 34 years of age. Their age-adjusted suicide rate AAPC greatly increased to 28.39 starting in 2013 compared with an AAPC of -13.47 from 2006 to 2013. CONCLUSIONS: The suicide rate among young urban males has been alarmingly increasing since 2013, and thus, researchers must develop targeted effective strategies to mitigate this escalating loss of life.

10.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(5): 1215-1222, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784202

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Evidence has shown that stressful life events are associated with the development of diabetes, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. In the present study, we explored the associations between cumulative and specific stressful life events and the prevalence of diabetes in Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional data were from the China Kadoorie Biobank study, which enrolled approximately 500,000 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse regions of China. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of the 473,607 participants, 25,301 (5.34%) had type 2 diabetes (2.68% clinically-identified and 2.66% screen-detected). Participants who experienced one and two or more stressful life events were 1.10-fold (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.16) and 1.33-fold (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.57) more likely to have type 2 diabetes. Three categories of work-related events (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.31), as well as family-related events (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.18) and personal-related events (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.36), were associated with an increased likelihood of type 2 diabetes. Regarding the specific life events, the ORs of loss of job or retirement, as well as major conflict within family, death or major illness of other close family member and major injury or traffic accident, were 1.24 (95% CI 1.02-1.52), 1.24 (95% CI 1.08-1.43), 1.13 (95% CI 1.06-1.20) and 1.20 (95% CI 1.01-1.43), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that cumulative and specific stressful life events were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes.

11.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(4): 1068-1074, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592161

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: An elevated heart rate has been reported to be associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether heart rate independently and interactively with body mass index or blood pressure was associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured the association between heart rate and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Tongxiang China Kadoorie Biobank prospective cohort study using Cox proportional hazard models. Analyses included 53,817 participants without any history of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular or rheumatic heart disease at baseline. Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus cases were identified through linkage with established Disease Registries and the China National Health Insurance System. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up period of 6.9 years, 1,766 people had developed type 2 diabetes mellitus with an incidence of 4.75 per 1,000 person-years. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and for type 2 diabetes mellitus across increasing quintiles of heart rate were 1.00 (reference), 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.45), 1.21 (95% CI 1.03-1.41), 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.47) and 1.49 (95% CI 1.28-1.74), respectively, with a Ptrend  <0.001. This relationship was particularly evident among non-overweight/obese participants. A significant interaction between heart rate and body mass index on incident type 2 diabetes mellitus was observed with a P for interaction = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated heart rate is independently, in interaction with a higher body mass index, associated with a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

12.
BMJ Open ; 8(11): e020647, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-related direct medical costs by complication type and complication number, and to assess the impacts of complications as well as socioeconomic factors on direct medical costs. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using data from the region's diabetes management system, social security system and death registry system, 2015. SETTING: Tongxiang, China. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals diagnosed with T2DM in the local diabetes management system, and who had 2015 insurance claims in the social security system. Patients younger than 35 years and patients whose insurance type changed in the year 2015 were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The mean of direct medical costs by complication type and number, and the percentage increase of direct medical costs relative to a reference group, considering complications and socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: A total of 19 015 eligible individuals were identified. The total cost of patients with one complication was US$1399 at mean, compared with US$248 for patients without complications. The mean total cost for patients with 2 and 3+ complications was US$1705 and US$2994, respectively. After adjustment for socioeconomic confounders, patients with one complication had, respectively, 83.55% and 38.46% greater total costs for inpatient and outpatient services than did patients without complications. The presence of multiple complications was associated with a significant 44.55% adjusted increase in total outpatient costs, when compared with one complication. Acute complications, diabetic foot, stroke, ischaemic heart disease and diabetic nephropathy were the highest cost complications. Gender, age, education level, insurance type, T2DM duration and mortality were significantly associated with increased expenditures of T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Complications significantly aggravated expenditures on T2DM. Specific kinds of complications and the presence of multiple complications are correlated with much higher expenditures. Proper management and the prevention of related complications are urgently needed to reduce the growing economic burden of diabetes.

13.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-10, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001664

RESUMO

AIMS: Several studies have been carried out to examine the association between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), yet the findings are mixed. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the relationship between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and GDM risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to December 2017. Studies on cigarette smoking during pregnancy and GDM were retrieved. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for highest versus lowest level of cigarette smoking were calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Compared to nonsmoking, the pooled ORs of cigarette smoking during pregnancy were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.88-1.10) for GDM. Specifically, the pooled ORs of light smoking and heavy smoking during pregnancy for GDM were 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97-1.25) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67-1.53), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there is no significant association between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and risk of GDM.

14.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 15: 48, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002720

RESUMO

Background: Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for a large number of chronic diseases. Understanding factors related to adolescent obesity is critical for prevention of chronic diseases. The associations between sleep duration and obesity among adolescents in the existing literature are controversial. Our study was designed to determine the prevalence of short sleep duration, and assess the association of sleep duration and obesity, among middle and high school students in Zhejiang, China. Methods: 18,403 Students in 442 schools were recruited and surveyed using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaires. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used for data analyses. Results: The mean (SD) age of the students was 15.9 (1.8) years. 49.7% of students were girls. The mean (SD) height and weight were 166.2 (8.5) cm and 54.6 (11.1) kg, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight were 3.4% (95% CI: 3.0-3.8) and 7.8% (95% CI: 7.4-8.3), respectively. The overall prevalence of short sleep duration among students was 66.0% (95% CI: 63.8-68.1), higher among girls than boys (69.8% vs. 62.1%) (P < 0.0001). The figures for middle school, academic high school, and vocational high school were 59.0, 82.4 and 59.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). As compared with girls who sleep 8 h per day (reference), the odds ratios (95% CI) of obesity for girls who sleep < 7 h, 7 h, 9 h and ≥ 10 h were 1.97 (1.15-3.38), 1.90 (1.18-3.04), 1.38 (0.86-2.20) and 2.12 (1.22-3.67) respectively, after adjustment for socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, and mental health. The corresponding figures among boys were 1.45 (0.97-2.16), 1.13 (0.81-1.57), 1.25 (0.89-1.74), and 1.12 (0.81-1.54), respectively. Conclusions: Insufficient sleep is prevalent among students in Zhejiang China. A U-shaped relationship was found between sleep duration and obesity risk among girls, with the lowest risk among those who slept for 8 h, but not among boys. Adequate sleep duration may be an important component of obesity prevention initiatives among adolescents.

15.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993198

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the annual direct medical cost attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus according to socioeconomic factors, medical conditions and complications categories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We created uniquely detailed data from merging datasets of the local diabetes management system and the social security system in Tongxiang, China. We calculated the type 2 diabetes mellitus-related total cost and out-of-pocket cost for inpatient admissions and outpatient visits, and compared the cost for patients with or without complications by different healthcare items. RESULTS: A total of 16,675 patients were eligible for analysis. The type 2 diabetes mellitus-related cost accounted for 40.6% of the overall cost. The cost per patient was estimated to be a median of 1,067 Chinese Yuan, 7,114 Chinese Yuan and 969 Chinese Yuan for inpatient and outpatient cost, respectively. The median total cost for hospital-based care was 3.69-fold higher than that for primary care. The median cost of patients with complications was 3.46-fold higher than that of those without complications. The median cost for a patient with only macrovascular, only microvascular or both macrovascular and microvascular complications were 3.13-, 3.79- and 10.95-fold higher than that of patients without complications. Pharmaceutical expenditure accounted for 51.8 and 79.7% of the total cost for patients with or without complications, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the type 2 diabetes mellitus-related cost per patient was relatively low, it accounted for a great proportion of the overall cost. Complications obviously aggravated the economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Proper management and the prevention of diabetes and its complications are urgently required to curtail the economic burden.

16.
BMJ Open ; 8(6): e021493, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of high screen time (ST) among students in Zhejiang, China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: School-based adolescent health survey in Zhejiang Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: 23 543 students in grades 7-12 from 442 different schools. OUTCOME: High ST. RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 15.6 years and 49.7% of them were girls. The prevalence of high ST (screen viewing ≥2 hours per day) was 42.4% (95% CI 40.2% to 44.5%), higher in boys than in girls (45.4%(95% CI 42.8% to 48.0%) vs 39.1% (95% CI 36.6% to 41.7%)). No statistically significant difference was found between urban and rural areas (43.0% (95% CI 37.2% to 48.7%) vs 42.1% (95% CI 39.6% to 44.6%)). The prevalence of high ST among middle school, academic high school and vocational high school students was 35.3%, 30.0% and 73.5%, respectively. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that older age, attendance at vocational high school, non-intact family, poor academic performance, bad self-reported health status, loneliness and drinking carbonated beverages ≥3 times every day were positively associated with high ST. Attendance at academic high school, higher parental education and being physically active were negatively associated with high ST. CONCLUSIONS: High ST was prevalent among students and associated with a cluster of sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors in Zhejiang, China.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195658, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors associated with age at natural menopause in a large population of Chinese adult women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was part of the baseline survey of China Kadoorie Biobank in Zhejiang Province. A total of 17,076 postmenopausal women were included in the present study. Relevant data of socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and reproductive characteristics were collected. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associated factors of age at natural menopause with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. RESULTS: The mean age at natural menopause was 48.94 years, with 3.40% of the women experienced premature menopause and 6.75% early menopause. Younger age, higher education, consumption of meat (1-3 days per week) and increased parity were associated with late menopause. Current smoking, underweight, higher physical activity, consumption of sea food (1-3 days per week), fresh eggs (≥4 days per week), fresh fruits (≥1 day per week), taking vitamins, experiencing severe food shortage, earlier age at menarche and older age at first birth were associated with earlier age at natural menopause. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that certain factors involved with socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and reproductive characteristics are related to the age at natural menopause in Chinese women.


Assuntos
Menopausa/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Menarca , Menopausa Precoce , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , História Reprodutiva , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e021077, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and correlating factors of binge drinking among middle and high school students in Zhejiang Province, China. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from a school-based survey. A total of 23 543 (response rate=97.5%) eligible adolescents from 442 different schools (including middle schools, academic high schools and vocational high schools) were asked to fill in an anonymous self-administered behaviour questionnaire between April and May 2017. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with binge drinking. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of participants was 15.6 (1.7) years and 51.3% were boys. The proportions of students from middle schools, academic high schools and vocational high schools were 51.9%, 27.5% and 20.6%, respectively. In total, 22.8% (95% CI 21.6 to 23.9) of students reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days and 9.2% (95% CI 8.5 to 10.0) of students reported binge drinking (defined as drinking four or more alcoholic drinks in 1-2 hours period among girls and five or more alcoholic drinks among boys) during the past month. The prevalence of binge drinking was highest among vocational high school students (17.9% vs 6.3% and 7.7% among middle school and academic high school students, respectively). Older age, studying at high school, poor academic performance, higher levels of physical activity, excessive screen-time, loneliness, insomnia, previous suicide attempt, cigarette smoking, fighting, being bullied and sexual experience were found to be positively associated with adolescent binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Binge drinking is common among middle and high school students in Zhejiang, China. Efforts to prevent binge drinking may need to address a cluster of sociodemographic and behavioural factors. Our findings provide information to enable healthcare providers to identify students at high-risk of binge drinking and to inform planning of intervention measures for at-risk students.

19.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e22403, 2018 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between the CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism, GSTM1 polymorphism, and the susceptibility to lung cancer, along with the interactions between environmental factors and these genes. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to explore the independent effect of gene polymorphisms on risk of lung cancer, and the combined effects of gene loci. The stratification analysis of age, sex, smoking, and drinking combined with positive loci was also analyzed, and any interaction was identified. RESULTS: The logistic regression analysis showed that there were statistical relationships between the CYP2E1 RsaI TT genotype and lung cancer, GSTM1 (-) and lung cancer. The combined effect's analysis of these 2 loci showed that, with an increase in the number of risk alleles, the risk of lung cancer also increased (supposing 0 risk allele as the reference group). Subjects carrying 3 risk alleles had the highest risk of developing lung cancer with an adjusted OR = 10.38 (95% CI 2.10-51.35). Stratified analysis showed that, in women, nonsmoking subjects, or nondrinking subjects, the combined effects could increase the risk of lung cancer; no heterogeneity was found between these layers except sex. The interaction analysis showed that, supposing the male, GSTM1 (+) genotype as the reference, the female, GSTM1 (-) genotype had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17 [1.01-4.70]); when the non-smoking, GSTM1 (+) genotype subjects was the reference group, smoking, GSTM1 (+) genotype subjects and smoking, GSTM1 (-) genotype subjects had significantly higher risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.00 [1.01-3.96], OR = 2.89 [1.28-6.54]). CONCLUSION: CYP2E1 RsaI TT genotype was a protective factor against the development of lung cancer, while GSTM1 (-) genotype was a risk factor for lung cancer. Increases in the number of the risk alleles also increased lung cancer risk. GSTM1 (-) genotype, sex, and smoking status might interact in the incidence of lung cancer.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(6): 620-632, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood lipids are established risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI), but uncertainty persists about the relevance of lipids, lipoprotein particles, and circulating metabolites for MI and stroke subtypes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the associations of plasma metabolic markers with risks of incident MI, ischemic stroke (IS), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: In a nested case-control study (912 MI, 1,146 IS, and 1,138 ICH cases, and 1,466 common control subjects) 30 to 79 years of age in China Kadoorie Biobank, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measured 225 metabolic markers in baseline plasma samples. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1-SD higher metabolic marker. RESULTS: Very low-, intermediate-, and low-density lipoprotein particles were positively associated with MI and IS. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were inversely associated with MI apart from small HDL. In contrast, no lipoprotein particles were associated with ICH. Cholesterol in large HDL was inversely associated with MI and IS (OR: 0.79 and 0.88, respectively), whereas cholesterol in small HDL was not (OR: 0.99 and 1.06, respectively). Triglycerides within all lipoproteins, including most HDL particles, were positively associated with MI, with a similar pattern for IS. Glycoprotein acetyls, ketone bodies, glucose, and docosahexaenoic acid were associated with all 3 diseases. The 225 metabolic markers showed concordant associations between MI and IS, but not with ICH. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoproteins and lipids showed similar associations with MI and IS, but not with ICH. Within HDL particles, cholesterol concentrations were inversely associated, whereas triglyceride concentrations were positively associated with MI. Glycoprotein acetyls and several non-lipid-related metabolites associated with all 3 diseases.

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