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Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 12(12): 936-9, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21172126


OBJECTIVE: To study the risk factors for neonatal ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the changes of isolated pathogens in the last eight years. METHODS: The clinical data of 230 neonates who were admitted into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and received mechanical ventilation for equal to or longer than 48 hrs in 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The isolated pathogens were compared with those of eight years ago. RESULTS: The incidence of VAP (25.2%) in the year 2008 was lower than that of eight years ago (36.1%; P<0.05). The development of VAP was negatively correlated with the gestational age and the birth weight, but positively correlated with the duration of mechanical ventilation, intubation times, duration of hospitalization, presence of gastrointestinal bleeding and need for blood products transfusion. The main isolated pathogens were opportunistic antibiotics resistant bacteria, and the majority was gram negative bacilli (77%). The most frequently detected gram negative bacilli were Klebsiella (20%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (18%) and Acinetobacter (13%). Streptococcus mitis was the most frequently detected gram positive bacilli (14%). The distribution pattern of pathogens isolated in the same NICU eight years ago was somewhat different: Klebsiella (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17%), Acinetobacter (16%), Streptococcus mitis (11%), Fungi (1%) and Candida albicans (1%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VAP is correlated with gestational age, birth weight, duration of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, intubation times, presence of gastrointestinal bleeding and need for blood products transfusion. The main isolated pathogens are usually antibiotic resistant opportunistic bacteria. The detection rate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia increased and that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreased when compared with eight years ago.

Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 37(4): 254-64, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15806292


Vaccination with ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum induced protective immunity against challenge infection in experimental animal models. Our preliminary study on the transcription levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in splenic CD4+ T cells revealed that attenuated cercariae elicited predominantly a Th1 response in mice at the early stage, whereas normal cercariae stimulated primarily Th2-dependent responses. Further analysis on the gene profile of the skin-draining lymph nodes demonstrated that the levels of IFN-gamma were significantly higher in vaccinated mice than those in infected mice at day 4, 7 and 14 post-vaccination or post-infection. However, for IL-12 and IL-4, the potent inducers of Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, as well as IL-10, there were no differences over the course of the experiment between the infected and vaccinated mice. To explore the underlying factors that may potentially contribute to elevated IFN-gamma in vaccinated mice, the mRNA profiles of the skin-draining lymph nodes at day 4 post-exposure were compared using oligonucleotide microarrays. Within the 847 probe sets with increased signal values, we focused on chemokines, cytokines and relevant receptors, which were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. A comprehensive understanding of the immune mechanisms of attenuated cercariae-induced protection may contribute to developing efficient vaccination strategies against S. japonicum, especially during the early stage of infection.

Citocinas/sangue , Interferon gama/sangue , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/sangue , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Larva/imunologia , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Schistosoma japonicum/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos da radiação