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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904063

RESUMO

MXenes represent a family of surface-functionalized two-dimensional (2D) carbides and nitrides with potential applications in the field of flexible electronics, which rely on their elasticity and flexibility. However, the knowledge on such aspects is rather limited. Here, taking the four most typical MXenes, namely, Ti2CTx, Ti3C2Tx, Nb2CTx and Nb4C3Tx (T = O, OH and F) as examples, we evaluate their intrinsic in-plane stiffness and out-of-plane rigidity at the nanoscale with respect to their functional groups, chemical components and thickness by first-principles calculations. We find that both the in-plane stiffness (C) and out-of-plane bending rigidity (D) of MXenes are highly dependent on the thickness of MX and the surface functional groups. Specifically, the thickness and surface functionalization increase C and D significantly. The Foppl-von Karman numbers per area (C/D), as the flexibility descriptor, of MXenes are comparable with that of the MoS2 monolayer, indicating MXenes as a class of strong yet bendable materials. The effective thickness, the critical parameter bridging C and D, of MXenes is determined to be only two-thirds of the average layer spacing. This study provides a fundamental basis for quantifying the rigidity of MXenes at the nanoscale.

2.
Pharm Res ; 37(2): 26, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907698

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The bile salt export pump (BSEP), a key player in hepatic bile acid clearance, has been the center of research on drug-induced cholestasis. However, such studies focus primarily on the direct inhibition of BSEP, often overlooking the potential impact of transcriptional repression. This work aims to explore the disruption of bile acid efflux caused by drug-induced BSEP repression. METHODS: BSEP activity was analyzed in human primary hepatocytes (HPH) using a traditional biliary-clearance experiment and a modified efflux assay, which includes a 72-h pretreatment prior to efflux measurement. Relative mRNA and protein expressions were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Metformin concentration-dependently repressed BSEP expression in HPH. Although metformin did not directly inhibit BSEP activity, longer metformin exposure reduced BSEP transport function in HPH by down-regulating BSEP expression. BSEP repression by metformin was found to be AMP-activated protein kinase-independent. Additional screening of 10 reported cholestatic non-BSEP inhibitors revealed that the anti-cancer drug tamoxifen also markedly repressed BSEP expression and reduced BSEP activity in HPH. CONCLUSIONS: Repression of BSEP alone is sufficient to disrupt hepatic bile acid efflux. Metformin and tamoxifen appear to be prototypes of a class of BSEP repressors that may cause drug-induced cholestasis through gene repression instead of direct BSEP inhibition.

3.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906800

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the study is to reveal the brain regional functional coherence alterations in the early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with cognitive impairments.Methods: Resting state functional MRI (fMRI) was performed to characterize the amplitude of regional homogeneity (ReHo). Twenty-one ALS patients with cognitive impairments (ALSci), 21 ALS patients without cognitive impairments (ALSnci) and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled.Result: Compared with HCs, the ALSci subgroup showed increased ReHo in bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), precuneus and inferior cerebellar areas, and the ALSnci subgroup had increased ReHo in the left IPL and left inferior cerebellar area. The ALSci subgroup also had increased ReHo in the right IPL and right inferior cerebellar area relative to the ALSnci subgroup. Meantime, compared with HCs, both ALS subgroups showed decreased ReHo in bilateral sensorimotor cortices. The ReHo values in the right cerebellar area were negatively correlated with the Chinese version of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination-revised (ACE-R) total scores in all ALS patients. In addition, the grey matter (GM) volume revealed no significant difference among three groups, which indicated that the altered ReHo was not caused by the anatomic change.Conclusion: The altered regional functional coherence might indicate the underlying deficits of ALS with and without cognitive impairments. Our findings support that ALS is a multisystem disease and provide the evidence that alterations of ReHo in the right inferior cerebellar area might be a special marker of ALS with cognitive impairment. Our results are preliminary and further investigations are needed.

4.
J Dent ; : 103278, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Composite restorations are increasingly popular, but recurrent caries is a main reason for composite restoration failures. The objectives of this study were to investigate a dual strategy of combining rnc gene-deletion for Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) with antibacterial dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) composite, and determine the effects of rnc gene-deletion alone, DMAHDM composite alone, and rnc-deletion plus DMAHDM composite, on biofilm growth and lactic acid production. METHODS: Parent S. mutans (UA159, ATCC 700610) and rnc-deleted S. mutans were used. DMAHDM was incorporated into a composite at mass fractions of 0%, 1.5%, and 3%. Gene expressions for biofilm formation and drug resistance were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Biofilms were grown on composite surfaces for 2 days. Live/dead, biomass, polysaccharide, metabolic activity (MTT), colony-forming units (CFU) and lactic acid production of biofilms were evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to the parent S. mutans, the rnc-deletion technique yielded significantly less biofilm biomass, polysaccharides, metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid for biofilms grown on control composite (p <  0.05). With no gene modification, the biofilm CFU was decreased by 5-6 logs at 3% DMAHDM, when compared to control composite group. The dual strategy of combining rnc-deletion with 3% DMAHDM composite achieved the strongest biofilm-inhibition, with the greatest reduction in CFU by 8 logs. The combination of rnc-deletion with 3% DMAHDM composite decreased the biofilm lactic acid production by 95% (p <  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The dual strategy of rnc-deletion plus DMAHDM composite produced synergistic effects and achieved the strongest biofilm-inhibition. This method has great potential to inhibit dental caries and is promising to reduce secondary caries and protect tooth structures.

5.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 2, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900383

RESUMO

Interleukin(IL)-1ß, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was elevated and participates in periodontitis. Not only the link between IL-1ß and periodontitis was proved by clinical evidence, but also the increased IL-1ß triggers a series of inflammatory reactions and promotes bone resorption. Currently, IL-1ß blockage has been therapeutic strategies for autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, gout and type II diabetes mellitus. It is speculated that IL-1ß be a potential therapeutic target for periodontitis. The review focuses on the production, mechanism, present treatments and future potential strategies for IL-1ß in periodontitis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934746

RESUMO

Transparent polymer electrolytes such as PVA-based H+, Li+, K+ and Na+ gels have been widely used as both electrolyte and separator for flexible transparent supercapacitors (FTSCs). However, these gels sandwiched between the electrodes in FTSCs are easily compressed under bending and compression duo to their viscous flow behavior, resulting in the deformation of electrode spacing and the unstable capacitance performance. To resolve this issue, herein we introduce monodispersed polystyrene (PS) microspheres into PVA-LiCl polymer gel electrolyte as spacers to precisely control the electrode spacing during the assembly of FTSCs using SWCNTs/ITO-PET or MnO2/MWCNTs/ITO-PET as transparent electrodes. The electrode spacing could be tuned by varying the diameter of PS microspheres, e.g., 20, 40 and 80 µm. More importantly, the PS microspheres spacers protect the gel electrolyte from squeeze when bending takes place, allowing the stable performance output by FTSCs under bending state. After repeating bending test, the capacitance remains 95.6%, indicating the high stability and flexibility of the devices with the assistance of PS microspheres spacers.

7.
Org Lett ; 22(2): 505-509, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904242

RESUMO

Various functionalized tribenzo[b,d,f]azepines were prepared efficiently with the readily available 2-aminobenzoic acids and cyclic hypervalent diaryliodonium reagents as starting materials under Pd(II) catalysis. The key of this step-economical protocol is that the carboxylic acid functionality was employed as both a traceless directing group for the N-H activation/arylation and a functional handle for the tandem π-extended decarboxylative annulation.

8.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 3739-3743, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819556

RESUMO

Unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been widely applied in clinical microbiology for infectious disease diagnostics. Some successful applications in central nervous system infections and respiratory tract infections have proved it to be a promising tool for pathogen detection. Here, mNGS was used to confirm the infectious etiology in a case of tuberculous coxitis, which is a common type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). A 77-year-old Asian male presented with hip pain and fever was diagnosed with smear- and culture-negative tuberculous coxitis based on the evidence of imaging and interferon-γ release assay. At the same time as the anti-TB therapy started, the patient underwent joint clearance surgery. Whole blood and synovial fluid sampled from surgery were kept for bacteriological confirmation using mNGS with high sequencing depth. However, only two paired-end reads from synovial fluid samples were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Before leaving hospital, the patient was still receiving anti-TB treatment and began to recover. Considering the obvious escalation of the cost and analysis time as the depth of sequencing increases, although we got a positive result here, the scarce number of reads obtained through ultra-deep sequencing indicates its limitations in extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795129

RESUMO

We describe here an Nd3+-sensitized upconversion fluorescent sensor for epirubicin (EPI) detection in aqueous solutions under 808 nm laser excitation. The upconversion fluorescence of nanoparticles is effectively quenched in the presence of EPI via a fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism. The dynamic quenching constant was 2.10 × 104 M-1. Normalized fluorescence intensity increased linearly as the EPI concentration was raised from 0.09 µM to 189.66 µM and the fluorometric detection limit was 0.05 µM. The sensing method was simple, fast, and low-cost and was able to be applied to determine the levels of EPI in urine with spike recoveries from 97.5% to 102.6%. Another important feature of the proposed fluorescent sensor is that it holds a promising potential for in vivo imaging and detection due to its distinctive properties such as weak autofluorescence, low heating effect, and high light penetration depth.

10.
Cell Rep ; 29(10): 2936-2943.e4, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801061

RESUMO

Adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate different cellular signaling pathways in the presence of endogenous catecholamines and play important roles in both physiological and pathological conditions. Extensive studies have been carried out to investigate the structure and function of ß adrenergic receptors (ßARs). However, the structure of α adrenergic receptors (αARs) remains to be determined. Here, we report the structure of the human α2C adrenergic receptor (α2CAR) with the non-selective antagonist, RS79948, at 2.8 Å. Our structure, mutations, modeling, and functional experiments indicate that a α2CAR-specific D206ECL2-R409ECL3-Y4056.58 network plays a role in determining α2 adrenergic subtype selectivity. Furthermore, our results show that a specific loosened helix at the top of TM4 in α2CAR is involved in receptor activation. Together, our structure of human α2CAR-RS79948 provides key insight into the mechanism underlying the α2 adrenergic receptor activation and subtype selectivity.

11.
Dent Mater ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) are used in resins. The rnc gene in Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) plays a key role in resisting antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to investigate for the first time: (1) the effects of rnc deletion on S. mutans biofilms and acid production; (2) the combined effects of rnc deletion with dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) on biofilm-inhibition efficacy. METHODS: Parent S. mutans strain UA159 (ATCC 700610) and the rnc-deleted S. mutans were used. Bacterial growth, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were measured to analyze the bacterial susceptibility of the parent and rnc-deleted S. mutans against DMAHDM, with the gold-standard chlorhexidine (CHX) as control. Biofilm biomass, polysaccharide and lactic acid production were measured. RESULTS: The drug-susceptibility of the rnc-deleted S. mutans to DMAHDM or CHX was 2-fold higher than parent S. mutans. The drug-susceptibility did not increase after 10 passages (p < 0.05). Deleting the rnc gene increased the biofilm susceptibility to DMAHDM or CHX by 2-fold. The rnc-deletion in S. mutans reduced biofilm biomass, polysaccharide and lactic acid production, even at no drugs. DMAHDM was nearly 40 % more potent than the gold-standard CHX. The combination of rnc deletion+DMAHDM treatment achieved the greatest reduction in biofilm biomass, polysaccharide synthesis, and lactic acid production. SIGNIFICANCE: Gene modification by deleting the rnc in S. mutans reduced the biofilm growth and acid production, and the rnc deletion+DMAHDM method showed the greatest biofilm-inhibition efficacy, for the first time. The dual strategy of antibacterial monomer+bacterial gene modification shows great potential to control biofilms and inhibit caries.

12.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite their high accuracy to recognize oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) with cancer risk, non-invasive oral assays are poor in discerning whether the risk is high or low. However, it is critical to identify the risk levels, since high-risk patients need active intervention, while low-risk ones simply need to be follow-up. This study aimed at developing a personalized computational model to predict cancer risk level of OPMDs and explore its potential web application in OPMDs screening. METHODS: Each enrolled patient was subjected to the following procedure: personal information collection, non-invasive oral examination, oral tissue biopsy and histopathological analysis, treatment and follow-up. Patients were randomly divided into a training set (N=159) and a test set (N=107). Random forest was used to establish classification models. A baseline model (model-B) and a personalized model (model-P) were created. The former used the non-invasive scores only, while the latter was incremented with appropriate personal features. RESULTS: We compared the respective performance of cancer risk level prediction by model-B, model-P and clinical experts. Our data suggested that all three have a similar level of specificity around 90%. In contrast, the sensitivity of model-P is beyond 80% and superior to the other two. The improvement of sensitivity by model-P reduced the misclassification of high-risk patients as low-risk ones. We deployed model-P in web.opmd-risk.com, which can be freely and conveniently accessed. CONCLUSION: We have proposed a novel machine-learning model for precise and cost-effective OPMDs screening, which integrates clinical examinations, machine learning and information technology.

13.
Nanoscale ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825450

RESUMO

Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNT) are the representatives of two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) forms of carbon, both exhibiting unique geometric structures and peculiar physical and chemical properties. Herein, we propose a family or series of 2D carbon-based highly anisotropic Dirac materials by weaving together an array of CNTs by direct C-C bonds or by graphene ribbons. By employing first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that these nano-makisus are thermally and dynamically stable and possess unique electronic properties. These 2D carbon allotropes are all metals and some nano-makisus show largely anisotropic Dirac cones, causing very different transport properties for the Dirac fermions along different directions. The Fermi velocities in the kx direction could be ∼170 times higher than those in the ky direction, which is the strongest anisotropy among 2D carbon allotropes to the best of our knowledge. This intriguing feature of the electronic structure has only been observed in heavy element materials with strong spin-orbit coupling. These results indicate that carbon based materials may have much broader applications in future nanoelectronics.

14.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 218, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cholesterol gallstones diseases (CGD) is highly correlated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate preventive effects of pioglitazone (PIO), an antidiabetic drug, on the CGD in guinea pigs fed with a lithogenic diet (LD). METHODS: The guinea pigs were fed with the LD for 8 weeks. All guinea pigs were grouped as follows: low fat diet; LD; LD plus PIO (4 mg/kg); LD plus PIO (8 mg/kg); LD plus ezetimibe (EZE) (2 mg/kg). Gallbladder stones were observed using microscopy. The profile of biliary composition, and blood glucose, insulin and lipid were analyzed. The liver or ileum was harvested for determinations of hydroxyl-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 2 (SREBP2), 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) sterol transporters G5 and G8 (ABCG5, ABCG8), bile salt export pump (BSEP), Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) and acetyl-coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2) by Western blot. The gallbladders were used for histological examination. RESULTS: The LD successfully induced gallstone. Both pioglitazone and ezetimibe prevented gallstone formation, as well as hepatic and cholecystic damages. Pioglitazone significantly decreased HMGCR and SREBP2, but increased CYP7A1, ABCG5, ABCG8, and BSEP in the liver. Pioglitazone also remarkably decreased NPC1L1 and ACAT2, while increased ABCG5/8 in the intestine. The beneficial alterations of cholesterol and bile acids in the bile, as well as profile of glucose, insulin and lipid in the blood were found in the guinea pigs treated with pioglitazone. CONCLUSION: Pioglitazone has a noticeable benefit towards the CGD, which is involved in changes of synthesis, transformation, absorption, and transportation of cholesterol.

15.
Nanoscale ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830197

RESUMO

Electrochemical pseudocapacitors store energy via intercalation or electrosorption and faradaic charge transfer with redox reactions. MXenes represent the promising intercalation pseudocapacitive electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their ultrahigh theoretical capacitances. Achieving a high capacitance will greatly advance the large-scale applications as in power grids. However, a rational design concept has not been exploited to achieve the theoretical limit. Here, we show how interlayer engineering helps to achieve the limit. Interlayer engineering in this manner simultaneously creates a broadened yet uniform interlayer spacing - providing a "highway" for fast ion diffusion, and incorporates heteroatoms with lower electronegativity - offering "trucks" (redox active sites) on such a "highway" for speeding charge transfer, enabling high capacitance. Following the concept, through annealing the as-prepared Ti3C2Tx MXene under an ammonia atmosphere, the engineered MXene delivers much improved capacitance with excellent rate performance and cyclability. The overall performance of the engineered MXene outperforms that of all other pseudocapacitive electrode materials.

16.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 10129-10135, 2019 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Sleep-breathing disorders are associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and vascular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of stroke and death in patients with sleep-breathing disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS The anthropometric characteristics, demographic data, and incidence of stroke of 1492 Chinese patients with mild, moderate, or severe sleep apnea were collected. The apnea-hypopnea index was used to define sleep-breathing disorders. Imaging modalities were used to validate the diagnosis of stroke. Death during hospitalization or during follow-up was noted. Multivariate analysis was performed for the incidence of stroke and mortality at the 95% of confidence level. RESULTS Among enrolled patients, 401 (27%) patients had at least 1 event of stroke. Patients who had at least 1 event of stroke were more likely to be younger (p<0.0001), female (p=0.0013), and to have comorbidities. Among enrolled patients, 127 died due to stroke or other diseases. Sixteen of the patients who died had no stroke event(s) and 111 patients who died had at least 1 event of stroke. Stroke events (p=0.023) and biomedical burden of patients were associated with the death of patients with sleep-breathing disorders. CONCLUSIONS Age, sex, and the other existing disease(s) of patients with sleep-breathing disorders may be associated with stroke event(s). Also, stroke event(s) and comorbidities may be associated with mortality in this Chinese population.

17.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(4): EL317, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671979

RESUMO

A deep transfer learning for underwater source ranging is proposed, which migrates the predictive ability obtained from synthetic environment (source domain) into an experimental sea area (target domain). A deep neural network is first trained on large synthetic datasets generated from historical environmental data, and then part of the neural network is refined on collected data set for source ranging. Its performance is tested on a deep-sea experiment through comparing with convolutional neural networks of different training datasets. Data processing results demonstrate that the ranging accuracy is considerably improved by the proposed method, which can be easily adapted for related areas.

18.
PeerJ ; 7: e8083, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763074

RESUMO

Phytophthora hibernalis, the causal agent of brown rot of citrus fruit, is an important worldwide pathogen and a quarantine pest in China. Current diagnosis of the disease relies on disease symptoms, pathogen isolation and identification by DNA sequencing. However, symptoms caused by P. hibernalis can be confused with those by other Phytophthora and fungal species. Moreover, pathogen isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing are time-consuming. In this study, a rapid assay including 20-min recombinase polymerase amplification targeting the Ypt1 gene and 5-min visualization using lateral flow dipsticks was developed for detecting P. hibernalis. This assay was able to detect 0.2 ng of P. hibernalis genomic DNA in a 50-µL reaction system. It was specific to P. hibernalis without detection of other tested species including P. citrophthora, P. nicotianae, P. palmivora and P. syringae, four other important citrus pathogens. Using this assay, P. hibernalis was also detected from artificially inoculated orange fruits. Results in this study indicated that this assay has the potential application to detect P. hibernalis at diagnostic laboratories and plant quarantine departments of customs, especially under time- and resource-limited conditions.

19.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779307

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the potential to be utilized as disease-specific biomarkers. Although strategies for on-chip isolation and detection of EVs have recently been developed, they need preprocessing of clinical samples and are not accurate enough for disease diagnosis just judging by EVs concentration. Here, we designed an integrated microfluidic device named a plasma separation and EV detection (PS-ED) chip for plasma separation, quantification, and high-throughput protein analysis of EVs directly from clinical whole blood samples. The device included two modules (PS and ED module): the PS module was a six-loop microchannel for rapid separation of plasma from clinical whole blood samples under inertial force; the amount of EVs in the separated plasma kept the same value as in the initial blood samples. The module reduced the mechanical damage to the blood cells and thus reduced the interference of debris or cellular contents from damaged cells during EVs detection; the ED module contained four S-channels for quantification and high-throughput protein analysis of EVs; a wide detection range from 2.5 × 102 to 2.5 × 108 particles/µL with a detection limit of 95 particles/µL was obtained. Through simultanously monitoring three proteins (CD81, CD24, and EpCAM) of EVs, the cancer type can be accurately confirmed. Furthermore, clinical blood sample analysis verified that the proposed device could be used for accurate diagnosis and therapy monitoring of ovarian cancer.

20.
J Orthop Sci ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have found that vitamin D deficiency has a high incidence rate worldwide, but we found few studies on the role of vitamin D in spinal degenerative diseases. We investigated the determinants of preoperative vitamin D deficiency and its effects on postoperative outcomes among patients undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery. METHODS: 360 patients treated from July 2017 to July 2018 were retrospectively identified for inclusion. The patients' fasting serum levels of 25(OH)D, N-terminal midfragment of osteocalcin (N-MID), and ß typeⅠcollagen carboxyl terminal peptide (ß-CTX) were measured by electrochemiluminescence before the operation. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and Oswestry Disability Index scores (ODI) were used to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Standard demographic data and all perioperative complications occurring within 3 months follow-up after operation were recorded. RESULTS: The mean serum level of 25(OH)D was 20.81 ± 8.55 ng/mL, the rates of deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was 53.6%. The abnormal proportion of N-MID and ß-CTX were 8.61% and 34.44%, bone turnover markers serum level was higher in older age groups (p < 0.05). Female sex (p < 0.001), a high body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.012), lack of vitamin D supplementation (p = 0.018), smoking (p = 0.033), moderate (p < 0.001) to severe pain (p = 0.005) were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency after the multivariate analysis. The VAS, JOA and ODI scores showed significantly better outcomes compared to deficient group at post-operative and final follow-up (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency was common in patients undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery. Female sex, high BMI, lack of vitamin D supplementation, smoking and moderate to severe pain were risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, preoperative hypovitaminosis D (<20 ng/ml) was correlated with worse surgical outcomes in short-term.

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