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1.
Small ; : e2004492, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174389

RESUMO

Exosomes are recognized as promising biomarkers for early cancer diagnosis and prognosis owing to a large amount of biological information they carried. But the key is that single type of exosomal biomarker analysis is not sufficient enough for accurate cancer diagnosis and stage monitoring due to the insufficient information and high false positive signal. To address the challenge, here simultaneous in situ detection of different types of exosomal biomarkers (surface proteins: CD81, ephrin type-A receptor 2, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9; miRNAs: miR-451a, miR-21, and miR-10b) is conducted with a 3D microfluidic chip, which works in conjunction with quantum dot (QD) labeling and vesicle fusion technology. After exosomes are efficiently captured by the microfluidic chip, the quantification of multiple exosomal proteins is achieved by using three kinds of QDs with the same excitation and different emission wavelengths, and virus-mimicking fusogenic vesicles encapsulating three exquisitely engineered molecular beacons are introduced for ultrasensitive detection of multiple exosomal miRNAs without requiring RNA extraction. Through comprehensive profiling different types of exosomal biomarkers, the false positive rate is substantially avoided and the accuracy of cancer diagnosis and stage monitoring is improved to ≈100%, which are critical to cancer effective treatment and favorable prognosis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137958

RESUMO

The policy induced decline of human mobility has been recognised as effective in controlling the spread of COVID-19, especially in the initial stage of the outbreak, although the relationship among mobility, policy implementation, and virus spread remains contentious. Coupling the data of confirmed COVID-19 cases with the Google mobility data in Australia, we present a state-level empirical study to: (1) inspect the temporal variation of the COVID-19 spread and the change of human mobility adherent to social restriction policies; (2) examine the extent to which different types of mobility are associated with the COVID-19 spread in eight Australian states/territories; and (3) analyse the time lag effect of mobility restriction on the COVID-19 spread. We find that social restriction policies implemented in the early stage of the pandemic controlled the COVID-19 spread effectively; the restriction of human mobility has a time lag effect on the growth rates of COVID-19, and the strength of the mobility-spread correlation increases up to seven days after policy implementation but decreases afterwards. The association between human mobility and COVID-19 spread varies across space and time and is subject to the types of mobility. Thus, it is important for government to consider the degree to which lockdown conditions can be eased by accounting for this dynamic mobility-spread relationship.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Quarentena , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem
3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 584: 602-609, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160185

RESUMO

Solar driven interfacial evaporation has received extensive attention as a very promising desalination technique to solve the fresh water shortage crisis. However, salt-fouling and poor stability during long-term solar desalination seriously hinder applications of solar evaporators. In addition, most of the reported evaporators rely on expensive materials and complex preparation processes. Here, we report facile preparation of polydimethylsiloxane/carbon nanotubes (PDMS/CNTs) modified melamine solar evaporators for efficient steam generation and desalination. The elastic solar evaporators feature (i) macroporous network with rough skeleton owing to phase separation of PDMS, high solar absorbance (99%) and excellent photothermal performance, low thermal conductivity (0.032 W m-1 K-1), and (iii) unique wettability (hydrophobic upper surface and hydrophilic lower part). Consequently, the evaporators have an evaporation rate of 1.44 kg m-2 h-1 and a solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency of 84% for solar evaporation of deionized water under 1 sun illumination. Interestingly, the evaporators show similar solar evaporation performance for saline water compared to deionized water. Moreover, the evaporators show excellent salt-resistance and stability during long-term continuous solar desalination owing to rapid water replenishment in the evaporators. The evaporators may find practical applications in solar desalination because of the merits of the evaporators and the simple preparation method.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 975, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184273

RESUMO

Platinum is a widely used first-line chemotherapy in treating non-small cell lung cancer of adenocarcinoma. Unfortunately, platinum resistance leads to relapse and therapeutic failure, enabling the development of platinum-sensitization strategies to be of great clinical significance. Here, we report that the upregulation of the NEDD8-conjugating enzyme UBE2F is an important way for lung cancer cells to escape platinum-induced cell apoptosis, which confers to insensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. Mechanistically, platinum treatment impairs the complex formation for proteasome-mediated UBE2F degradation, evidenced by the weaker association between UBE2F and Ring-box protein 1 (RBX1), an essential component of Cullin-Ring E3 ligases (CRLs), thus leading to the accumulation of UBE2F. The accumulated UBE2F promotes the neddylation levels and activity of Cullin5, in accord with the lower expression of pro-apoptotic protein NOXA, a well-known substrate of Cullin-Ring E3 ligase 5 (CRL5). Additionally, knockout of UBE2F significantly sensitizes lung cancer cells to platinum treatment by enhancing the protein levels of NOXA and subsequently promoting cell apoptosis. Our observations uncover a previously unknown regulatory mechanism of UBE2F stability upon platinum chemotherapy and suggest that UBE2F might be a novel therapy target for sensitizing lung cancer cells to platinum-based chemotherapy.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 696, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a major cool-season forage and turfgrass species. The low tiller density and size dramatically limits its turf performance and forage yield. MicroRNAs (miRNA)-genes modules play critical roles in tiller development in plants. In this study, a genome-wide small RNA profiling was carried out in two tall fescue genotypes contrasting for tillering production ('Ch-3', high tiller production rate and 'Ch-5', low tiller production rate) and two types of tissue samples at different tillering development stage (Pre-tillering, grass before tillering; Tillering, grass after tillering). 'Ch-3', 'Ch-5', Pre-tillering, and Tillering samples were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 222 million high-quality clean reads were generated and 208 miRNAs were discovered, including 148 known miRNAs belonging to 70 families and 60 novel ones. Furthermore, 18 miRNAs were involved in tall fescue tiller development process. Among them, 14 miRNAs displayed increased abundance in both Ch-3 and Tillering plants compared with that in Ch-5 and Pre-tillering plants and were positive with tillering, while another four miRNAs were negative with tiller development. Out of the three miRNAs osa-miR156a, zma-miR528a-3p and osa-miR444b.2, the rest of 15 miRNAs were newfound and associated with tiller development in plants. Based on our previous full-length transcriptome analysis in tall fescue, 28,927 potential target genes were discovered for all identified miRNAs. Most of the 212 target genes of the 18 miRNAs were dominantly enriched into "ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis", "phagosome", "fatty acid biosynthesis", "oxidative phosphorylation", and "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" KEGG pathways. In addition, bdi-miR167e-3p targets two kinase proteins EIF2AK4 and IRAK4, and osa-miR397a targets auxin response factor 5, which may be the significant miRNA-genes controllers in tillering development. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first genome-wide miRNA profiles analysis to identify regulators involved in tiller development in cool-season turfgrass. Tillering related 18 miRNAs and their 212 target genes provide novel information for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA-genes mediated tiller development in cool-season turfgrass.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22575, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019471

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Giant intra-abdominal liposarcomas weighing over 20 kg often increase the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which has severe effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined typically as the combination of a raised IAP of 20 mm Hg or higher and new onset of organ dysfunction or failure. The anesthetic management and perioperative management are very challenging. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We presented 2 patients with rare giant growing liposarcoma of the abdomen, weighing 21 kg and over 35 kg, respectively. Circulatory management was particularly difficult in the first case, while respiratory management and massive blood loss was very challenging in the second one. DIAGNOSIS: With a computed tomography scan and peritoneal-to-abdominal height ratio measurement, preoperatively the risk of developing intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized early in each patient. The inferior vena cava and right atrium of the first patient was compressed and malformed due to the uplifted diaphragm, while there was severe decreased lung volume and increased airway resistance, because of rare giant retroperitoneal liposarcomas in the second case. Histologic examination revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma in both cases. INTERVENTIONS: Both of the patients underwent resection surgery with multiple monitoring; transesophageal echocardiography monitoring in the first case and pressure-controlled ventilation volume guaranteed mechanical ventilation mode in both cases. OUTCOMES: Intraoperatively and postoperatively no cardiopulmonary complications in both patients. The first patient was discharged without any complications on postoperative day 10, and the second patient underwent another surgery because of anastomotic leakage resulting from bowel resection. LESSONS: Multiple monitorings, in particular transesophageal echocardiography should be considered in patients with increased IAP due to a giant mass, while an appropriate lung protection ventilation strategy is crucial in these patients.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Lipossarcoma/complicações , Lipossarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/complicações , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/cirurgia , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/cirurgia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Lipossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Arch Toxicol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011827

RESUMO

The Hippo signalling pathway plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that genetic variants in genes related to this pathway are associated with the colorectal cancer risk. A case-control study including 1150 patients and 1342 controls was performed to assess the association of genetic variants of genes involved in the Hippo signalling pathway with the risk of colorectal cancer. The results were corrected for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR). We used a regression model to determine the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. An expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis was performed using TCGA datasets and the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets were used to provide additional data on the expression of genes in colorectal cancer. The SCRIB rs13251492 G allele was associated with a significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.89, P = 7.76 × 10-5, P(FDR) = 6.98 × 10-4). Patients with the rs13251492 AG/GG allele experienced a longer recurrence-free survival (RFS) time (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.99, P = 0.049) than patients with the rs13251492 A allele. The eQTL analysis revealed a significant association between rs13251492 and the expression of the SCRIB mRNA in colorectal tumors. Dual-luciferase reporter assays in DLD-1 and HCT116 cells revealed a lower enhancer activity of the rs13251492 G allele than the A allele. In addition, the SCRIB mRNA was expressed at markedly higher levels in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Therefore, we identified the SCRIB rs13251492 variant as a novel colorectal cancer susceptibility locus and provided evidence of its functional relevance.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069358

RESUMO

The methylcytosine oxidase TET proteins play important roles in DNA demethylation and development. In developing embryos, TET2 are upregulated during pre-implantation development, and significantly expressed in the trophectoderm and inner cell mass. In this study, we identified Barx2 as a new target of Tet2. Tet2 bound and demethylated the promoter of Barx2 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to maintain the expression of Barx2. During mESC differentiation, Tet2 bound the promoter of Barx2 in day 4 embryonic bodies but not in day 8 EBs. However, Barx2 expression remained unchanged. Thus, Tet2 functioned as a demethylase and maintained the expression of Barx2 in undifferentiated and early differentiated mESCs.

9.
Biomed Microdevices ; 22(4): 74, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037942

RESUMO

Rapid on-site detection of glucose has been attracting considerable attention nowadays. Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were assessed as ideal detection platforms due to their advantages such as, disposability, portability, ease of miniaturization, and mass production. The topology and shape of electrodes have a crucial impact on their electrical conductivity and electrochemical properties. In this study, a versatile electrochemical platform with optimized three-electrode configuration was developed through screen-printing technology. Three types of SPEs were prepared, and their electrocatalytic properties toward glucose detection were investigated. Based on this platform, both enzyme-based (denoted as GOD/rGO) and non-enzymatic (denoted as Co@MoS2/rGO) bioactive compounds were deposited on the working electrode of the circular SPE through simply drop-casting, respectively. Their morphology was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cycle sweep voltammetry was used to study the electrocatalytic activity of these biosensors. The circular SPE exhibited satisfying electrochemical redox activity and much higher sensitivity towards glucose detection, which rendered it a promising candidate for point-of-care detection.

10.
J BUON ; 25(4): 1866-1874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of surgical resection for patients with different sizes of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to analyze the risk factors influencing the prognosis. METHODS: The clinical data of a total of 138 patients with HBV-related HCC admitted to and treated in our hospital from June 2012 to June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed, and the patients were divided into small HCC (SHCC) group (tumor diameter ≤5 cm, n=69) and solitary large HCC (SLHCC) group (tumor diameter >5 cm, n=69) based on the size of tumors. The differences in operative methods, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, number of intraoperative blood transfusion, time of portal triad clamping and incidence of complications, as well as postoperative liver function and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) indexes, tumor recurrence and survival conditions were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Among the 138 HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy, 54 cases had ≥3 resected hepatic segments, and 84 cases had <3 resected hepatic segments. SHCC group exhibited remarkably shorter operation time and notably smaller intraoperative blood loss than SLHCC group. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 91.3%, 87.0%, 71.0%, 60.9%, 58.0% and 46.4%, respectively, and the 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 71.0%, 63.8%, 47.8%, 44.9%, 37.7% and 30.4%, respectively, in the two groups. The log-rank test showed that the overall survival rate in SHCC group was distinctly higher than that in SLHCC group (p=0.041), and no statistically significant difference in the disease-free survival rate was detected. According to multivariate analysis, HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) load ≥104 U/mL, tumor diameter >5 cm and positive microvascular invasion were independent risk factors for the patient's prognosis (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SLHCC has a similar disease-free survival rate to SHCC but a lower overall survival rate than SHCC. HBV DNA load ≥104 U/mL, tumor diameter >5 cm and positive microvascular invasion are independent risk factors for the patient's prognosis.

11.
Cell Prolif ; : e12919, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Targeting the deubiquitinases (DUBs) has become a promising avenue for anti-cancer drug development. However, the effect and mechanism of pan-DUB inhibitor, PR-619, on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells remain to be investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of PR-619 on ESCC cell growth and cell cycle was evaluated by CCK-8 and PI staining. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was performed to detect apoptosis. LC3 immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining were applied to examine autophagy. Intercellular Ca2+ concentration was monitored by Fluo-3AM fluorescence. The accumulation of ubi-proteins and the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related protein and CaMKKß-AMPK signalling were determined by immunoblotting. RESULTS: PR-619 could inhibit ESCC cell growth and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest by downregulating cyclin B1 and upregulating p21. Meanwhile, PR-619 led to the accumulation of ubiquitylated proteins, induced ER stress and triggered apoptosis by the ATF4-Noxa axis. Moreover, the ER stress increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ and then stimulated autophagy through Ca2+ -CaMKKß-AMPK signalling pathway. Ubiquitin E1 inhibitor, PYR-41, could reduce the accumulation of ubi-proteins and alleviate ER stress, G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in PR-619-treated ESCC cells. Furthermore, blocking autophagy by chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 enhanced the cell growth inhibition effect and apoptosis induced by PR-619. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal an unrecognized mechanism for the cytotoxic effects of general DUBs inhibitor (PR-619) and imply that targeting DUBs may be a potential anti-ESCC strategy.

12.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 143, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "Western" style dietary patterns are characterized by a high proportion of highly processed foods rich in fat and low in fiber. This diet pattern is associated with a myriad of metabolic dysfunctions, including neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. ß-glucan, the major soluble fiber in oat and barley grains, is fermented in the lower gastrointestinal tract, potentially impacting the microbial ecosystem and thus may improve elements of cognition and brain function via the gut-brain axis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ß-glucan on the microbiota gut-brain axis and cognitive function in an obese mouse model induced by a high-fat and fiber-deficient diet (HFFD). RESULTS: After long-term supplementation for 15 weeks, ß-glucan prevented HFFD-induced cognitive impairment assessed behaviorally by object location, novel object recognition, and nesting building tests. In the hippocampus, ß-glucan countered the HFFD-induced microglia activation and its engulfment of synaptic puncta, and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) mRNA expression. Also, in the hippocampus, ß-glucan significantly promoted PTP1B-IRS-pAKT-pGSK3ß-pTau signaling for synaptogenesis, improved the synaptic ultrastructure examined by transmission electron microscopy, and increased both pre- and postsynaptic protein levels compared to the HFFD-treated group. In the colon, ß-glucan reversed HFFD-induced gut barrier dysfunction increased the thickness of colonic mucus (Alcian blue and mucin-2 glycoprotein immunofluorescence staining), increased the levels of tight junction proteins occludin and zonula occludens-1, and attenuated bacterial endotoxin translocation. The HFFD resulted in microbiota alteration, effects abrogated by long-term ß-glucan supplementation, with the ß-glucan effects on Bacteroidetes and its lower taxa particularly striking. Importantly, the study of short-term ß-glucan supplementation for 7 days demonstrated pronounced, rapid differentiating microbiota changes before the cognitive improvement, suggesting the possible causality of gut microbiota profile on cognition. In support, broad-spectrum antibiotic intervention abrogated ß-glucan's effects on improving cognition, highlighting the role of gut microbiota to mediate cognitive behavior. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that ß-glucan improves indices of cognition and brain function with major beneficial effects all along the gut microbiota-brain axis. Our data suggest that elevating consumption of ß-glucan-rich foods is an easily implementable nutritional strategy to alleviate detrimental features of gut-brain dysregulation and prevent neurodegenerative diseases associated with Westernized dietary patterns. Video Abstract.

13.
Biosci Rep ; 40(10)2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030503

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is commonly applied in spinal surgery to augment spinal fusion. Nevertheless, its pro-inflammatory potential could induce dangerous side effects such as vascular hyper-permeability, posing the need for manners against this condition. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZN) on BMP-2-related hyperpermeability and inflammation on the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results revealed that, in a concentration-dependent manner, BMP-2 enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α, which were, however, suppressed by ZN. ZN inhibited BMP-2-induced inflammatory response by suppressing the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 and IκB, and the abnormal nuclear translocation of p65. Moreover, the inhibited expression intercellular tight junction protein VE-cadherin and Occludin caused by BMP-2 was blocked by ZN. The hyper-permeability of HUVECs induced by BMP-2, as expressed as the higher fluorescent intensity of dextran, was also reversed by ZN. Overall, these findings demonstrated that ZN antagonized BMP-2-induced inflammation and hyperpermeability. It could be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of BMP-2-induced side effects during spinal fusion.

14.
EMBO Rep ; : e49425, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929842

RESUMO

The host immune response is a fundamental mechanism for attenuating cancer progression. Here we report a role for the DNA demethylase and tumor suppressor TET2 in host anti-tumor immunity. Deletion of Tet2 in mice elevates IL-6 levels upon tumor challenge. Elevated IL-6 stimulates immunosuppressive granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs), which in turn reduce CD8+ T cells upon tumor challenge. Consequently, systematic knockout of Tet2 in mice leads to accelerated syngeneic tumor growth, which is constrained by anti-PD-1 blockade. Removal of G-MDSCs by the anti-mouse Ly6g antibodies restores CD8+ T-cell numbers in Tet2-/- mice and reboots their anti-tumor activity. Importantly, anti-IL-6 antibody treatment blocks the expansion of G-MDSCs and inhibits syngeneic tumor growth. Collectively, these findings reveal a TET2-mediated IL-6/G-MDSCs/CD8+ T-cell immune response cascade that safeguards host adaptive anti-tumor immunity, offering a cell non-autonomous mechanism of TET2 for tumor suppression.

15.
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 73, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysm is a common type of cerebrovascular disease with a risk of devastating subarachnoid hemorrhage if it is ruptured. Accurate computer-aided detection of aneurysms can help doctors improve the diagnostic accuracy, and it is very helpful in reducing the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Aneurysms are detected in 2D or 3D images from different modalities. 3D images can provide more vascular information than 2D images, and it is more difficult to detect. The detection performance of 2D images is related to the angle of view; it may take several angles to determine the aneurysm. As the gold standard for the diagnosis of vascular diseases, the detection on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has more clinical value than other modalities. In this study, we proposed an adaptive multiscale filter to detect intracranial aneurysms on 3D-DSA. METHODS: Adaptive aneurysm detection consists of three parts. The first part is a filter based on Hessian matrix eigenvalues, whose parameters are automatically obtained by Bayesian optimization. The second part is aneurysm extraction based on region growth and adaptive thresholding. The third part is the iterative detection strategy for multiple aneurysms. RESULTS: The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated on data sets of 145 patients. The results showed a detection precision of 94.6%, and a sensitivity of 96.4% with a false-positive rate of 6.2%. Among aneurysms smaller than 5 mm, 93.9% were found. Compared with aneurysm detection on 2D-DSA, automatic detection on 3D-DSA can effectively reduce the misdiagnosis rate and obtain more accurate detection results. Compared with other modalities detection, we also get similar or better detection performance. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental results show that the proposed method is stable and reliable for aneurysm detection, which provides an option for doctors to accurately diagnose aneurysms.

16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 129, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933588

RESUMO

To avoid possible confusions to the readers, we provide further explanations for the eq. (3) in the research article "Estimating the daily trend in the size of the COVID-19 infected population in Wuhan" published in the Infectious Diseases of Poverty.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias
17.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Anemia is often seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, the implications of anemia on the outcomes of patients with COPD is not clearly known. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of anemia on the morbidity and mortality of patients with COPD. METHODS: We followed PRISMA guidelines to perform a systematic identification of relevant publications in the literature on four academic databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. RESULTS: Out of 1845 records, we included data from 15 articles including 420 970 participants in this review. Our systematic review presents a 2b level of evidence suggesting a higher duration of hospital stay, Charlson comorbidity index score, and mortality rate for patients with COPD and anemia than for patients with COPD without anemia. The meta-analysis revealed a moderate effect increase in the mean duration of hospital stay (Hedge's g, 0.55), Charlson comorbidity index (0.68), and mortality rate (0.49) in patients with COPD and anemia as compared to those in patients with COPD without anemia. CONCLUSION: The current systematic review and meta-analysis provide evidence regarding the detrimental consequences of anemia on the morbidity and mortality of patients with COPD.

18.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 249, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a national survey in 2015, people's oral health behaviour (OHB) has not kept up with the pace of knowledge and attitudes in China after decades of oral health education (OHE). Thus, we need to improve OHE to strengthen people's OHB. Undergraduates are regarded as the best candidates for the improvement of OHE. The objective of this study is to determine undergraduates' oral health status and existing problems in OHB by comparing dental and non-dental students at Sichuan University. We hope to provide some suggestions for future OHE to improve people's OHB. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study designed with a pre-test and post-test group was conducted. A total of 217 dental students and 135 non-dental students were enrolled. They were administered an OHE course focused on OHB. A survey about oral health behaviour and knowledge was conducted before and after the course. RESULTS: According to the pre-course survey, dental students surpassed non-dental students in terms of toothbrushing frequency, method, and time, but unfortunately, flossing was overlooked by all the students. After the course, both dental and non-dental students showed strong willingness to improve their OHB. More non-dental students than dental students were willing to use toothpicks and Chinese herbal toothpaste before and after the course. CONCLUSIONS: OHE focused on behaviour has a positive effect on university students. Future OHE and interventions should focus on flossing, toothbrushing methods, toothpicks, Chinese herbal toothpaste and modifications to adopt new media.

19.
J Neurosci Methods ; 346: 108948, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has high temporal and spatial resolution and good spatial accuracy in determining the locations of source activity among most non-invasive imaging. The recently developed technology of optically-pumped magnetometer (OPM) has sensitivity comparable to that of the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) used in commercial MEG system. NEW METHOD: Double-channel OPM-MEG system detects human photic blocking of alpha rhythm at the occipital region of skull in the magnetically shielded environment via a wearable whole-cortex 3D-printed helmet. RESULTS: The alpha rhythm can be detected by the OPM-MEG system, the MEG signals are undoubtedly caused by photic blocking and similar with the results measured by SQUID magnetometer. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Due to the dependency of current commercial whole-cortex SQUID-MEG system on the liquid helium, the separation from the liquid helium space to the human head is usually at least a few centimeters. The wearable OPM-MEG system, however, can significantly improve the detection efficiency since its sensors can be mounted close to scalp, normally less than 1 cm. CONCLUSIONS: OPM-MEG system successfully detects alpha rhythm blocked by light stimulation and works well in the home-made magnetically shielded environment. OPM-MEG system shows a substitute for the traditional MEG system.

20.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(18): 6666-6693, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781463

RESUMO

MXenes refer to a family of 2D transition metal carbides/nitrides that are rich in chemistry. The first member of the family, Ti3C2Tx, was reported in 2011. Since then MXenes have opened up an exciting new field in 2D inorganic functional materials by virtue of their intrinsic electronic conductivity, superior hydrophilicity, rich surface chemistry and layered structure, as evidenced by the fact that the number of papers on MXenes has increased exponentially. The unique properties and ease of processing have positioned them as promising materials for a variety of applications including energy storage, especially for supercapacitors. In this review, we aim to summarize the current advances in MXene research on supercapacitors. We begin by reviewing various fabrication routes and their influence on the structure and surface chemistry of MXenes. The structure, properties, stability, and species of layered MXenes are then introduced. The focus then turns to the capacitive energy-storage mechanisms and the factors determining the electrochemical behavior and performance in supercapacitors. Besides, various types of MXene-based supercapacitors are summarized to highlight the significance of MXenes in constructing energy storage devices. Finally, challenges and prospects in this booming field are proposed to promote further development of MXenes in supercapacitors.

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