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1.
Theranostics ; 11(7): 3278-3300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537087

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a non-invasive therapeutic modality, has received increasing attention owing to its high selectivity and limited side effects. Although significant clinical research progress has been made in PDT, the breadth and depth of its clinical application have not been fully realized due to the limitations such as inadequate light penetration depth, non-targeting photosensitizers (PSs), and tumor hypoxia. Consequently, numerous investigations put their emphasis on innovative strategies to overcome the aforementioned limitations and enhance the therapeutic effect of PDT. Herein, up-to-date advances in these innovative methods for PDT are summarized by introducing the design of PS systems, their working mechanisms and application examples. In addition, current challenges of these innovative strategies for clinical application, and future perspectives on further improvement of PDT are also discussed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To speculate whether induction chemotherapy (IC) or adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) could obtain better survival benefit for stage III or IV locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). METHODS: Only randomized controlled trials were incorporated. There were five treatments (CCRT, IC + CCRT, CCRT + AC, IC + RT and RT alone) recruited for analysis. Overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) with a hazard ratio (HR) were selected as endpoints. First of all, we performed a traditional meta-analysis and subsequently conducted network meta-analysis based on the Bayesian method. RESULTS: Totally, 15 studies, including 6182 patients, were incorporated for analysis. There was a statistically significant benefits in favor of IC + CCRT, compared with CCRT alone, for OS [HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63-0.89], LRFS [HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.86], and DMFS [HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.54-0.78]. What's more, we did not observed any significant differences between CCRT + AC and CCRT alone for all the endpoints. Unsurprisingly, it was RT alone that demonstrate the poorest survival benefit. Strange to say, survival benefit, between IC + CCRT and IC + RT, or between IC + CCRT and CCRT + AC, did not significantly exist. CONCLUSION: Induction chemotherapy IC + CCRT provided better survival benefit than CCRT alone. CCRT + AC failed to increase survival benefit significantly compared to CCRT alone. More research about comparing IC + CCRT with IC + RT or CCRT + AC are needed.

3.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576151

RESUMO

Acne is an androgen-dependent inflammatory disease of sebaceous follicles. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the underlying pathways of androgen biosynthesis and metabolism, non-genomic regulation of androgen receptor expression and function, posttranslational regulation of androgen excess in acne and acne-associated syndromes, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We provide insights into the involvement of sex hormones, particularly androgens, in skin homeostasis and acne pathogenesis, including comedogenesis, lipogenesis, microbiota, and inflammation. Advanced understanding of the action mechanisms of classical acne treatment and new development of antiandrogens, both topical and systemic, are also highlighted.

4.
Channels (Austin) ; 15(1): 262-272, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535882

RESUMO

The slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (I Ks) plays a key role in the repolarization of ventricular action potential in the human heart and is formed by the pore-forming α-subunit encoded by KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) and ß-subunit encoded by KCNE1. Evidence suggested that I Ks was regulated through protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, but the mechanism is controversial. This study was designed to identify the specific PKC isoform involved in the long-term regulation of I Ks current. The I Ks current was recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp technique in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293B cell co-transfected with human KCNQ1/KCNE1 genes. The results revealed that both chronic activation of Ang II and PMA reduced the I Ks current in a long-term regulation (about 24 hours). Further evidence showed that PKCε knockdown by siRNA antagonized the AngII-induced chronic inhibition on the I Ks current, whereas knockdown of cPKC (PKCα and PKCß) attenuated the inhibition effect of PMA on the current. Moreover, the forward transport inhibition of the channel with brefeldin A alleviated the Ang II-induced chronic inhibition on I Ks current, while the channel endocytosis inhibition with dynasore alleviated both Ang II and PMA-induced chronic inhibition on I Ks current. The above results showed that PKCε activation promoted the channel endocytosis and inhibited the channel forward transport to the plasma membrane, while cPKC activation only promoted the channel endocytosis, which both down regulated the channel current.

5.
Food Chem ; 350: 129212, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609939

RESUMO

A novel alkaline cold-active phospholipase C (PLC) gene (AoPC) from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned. AoPC exhibited the highest sequence similarity of 32.5% with that of a PLC from Arabidopsis thaliana. The gene was co-expressed in Pichia pastoris with molecular chaperone PDI (protein disulfide isomerases), and the highest PLC activity of 82, 782 U mL-1 was achieved in a 5-L fermentor. The recombinant enzyme (AoPC) was most active at pH 8.0 and 25 °C, respectively, and it was stable over a broad pH range of 4.5-9.0 and up to 40 °C. It is the first fungal alkaline PLC. The application of AoPC (with 25% citric acid, w/w) in oil degumming process significantly reduced the phosphorus of crude soybean oil by 93.3% to a commercially acceptable level (<10 mg kg-1). Therefore, the relatively high yield and excellent properties of AoPC may possess it great potential in crude oil refining industry.

6.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624820

RESUMO

Dense vesicles (DVs) are Golgi-derived plant-specific carriers that mediate post-Golgi transport of seed storage proteins in angiosperms. How this process is regulated remains elusive. Here, we report a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, named glutelin precursor accumulation8 (gpa8) that abnormally accumulates 57 kD proglutelins in the mature endosperm. Cytological analyses of the gpa8 mutant revealed that proglutelin-containing DVs were mistargeted to the apoplast forming electron-dense aggregates and paramural bodies (PMB) in developing endosperm cells. Differing from previously reported gpa mutants with post-Golgi trafficking defects, the gpa8 mutant showed bent Golgi bodies, defective trans-Golgi network (TGN), and enlarged DVs, suggesting a specific role of GPA8 in DV biogenesis. We demonstrated that GPA8 encodes a subunit E isoform 1 of vacuolar H+-ATPase (OsVHA-E1) that mainly localizes to TGN and the tonoplast. Further analysis revealed that the luminal pH of the TGN and vacuole is dramatically increased in the gpa8 mutant. Moreover, the colocalization of GPA1 and GPA3 with TGN marker protein in gpa8 protoplasts was obviously decreased. Our data indicated that OsVHA-E1 is involved in endomembrane luminal pH homeostasis as well as maintenance of Golgi morphology and TGN required for DV biogenesis and subsequent protein trafficking in rice endosperm cells.

7.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(1): 75-88, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357407

RESUMO

Serotonin receptor 6 (5-HT6R), a typical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mainly expressed in the neurogenic area with constitutive activity, is of particular interest as a promising target for emotional impairment. Here, we found that 5-HT6R was highly expressed in human NSCs and activation of the receptor promoted self-renewal of human NSCs, and thus induced the expansion and folding of human cerebral organoids; dysfunction of receptor or inhibition of its constitutive activity resulted in the premature differentiation of NSCs, which ultimately depleted the NSC pool. The following mechanistic study revealed that EPAC-CREB signaling was involved in 5-HT6R regulation. Furthermore, we showed that mice with genetic deletion of 5-HT6R or knockin A268R mutant presented depression-like behaviors and impaired hippocampal neurogenesis for progressive decrease of the NSC pool. Thus, this study indicates that the modulation of 5-HT6R and its constitutive activity may provide a therapeutic alternative to alleviate depression.

8.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 183: 114299, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148504

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) limits the therapeutic use of CDDP, which urgently needs to be addressed. Our previous study demonstrated that astragaloside IV (AS IV), an active compound of the traditional Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus, alleviated CDDP-induced AKI. To explore the mechanism, we performed a metabolomics study to explore the altered metabolic pathways and screen for sensitive biomarkers. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups, which were treated with vehicle solutions (Control), intraperitoneally injected CDDP, and intraperitoneally injected CDDP plus oral AS IV, respectively. Metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and kidney samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. There were 38 key metabolites in the urine samples, 20 in the serum samples, and 16 in the kidney samples that were significantly altered due to AS IV-mediated protection against CDDP-induced AKI relative to CDDP-only treatment. CDDP + AS IV co-treatment significantly altered two pathways in the blood (biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism), five pathways in the urine (phenylalanine metabolism; phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; arginine biosynthesis; arginine and proline metabolism; and histidine metabolism), and five pathways in the kidneys (glutathione metabolism; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism; arginine and proline metabolism; and D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism). The metabolic pathways were mainly associated with improvements in inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Adrenic acid in serum and L-histidine and L-methionine in urine were identified as sensitive biomarkers. This study provides new insights to understand the mechanism of AS IV-mediated protection against CDDP-induced AKI and has identified three candidate biomarkers to evaluate preventative treatment and assess therapeutic effectiveness.

9.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 157, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used for treating a variety of cancers. However, its high cardiotoxicity hampered its clinical use. Exosomes derived from stem cells showed a therapeutic effect against Dox-induced cardiomyopathy (DIC). Previous studies reported that exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) pretreated with macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) (exosomeMIF) showed a cardioprotective effect through modulating long noncoding RNAs/microRNAs (lncRNAs/miRs). This study aimed to investigate the role of exosomeMIF in the treatment of DIC. RESULTS: Exosomes were isolated from control MSCs (exosome) and MIF-pretreated MSCs (exosomeMIF). Regulatory lncRNAs activated by MIF pretreatment were explored using genomics approaches. Fluorescence-labeled exosomes were tracked in vitro by fluorescence imaging. In vivo and in vitro, miR-221-3p mimic transfection enforced miR-221-3p overexpression, and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase assay was applied to test cellular senescence. Exosomal delivering LncRNA-NEAT1 induced therapeutic effect in vivo was confirmed by echocardiography. It demonstrated that exosomesMIF recovered the cardiac function and exerted the anti-senescent effect through LncRNA-NEAT1 transfer against Dox. TargetScan and luciferase assay showed that miR-221-3p targeted the Sirt2 3'-untranslated region. Silencing LncRNA-NEAT1 in MSCs, miR-221-3p overexpression or Sirt2 silencing in cardiomyocytes decreased the exosomeMIF-induced anti-senescent effect against Dox. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated exosomeMIF serving as a promising anti-senescent effector against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity through LncRNA-NEAT1 transfer, thus inhibiting miR-221-3p and leading to Sirt2 activation. The study proposed that exosomeMIF might have the potential to serve as a cardioprotective therapeutic agent during cancer chemotherapy.

10.
Nanoscale ; 12(44): 22754-22767, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174556

RESUMO

Oral route is one of the most important portals of nanoparticle entry to the body. However, in vivo protein corona formed in the gastrointestinal tract has not been studied owing to the difficulty for the recovery of nanoparticles from the in vivo environment. In this study, by using the magnetic property of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and Zn2+ doped iron oxide nanoparticles (Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs), the nanoparticles were separated from the gastric fluid after oral administration in mice. The effects of Zn2+ doping and static magnetic field (SMF) treatment on the protein adsorption on the nanoparticles were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Zn2+ doping decreases the adsorption of pepsin on the nanoparticles in vitro and affects the composition of the protein corona in vivo and enhances protein adsorption-induced aggregation of the nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. SMF treatment affects the composition of the protein corona of Fe3O4 NPs and Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs, and enhances the aggregation of Fe3O4 NPs and Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs in vivo. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that electrostatic attraction is the crucial force to drive adsorption of proteins on Fe3O4 NPs and Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs and protein adsorption-induced change in the surface charge of nanoparticles plays an important role in the pH-dependent aggregation of the nanoparticles. In addition, the work provides the evidence that the protein adsorption-induced aggregation of Fe3O4 NPs and Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs has no effect on their magnetic susceptibility. The results highlight that Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 NPs may be used as a potential oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent in diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease.

11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(6): 4323-4331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internal jugular vein (IJV) and axillary vein/subclavian vein (AxV/SCV) are commonly used for implantable venous access port (IVAP) implantation in breast cancer (BC) patients with chemotherapy. Previous studies focused on complications between these different approaches and ignored patient comfort. In this study, we aim to compare patient comfort between IJV and AxV/SCV approaches, as well as surgery duration and complications. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 200 patients diagnosed with invasive BC will be enrolled in this study. After signing written informed consent, patients schedule to undergo IVAP implantation will be randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive central venous catheters (CVC) with either IJV or AxV/SCV approaches. Baseline as well as demographic data and procedure time of port implantation will be recorded. All patients will receive assessment of comfort with a comfort scale table at days 1, 2 and 7 after implantation surgery. Patients will be followed up and complications will be recorded until devices are removed at the end of the treatment period, or in case of complications. Patient comfort, procedure time of implantation and complications will be compared and analyzed between these two arms. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare patient comfort as primary outcome measure between IJV and AxV/SCV puncture. This study will further confirm the benefits of ultrasound guidance and may provide a better choice of IVAP implantation for BC patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR, www. chictr.org.cn) and Chinese Ethics Committee of Registering Clinical Trials (No. ChiCTR2000034986).

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18298, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106596

RESUMO

ß-Globin gene mutations reduce or terminate the production of beta globin chains, of which approximately 10% are large deletions within the ß-globin gene cluster. Because gene deletion leads to loss of heterozygosity at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), a novel method for detecting ß-globin gene cluster deletions based on SNP heterozygosity analysis was established in this study. The location range of SNPs was selected according to the breakpoint of ß-globin gene cluster deletions. SNPs were screened using bioinformatics analysis and population sequencing data. A novel method which enables genotyping of multiplex SNPs based on tetra-primer ARMS-PCR was designed and optimized. Forty clinical samples were tested in parallel by this method and MLPA to verify the performance of this method for detecting ß-globin gene cluster deletion. Six informative SNPs were obtained, achieving heterozygote coverage of 93.3% in normal individuals. Genotyping of six SNPs were successfully integrated into two multiplex tetra-primer ARMS-PCR reactions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the method for detecting ß-globin gene cluster deletion were 100%, 96.30%, 92.86%, and 100%, respectively. This is a simple, cost-effective and novel method for detecting ß-globin gene cluster deletions, which may be suitable for use in combination with MLPA for thalassemia molecular testing.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e036643, 2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ideal treatment for idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) remains unclear. In a prospective, single-centre, pilot study, we reported that ductal lavage treatment for non-lactational mastitis patients had a 1-year clinical complete response (cCR) rate of >90%, without any significant adverse events. Thus, in this multicentre, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we will aim to compare the effectiveness and safety of ductal lavage vs oral corticosteroids as the first-line treatment for patients with IGM. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The trial will be conducted at the Breast Tumor Center of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital in China and at least at one participating regional centre. We plan to recruit 140 eligible IGM patients who will be randomised into the ductal lavage group or oral corticosteroid group with a 1:1 ratio. The patients in the oral corticosteroid group will receive meprednisone or prednisone for 6 months. The patients in the ductal lavage group will receive ductal lavage and breast massage, as previously reported. All the participants will be followed up at the clinic for 1 year post randomisation. The primary endpoint of this trial will be the 1-year cCR rate, and the secondary endpoints will include the time to cCR, treatment failure rate, relapse rate and protocol compliance rate. The trial was designed to determine whether ductal lavage is non-inferior to oral corticosteroids (1-year cCR rate assumed to be 90%), with a non-inferiority margin of 15%. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ethics committee of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital at Sun Yat-sen University approved the study (2018-Lun-Shen-Yan-No. 30). The results of the trial will be communicated to the participating primary care practices, published in international journals and presented at international clinical and scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03724903); Pre-results.

14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7235-7249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061378

RESUMO

Propose: The early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with ferritin heavy chain (Fth) modified by alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter has been studied. However, no study has focused on the considerable upregulation and specific targeting effects of transferrin receptors (TfR) caused by the transfection of plasmids encoded with the AFP promoter. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate whether the transfection of Fth gene modified with AFP promoter (AFP@Fth) could be used for early diagnosis and enhanced treatment of HCC. Methods: The AFP@Fth plasmid was transfected into AFP positive cells. The expression of intracellular Ferritin was verified by Western blot, and the upregulation of TfR was confirmed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. Cellular iron accumulation resulting in decreased imaging signals was examined by magnetic resonance imagining. Doxorubicin liposome modified with transferrin (Tf-LPD) was prepared to investigate the efficiency of the subsequent treatment after transfection. The enhanced drug distribution and effects were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results: Both Ferritin and TfR were overexpressed after transfection. The transfected cells showed higher intracellular iron accumulation and resulted in a lower MR T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) intensity, suggesting that the transfection of AFP@Fth could be a potential strategy for early diagnosis of liver cancer. The following treatment efficacy was revealed by Tf-LPD. As compared with un-transfected cells, transfected cells exhibited higher uptake of transferrin-modified liposomes (Tf-LP), which was due to the specific interaction between Tf and TfR overexpressed on the transfected cells. This is also the reason why Tf-LPD showed better in vitro and in vivo anticancer ability than doxorubicin loaded liposome (LPD). These results suggested that transfection of AFP@Fth could result in enhanced therapy of liver cancer. Conclusion: Transfection of AFP@Fth could be used for early diagnosis and for enhanced treatment of live cancers.

15.
Biosci Rep ; 40(10)2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048115

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor in digestive tract with highly invasive and metastatic capacity. Drug sensitivity remains a significant obstacle to successful chemotherapy in CRC patients. The present study aimed to explore genes related to cetuximab (CTX) sensitivity in CRC by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9. Celigo image cytometer was used to detect suitable cells and optimal dosage of CTX. Inhibition rate of CTX on Caco-2 cells was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method before and after transfection. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was performed to explore suitable concentration of puromycin and multiplicity of infection (MOI). CRISPR-Cas9, sequencing data quality analysis and cell viability test were used for the selection of genes related to CTX sensitivity in CRC cells. Finally, the selected genes associated with CTX sensitivity in CRC cells were further validated by colony formation and CCK-8 assays. In the present study, Caco-2 cells had a better prolificacy, and CTX 100 µg/ml exhibited a good inhibition trend on the 7th and 14th days of infection. MTT assay indicated that the minimum lethal concentration of puromycin was 2.5 µg/ml. Forty-six candidate genes were preliminarily screened via sequencing data quality analysis. Subsequently, we found that knockout of any of the four genes (MMP15, MRPL48, CALN1 and HADHB) could enhance CTX sensitivity in Caco-2 cells, which was further confirmed by colony formation assay. In summary, MMP15, MRPL48, CALN1 and HADHB genes are related to the mediation of CTX sensitivity in CRC.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(43): 48310-48320, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048540

RESUMO

Ultrathin transition metal chalcogenide (TMC) nanosheets with ultrahigh photothermal conversion efficiency (η) and excellent stability are strongly desired in the application of photothermal therapy (PTT). However, the current synthetic methods of ultrathin TMC nanosheets have issues in obtaining uniform morphology, good dispersion, and satisfactory PTT behavior. Herein, ultrathin nanosheets of CoFe-selenide (CFS) with a finely controlled structure were prepared via a topological structural transformation process from an ultrathin CoFe-layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor, followed by surface modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The as-prepared CFS-PEG nanosheets inherit the ultrathin morphology of CoFe-LDH and exhibit an outstanding photothermal performance with a η of 74.5%, which is the first rank level of reported two-dimensional (2D) TMC nanosheet materials. The CFS-PEG nanosheets possess a satisfactory photoacoustic (PA) imaging capability with an ultralow detection limit (5 ppm) and simultaneously superior T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performance with a large transverse MR relaxivity value (r2) of 347.7 mM-1 s-1. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo assays verify superior anticancer activity with a dramatic photoinduced cancer cell apoptosis and tumor ablation. Therefore, a successful paradigm is provided for rational design and preparation of ultrathin TMC nanosheets in this work, holding enormous potential in cancer theranostics.

17.
Air Qual Atmos Health ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101538

RESUMO

To curb the spread of the coronavirus, China implemented lockdown policies on January 23, 2020. The resulting extreme changes in human behavior may have influenced the air pollutants concentration. However, despite these changes, hazy weather persisted in Shanghai and became a public issue. This study aims to investigate air pollutant mass concentration changes during the lockdown in Shanghai. Air pollutant mass concentration data and meteorological data during the pre-lockdown period and the level I response lockdown period were analyzed by statistical analysis and a Lagrangian particle diffusion model. The data was classified in three periods: P1 (pre-lockdown: 10 days before the Spring Festival), P2 (the first 10 days after lockdown: during the Spring Festival celebration), and P3 (the second 10 days after lockdown: after the Spring Festival). Data for the same period in 2019 were used as a reference. The results indicate that the Spring Festival holiday in 2019 resulted in a reduction in energy consumption, which led to a decrease in PM2.5 (26.4%) and NO2 (43.41%) mass concentration, but an increase in ozone mass concentration (31.39%) in P2 compared with P1. The integrated effect of the Spring Festival holiday and lockdown in 2020 resulted in a decrease in PM2.5 (36.5%) and NO2 (51.9%) mass concentrations, but an increase in ozone mass concentration (43.8%) in P2 compared with P1. After the Spring Festival, the mass concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 increased by 74.41%, 5.52%, and 53.28%, respectively in P3 compared with P2 in 2019. However, PM2.5 and SO2 concentrations in 2020 continued to decrease, by 14.74% and 4.61%, respectively, while NO2 mass concentration increased by 7.82% in P3 compared with P2. We also found that PM2.5 mass concentration is susceptible to regional transmission from the surrounding cities. PM2.5 and other gaseous pollutants show different correlations in different periods, while NO2 and O3 always show a strong negative correlation. The principal components before the Spring Festival in 2019 were O3 and NO2, and after the Spring Festival, they were PM2.5 and CO, while the principal components before the lockdown in 2020 were PM2.5 and CO, and during lockdown they were O3 and NO2.

18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8396708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062148

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a kind of neurodevelopmental disorder with rapidly increasing morbidity. In recent years, many studies have proposed a possible link between ASD and multiple environmental as well as genetic risk factors; nevertheless, recent studies have still failed to identify the specific pathogenesis. An analysis of the literature showed that oxidative stress and redox imbalance caused by high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to be integral parts of ASD pathophysiology. On the one hand, this review aims to elucidate the communications between oxidative stress, as a risk factor, and ASD. As such, there is also evidence to suggest that early assessment and treatment of antioxidant status are likely to result in improved long-term prognosis by disturbing oxidative stress in the brain to avoid additional irreversible brain damage. Accordingly, we will also discuss the possibility of novel therapies regarding oxidative stress as a target according to recent literature. On the other hand, this review suggests a definite relationship between ASD and an unbalanced gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota (i.e., GIT dysbiosis). A variety of studies have concluded that the intestinal microbiota influences many aspects of human health, including metabolism, the immune and nervous systems, and the mucosal barrier. Additionally, the oxidative stress and GIT dysfunction in autistic children have both been reported to be related to mitochondrial dysfunction. What is the connection between them? Moreover, specific changes in the GIT microbiota are clearly observed in most autistic children, and the related mechanisms and the connection among ASD, the GIT microbiota, and oxidative stress are also discussed, providing a theory and molecular strategies for clinical practice as well as further studies.

19.
PeerJ ; 8: e9725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879801

RESUMO

In mid-December 2019, a novel atypical pneumonia broke out in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and was caused by a newly identified coronavirus, initially termed 2019 Novel Coronavirus and subsequently severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of 19 May 2020, a total of 4,731,458 individuals were reported as infected with SARS-CoV-2 among 213 countries, areas or territories with recorded cases, and the overall case-fatality rate was 6.6% (316,169 deaths among 4,731,458 recorded cases), according to the World Health Organization. Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 is notably similar to (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002-2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that spread during 2012, and these viruses all contributed to global pandemics. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to rapidly spread a pneumonia-like disease from Hubei Province, China, throughout the world has provoked widespread concern. The main symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue and lower respiratory signs. At present, nucleic acid tests are widely recommended as the optimal method for detecting SARS-CoV-2. However, obstacles remain, including the global shortage of testing kits and the presentation of false negatives. Experts suggest that almost everyone in China is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to date, there are no effective treatments. In light of the references published, this review demonstrates the biological features, spread, diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 as a whole and aims to analyse the similarities and differences among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV to provide new ideas and suggestions for prevention, diagnosis and clinical treatment.

20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(30): 8451, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968853

RESUMO

The authors would like to call the reader's attention to the fact that unfortunately the name of Jianzhang Pan was missing as co-author of this contribution.

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